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British nationality law
British nationality law
is the law of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
which concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality. The law is complex due to the United Kingdom's historical status as an imperial power.

Contents

1 History 2 Classes of British nationality

2.1 Active categories 2.2 Residual categories 2.3 Relationship with right of abode

3 Acquisition of British citizenship

3.1 British citizenship by birth in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
or a qualified British Overseas Territory

3.1.1 Before 1983

3.2 British citizenship by descent

3.2.1 From 1983 3.2.2 Before 1983 3.2.3 Children ineligible for British citizenship at birth

3.3 British citizenship by adoption 3.4 British citizenship by naturalisation 3.5 Citizens of EEA States and Switzerland

3.5.1 Before 2 October 2000 3.5.2 2 October 2000 to 29 April 2006 3.5.3 30 April 2006 onwards 3.5.4 Irish citizens 3.5.5 Swiss citizens 3.5.6 Citizens of Greece, Spain and Portugal 3.5.7 Ten years rule

3.6 Registration as a British citizen

4 Acquisition of British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
citizenship 5 Acquisition of other categories of British nationality

5.1 Persons connected with former British colonies 5.2 British Nationals (Overseas)
British Nationals (Overseas)
and Hong Kong 5.3 Persons born in the Republic of Ireland 5.4 Descendants of the Electress Sophia of Hanover

6 Loss of British nationality

6.1 Renunciation and resumption of British nationality 6.2 Automatic loss of British nationality 6.3 Revocation of British nationality

7 Multiple nationality and multiple citizenship 8 British citizenship ceremonies 9 Citizenship
Citizenship
of the European Union 10 Statistics on British Citizenship: 1998 to 2009 11 Travel freedom of British citizens 12 See also 13 Notes 14 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of British nationality law English law
English law
and Scots law
Scots law
have always distinguished between the Monarch's subjects and aliens, but British nationality law
British nationality law
was uncodified until the British Nationality
Nationality
and Status of Aliens Act 1914 codified existing common law and statute, with a few minor changes.

British citizenship and British nationality law

Introduction

British nationality law

History

Citizens of the Republic of Ireland in the United Kingdom

Classes of British national status and other status

British citizens British subjects (under the British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1981) British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
citizens British Nationals (Overseas) British Overseas citizens British Protected Persons Commonwealth citizens in the United Kingdom

See also

Right of abode Belonger status (in certain British Overseas Territories and formerly certain former British Dependent territories)

Acts

British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1948 Ireland Act 1949 Immigration Act 1971 British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1981 British Nationality
Nationality
(Falkland Islands) Act 1983 British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
Act 2002

v t e

Part of a series of articles on the

United Kingdom in the European Union

Accession

1973 EC enlargement 1975 Referendum Act 1975 EC membership referendum 1972 EC Act UK rebate 2011 EU Act

Membership

Brand EU EU Four The Euro European Movement UK Nationality
Nationality
law UK Euroscepticism

Maastricht Rebels

Black Wednesday

Officials and bodies

EU Committee European Scrutiny Committee Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Executive in Brussels EU Representative in London Young European Movement UK UK European Commissioners Permanent EU Representatives

Legislation

1972 EC Act 1986 EC (Amendment) Act 1993 EC (Amendment) Act 1998 EC (Amendment) Act 2002 EC (Amendment) Act 2008 EU (Amendment) Act 2011 EU Act

European Parliament
European Parliament
Elections

1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 2014

1973 delegation 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th

Withdrawal

2004–05 EU Bill 2013–14 EU (Referendum) Bill 2015–16 EU membership renegotiation 2015 EU Referendum Act 2016 EU (Referendum) Act (Gibraltar)

2016 EU membership referendum

Causes Endorsements Issues Opinion polling

Campaigns

Organisations advocating and campaigning for a referendum

People's Pledge Labour for a Referendum

Leave

Vote Leave
Vote Leave
(official lead group)

Business for Britain Conservatives for Britain Students for Britain

Labour Leave Leave.EU

Bpoplive
Bpoplive
(cancelled)

Grassroots Out Get Britain Out The Freedom Association

Better Off Out

Other anti-EU advocacy organisations

Bruges Group Campaign for an Independent Britain

Remain

Britain Stronger in Europe
Britain Stronger in Europe
(official lead group) Labour In for Britain European Movement UK

