Broad Street, Oxford
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Broad Street is a wide street in central
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
,
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
, just north of the former city wall. The street is known for its
bookshop Bookselling is the commercial trading of book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often num ...

bookshop
s, including the original
Blackwell's Blackwell UK, also known as Blackwell's and Blackwell Group, is a British academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiar ...
bookshop at number 50, located here due to the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
. Among residents, the street is traditionally known as The Broad.


Location

In Broad Street are
Balliol College Balliol College () is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford The University of Oxford , mottoeng = The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (2019) , budget = ...

Balliol College
,
Trinity College Trinity College may refer to: Australia * Trinity Anglican College, an Anglican Church of Australia, Anglican coeducational primary and secondary school in , New South Wales * Trinity Catholic College, Auburn, a coeducational school in the inner-w ...

Trinity College
,
Exeter College Exeter () is a city in Devon, England, on the River Exe northeast of Plymouth and southwest of Bristol. It is the county town of Devon, and home to Devon County Council and the University of Exeter. In Roman Britain, Exeter was established as ...
(front entrance in the adjoining
Turl Street Turl Street is a historic street in central Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) ...
). The
Museum of the History of Science The History of Science Museum in Broad StreetBroad Street may refer to: United Kingdom *Broad Street railway station (England), in London *Broad Street (ward), in London *Broad Street, Birmingham *Broad Street, Bristol *Broad Street, Oxford *B ...

Museum of the History of Science
(in the original
Ashmolean Museum The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology () on Beaumont Street, Oxford, England, is the world's second university museum (after the establishment of the Kunstmuseum Basel by the University of Basel in 1661) and Britain's first public museum. I ...
building), the
Clarendon Building The Clarendon Building is an early 18th-century neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beg ...
, the
Sheldonian Theatre The Sheldonian Theatre, located in Oxford, England, was built from 1664 to 1669 after a design by Christopher Wren for the University of Oxford. The building is named after Gilbert Sheldon, chancellor of the University at the time and the projec ...
and the
Weston Library The Weston Library is part of the Bodleian Library The Bodleian Library () is the main research library A research library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not ...
(renamed in 2015, part of the
Bodleian Library The Bodleian Library () is the main research library A research library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housi ...

Bodleian Library
, the main University library in Oxford) are important historical
Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London, southeast of Birmingham, and northeast of Bristol. The city is home to the Unive ...

Oxford University
buildings at the eastern end of the street. These buildings form the ''de facto'' centre of the University, since most academic buildings in the centre of Oxford are owned by individual (and autonomous) colleges rather than the University itself. To the west the street becomes George Street. The junction with George Street is a crossroads with
Magdalen Street Magdalen Street is a short shopping street in central Oxford, England, just north of the original north gate in the city walls. Traditionally, the name of the street is pronounced and not as the name of the Magdalen College, Oxford, College, ...
to the north and
Cornmarket Street Cornmarket Street (colloquially referred to as Cornmarket or historically The Corn) is a major shopping street and pedestrian zone, pedestrian precinct in Oxford, England that runs north to south between Magdalen Street and Carfax, Oxford, Car ...
to the south. To the east the street becomes Holywell Street. The junction with Holywell Street is another crossroads, with
Parks Road Parks Road is a road in Oxford, England, with several Oxford University colleges along its route. It runs north–south from the Banbury Road and Norham Gardens at the northern end, where it continues into Bradmore Road, to the junction with Broa ...
to the north and
Catte Street Catte Street is a historic street in central Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) ...
to the south. The
Indian Institute The Indian Institute was an institute within the University of Oxford. It was started by Sir Monier Monier-Williams in 1883 to provide training for the Indian Civil Service (British India), Indian Civil Service of the British Raj. The institute's ...

Indian Institute
(now The James Martin 21st Century School), designed by
Basil Champneys Basil Champneys (17 September 1842 – 5 April 1935) was an English architect and author whose most notable buildings include Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of ...
, is on the corner of Catte Street and Holywell Street, but faces Broad Street and visually forms its end.