Other pro-EU advocacy organisations

Britain in Europe British Influence Business for New Europe New Europeans Nucleus

Project Fear

Media coverage

Brexit: The Movie In or Out

Aftermath

Results International reactions Terms of Withdrawal from EU (Referendum) Bill 2016-17 2016 Conservative Party election 2016 Labour Party election 2017 Liberal Democrats Party election Proposed second Scottish independence referendum The New European European Union
European Union
(Withdrawal) Bill Gibraltar 2017 General Election UK's relations with EU after 2019

Triggering of Article 50 & Negotiations

R (Miller) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union' EU (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017 UK invocation of Article 50 Brexit
Brexit
negotiations Department for Exiting the EU ( Brexit
Brexit
Department)

Secretary of State ( Brexit
Brexit
Secretary)

Department for International Trade

Secretary of State (International Trade Secretary)

Post-referendum organisations

Change Britain More United Open Britain

See also

United Ireland

v t e

Some thought the single Imperial status of "British subject" was becoming increasingly inadequate to deal with a Commonwealth with independent member states. In 1948, the Commonwealth Heads of Government agreed that each member would adopt a national citizenship ( Canada
Canada
had already done so), but that the existing status of the British subject would continue as a common status held by all Commonwealth citizens. The British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1948 established the status of Citizen of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Colonies (CUKC), the national citizenship of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and colonies on 1 January 1949. Until the early 1960s there was little difference, if any, in UK law between the rights of CUKCs and other British subjects, all of whom had the right at any time to enter and live in the UK. Independence Acts, passed when the remaining colonies were granted independence, contained nationality provisions. In general, these provisions withdrew the status of CUKC from anyone who became citizens of the newly independent country, unless one had a connection with the UK or a remaining colony (e.g. through birth in the UK). Exceptions were sometimes made in cases where the colonies did not become independent. (Notable cases include Penang
Penang
and Malacca, which were made part of the Federation of Malaya; and Hong Kong, which became part of the People's Republic of China: CUKC status was not withdrawn from CUKCs from Penang
Penang
and Malacca, and a new British nationality status was created for Hong Kong.) Between 1962 and 1971, as a result of fears about increasing immigration by Commonwealth citizens from Asia
Asia
and Africa, the UK gradually tightened controls on immigration by British subjects from other parts of the Commonwealth. The Immigration Act 1971
Immigration Act 1971
introduced the concept of patriality, by which only British subjects with sufficiently strong links to the British Islands
British Islands
(i.e. the UK, the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and the Isle of Man) had right of abode, the right to live and work in the Islands. The principal British nationality law
British nationality law
now in force is the British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1981, which established the current system of multiple categories of British nationality, viz. British citizens, British Overseas Territories citizens, British Overseas citizens, British Nationals (Overseas), British subjects, and British protected persons. Only British citizens
British citizens
and certain Commonwealth citizens have the automatic right of abode in the UK. The 1981 Act ceased to recognise Commonwealth citizens as British subjects. There remain only two categories of people who are still British subjects: those (formerly known as British subjects without citizenship) who acquired British nationality through a connection with former British India, and those connected with the Republic of Ireland before 1949 who have made a declaration to retain British nationality. British subjects connected with former British India lose British nationality if they acquire any other. In spite of the fact that the 1981 act repealed most of the provisions of 1948 act and the nationality clauses in subsequent independence acts, the acquisition of new categories of British nationality created by the 1981 act was often dependent on nationality status prior to 1 January 1983, the date the 1981 act came into effect, so many of the provisions of the 1948 act and subsequent independence acts are still relevant. Not taking this into account might lead one to the erroneous conclusion, for example, that the 1981 act's repeal of the nationality clauses in the Kenya
Kenya
Independence Act of 1963 restored British nationality to those who lost their CUKC status as a result of Kenya's independence in 1963. This is one of the reasons for the complexity of British nationality law; in complicated cases, determining British nationality status requires an examination of several nationality acts in their original form. Classes of British nationality[edit] There are currently six classes of British nationality.[1]

Category Active British passport Consular assistance from UK diplomatic posts Immigration control exemption and right of abode in the UK EU citizen

British Citizen Y Y Y Y Y

British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
citizen Y Y Y Y(Gibraltar) Y(Gibraltar)

N(other territories) N(other territories)

British Overseas citizen N Y Y N N

British subject N Y Y Y(with right of abode) Y(with right of abode)

N(without right of abode) N(without right of abode)

British National (Overseas) N Y Y N N

British protected person N Y Y N N

Active categories[edit] The following two classes of British nationality are "active", meaning that they can be acquired at birth, or by naturalization or registration for any eligible person.