History

The street developed alongside the town ditch in front of the
city wall A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorize ...

city wall
, which was built in AD 911. It is a wide street, formerly called Horsemonger Street because it was Oxford's horse market. The street's one remaining pub, a 16th or 17th-century timber-framed building next to Blackwell's bookshop, is appropriately called the White Horse. On Broad Street, the Protestant Oxford Martyrs, Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley (martyr), Nicholas Ridley (16 October 1555), and later Thomas Cranmer (21 March 1556), were burnt at the stake just outside the city wall. A cross of granite Sett (paving), setts in the road opposite Balliol College marks the location. Nearby in St Giles' Street, Oxford, St Giles', the events are commemorated with a Gothic Revival architecture, Gothic Revival stone monument, the Martyrs' Memorial. The city walls were rebuilt in local Coral Rag Formation, coral ragstone in 1226–40. By the 16th or 17th century improved Cannon, artillery had made the walls obsolete, so the city divided the town ditch on the south side of Broad Street into a row of burgage plots, on which buyers built houses and later shops. Most of the wall beside Broad Street was dismantled to reuse its stone, but one bastion survives behind number 6. The
Sheldonian Theatre The Sheldonian Theatre, located in Oxford, England, was built from 1664 to 1669 after a design by Christopher Wren for the University of Oxford. The building is named after Gilbert Sheldon, chancellor of the University at the time and the projec ...
, set back from Broad Street behind a stone wall, iron railings and stone pillars with a set of stone heads (traditionally Roman emperors), was built in 1664–68 to a design by Sir Christopher Wren for the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
. The Old Ashmolean Building was built in 1683 to house Elias Ashmole's collection. It was the world's first museum to open to the public. In 1845 the
Ashmolean Museum The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology () on Beaumont Street, Oxford, England, is the world's second university museum (after the establishment of the Kunstmuseum Basel by the University of Basel in 1661) and Britain's first public museum. I ...
moved to Beaumont Street and the original Ashmolean building became offices for the ''Oxford English Dictionary''. Since 1924, the building has housed the Museum of the History of Science. The
Clarendon Building The Clarendon Building is an early 18th-century neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beg ...
was built 1711–15 to house the Oxford University Press's printing operations. It was designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor, considered Christopher Wren's best pupil. The academic and physician Henry Acland (1815–1900) lived in the street at number 40 on the site of the
Weston Library The Weston Library is part of the Bodleian Library The Bodleian Library () is the main research library A research library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not ...
, part of Oxford University's
Bodleian Library The Bodleian Library () is the main research library A research library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housi ...

Bodleian Library
. His daughter Sarah Angelina Acland (1849–1930), a pioneer of colour photography, was born here.


Shops

Boswells of Oxford, Boswells, the largest independent department store in Oxford, was established in 1738, and has been trading in the same spot on the south side of Broad Street opposite Balliol College since then. Thornton's Bookshop, also on the south side of the street at number 11, was founded by Joseph Thornton (bookseller), Joseph Thornton (1808–91) in 1835 and closed at the end of 2002. The pioneer photographer Henry Taunt (1842–1922) had a shop and studio at 9–10 Broad Street, moving here from
Cornmarket Street Cornmarket Street (colloquially referred to as Cornmarket or historically The Corn) is a major shopping street and pedestrian zone, pedestrian precinct in Oxford, England that runs north to south between Magdalen Street and Carfax, Oxford, Car ...
in 1874. He also established a picture frame, picture-framing business in Boxall's Yard, behind the premises. The lease expired in 1894 and he was forced to file for bankruptcy.
Blackwell's Blackwell UK, also known as Blackwell's and Blackwell Group, is a British academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiar ...
bookshop, on the north side of the street, was founded by Benjamin Henry Blackwell, the son of the first city librarian, in 1879. The shop was initially only 12 feet square, but quickly grew to include space upstairs, in the cellar, and neighbouring shops. It is now Oxford's leading bookshop, with other specialist branches elsewhere in Broad Street and Oxford. The first Oxfam charity shop and office were established by Cecil Jackson-Cole (1901–79) at 17 Broad Street in 1947. It is still an Oxfam shop, and in 2002 the Oxfordshire Blue Plaques Board unveiled a blue plaque on its outside wall.


References


Bibliography

* * * *


External links

* {{coord, 51, 45, 16, N, 1, 15, 24, W, display=title Balliol College, Oxford Bookshops of England, *Broad Street, Oxford Exeter College, Oxford History of Oxford Shopping streets in Oxford Streets in Oxford Trinity College, Oxford