British citizen Persons who are British citizens
British citizens
usually hold this status through a connection with the United Kingdom, Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and Isle of Man (" United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Islands"), or, since 2002, a connection with one of the British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
(BOT) except Akrotiri and Dhekelia.[2] Citizens of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Colonies (CUKCs) who possessed right of abode under the Immigration Act 1971
Immigration Act 1971
through a connection with the UK and Islands generally became British citizens on 1 January 1983, and British Dependent Territories citizens who were not solely connected with Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
acquired this status on 21 May 2002.

British citizenship is the most common type of British nationality, and the only one that automatically carries a right of abode in the UK.

Other rights can vary according to how the British citizenship was acquired. In particular there are restrictions for 'British citizens by descent' transmitting British citizenship to children born outside the UK. These restrictions do not apply to ' British citizens
British citizens
otherwise than by descent'.

British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
citizen (formerly British Dependent Territories citizenship) (BOTC)

BOTC (formerly BDTC) is the form of British nationality held by connection with a British Overseas Territory
British Overseas Territory
(BOT). It is possible to hold BOTC and British citizenship simultaneously. Nearly all are now also British citizens
British citizens
as a result of the British Overseas Territories Act 2002.

Residual categories[edit] The four residual categories are expected to become extinct with the passage of time. They can be passed to children only in exceptional circumstances, e.g., if the child would otherwise be stateless. There is consequently little provision for the acquisition of these classes of nationality by people who do not already have them. To reduce de facto statelessness, most are allowed to be registered as British citizens provided holding no other citizenship or nationality.

British Overseas citizen (BOC)

In general, most BOCs are CUKCs who did not qualify for British citizenship or British Dependent Territories citizenship. Most derived their status as CUKCs from former colonies, such as Malaysia
Malaysia
and Kenya, because of quirks and exceptions in the law that resulted in their retaining CUKC status in spite of the independence of their colonies. This is fairly uncommon: most CUKCs (including those from Malaysia
Malaysia
and Kenya) lost their CUKC status upon independence.

In 1997, BDTCs with a connection to Hong Kong
Hong Kong
became BOCs after they did not register as British Nationals (Overseas)
British Nationals (Overseas)
and would become stateless after the withdrawal of BDTC status from Hong Kong residents.

British subject

British subjects (as defined in the 1981 Act) are British subjects who were not CUKCs or citizens of any other Commonwealth country. Most derived their status as British subjects from British India or the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
as they existed before 1949.

British National (Overseas)
British National (Overseas)
(BN(O))

The status of BN(O) was created by the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Act 1985 and the British Nationality
Nationality
(Hong Kong) Order 1986. BN(O)s are BDTCs with a connection to Hong Kong
Hong Kong
who applied for registration as BN(O)s before the handover of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
to the People's Republic of China.

British protected person (BPP)

BPPs derive from parts of the British Empire
British Empire
that were protectorates or protected states with nominally independent rulers under the "protection" of the British Crown, not officially part of the Crown's dominions. The status of BPP is sui generis – BPPs are not Commonwealth citizens ('British subjects', in the old sense) and were not traditionally considered British nationals, but are not aliens either.

Relationship with right of abode[edit] Only the status of British citizen
British citizen
carries with it the right of abode in a certain country or territory (in this case the UK). In practice, BOTCs (except those associated with the Sovereign bases in Cyprus) were granted full British citizenship in 2002; BN(O)s have right of abode or right to land in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(note: not conferred by the status itself, but the Immigration Ordinance of Hong Kong) and are eligible for registration as British citizens
British citizens
if holding no other nationality under the Borders, Citizenship
Citizenship
and Immigration Act 2009; BSs and BPPs lose their statuses upon acquisition of another nationality (except BSs connected with the Republic of Ireland) and so should be eligible for registration as British citizens
British citizens
under the Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002. British Overseas citizens are unique in that their nationality status is not associated with a right of residence, and only certain types of BOCs are eligible to be registered as British citizens
British citizens
under Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002. Acquisition of British citizenship[edit] British Citizenship
Citizenship
can be acquired in the following ways:

lex soli: By birth in the UK or a qualified British Overseas Territory to a parent who is a British citizen
British citizen
at the time of the birth, or to a parent who is settled in the UK or that Overseas Territory lex sanguinis: By birth abroad, which constitutes "by descent" if one of the parents is a British citizen
British citizen
otherwise than by descent (for example by birth, adoption, registration or naturalisation in the UK). British citizenship by descent is only transferable to one generation down from the parent who is a British citizen
British citizen
otherwise than by descent, if the child is born abroad. By naturalisation By registration By adoption

For nationality purposes, the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and Isle of Man
Isle of Man
are generally treated as if they were part of the UK.[3] Information about British citizenship and other kinds of British nationality is available from Her Majesty's Government.[4] Information is also available on provisions for reducing statelessness.[5] Persons acquiring citizenship by method (2) are called British citizens by descent; those acquiring citizenship by methods (1), (3) or (5) are called British citizens
British citizens
otherwise than by descent. British citizens by registration, method (4), may be either, depending on the circumstances. Only citizens otherwise than by descent can pass on their citizenship to their children born outside the UK or a British Overseas Territory automatically; British citizens
British citizens
by descent can pass on citizenship to their non-UK born children only by meeting certain UK residence requirements and registering them before the age of 18. British citizenship by birth in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
or a qualified British Overseas Territory[edit] From 1 January 1983, a child born in the UK to a parent who is a British citizen
British citizen
or 'settled' in the UK is automatically a British citizen by birth. This provision is extended to children born to such parents in a British Overseas Territory
British Overseas Territory
other than Akrotiri and Dhekelia after 21 May 2002. Since 13 January 2010, a child born to a parent who is a member of the British Armed Forces
British Armed Forces
at the time of birth also automatically acquires British citizenship if he or she was born in the UK or a qualified British Overseas Territory.

Only one parent needs to meet this requirement. 'Settled' status usually means the parent is resident in the UK or a British Overseas Territory
British Overseas Territory
and has the right of abode (or similar status), or holds Indefinite Leave to Remain (ILR), or is the citizen of an EU/EEA country and has permanent residence, or otherwise unrestricted by immigration laws to remain in the UK or that Overseas Territory.[6] Irish citizens in the UK are deemed settled for this purpose. To qualify under the armed forces provision, the parent must be a member of the armed forces at the time of the child's birth. Special
Special
rules exist for cases where a parent of a child is a citizen of a European Union
European Union
or European Economic Area
European Economic Area
member state, or Switzerland. The law in this respect was changed on 2 October 2000 and 30 April 2006. See below for details. For children born before 1 July 2006, if only the father meets this requirement the parents must be married. Marriage subsequent to the birth is normally enough to confer British citizenship from that point. Where the father is not married to the mother, the Home Office
Home Office
usually registers the child as British provided an application is made and the child would have been British otherwise. The child must be under 18 on the date of application. Where, after the child's birth, a parent subsequently acquires British citizenship or "settled" status, the child can be registered as a British citizen
British citizen
using Form MN1 provided he/she is aged under 18.[7][8] If the child lives in the UK until the age of 10, there is a lifetime entitlement to register as a British citizen
British citizen
using Form T. The immigration status of the child and his/her parents is irrelevant. During each of the first 10 years of the child's life, he/she must not have spent over 90 days outside the UK (unless there were 'special circumstances'). The applicant must be of good character at the time the application is made.[9][8] A child born in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
who is and has always been stateless may also qualify on the basis of a period of 5, rather than 10, years residence, using Form S3.[10] Special
Special
provisions may apply for the child to acquire British citizenship if a parent is a British Overseas citizen or British subject, or if the child is stateless.

Even if a child born in the UK on or after 1 January 1983 but does not acquire British citizenship at birth, the child is considered a lawful resident in the UK and is not required to apply for leave to remain.[11][12] The child, however, is subject to immigration control and the child's parent(s) can choose to apply for regularisation of the child's immigration status by the grant of leave to remain (for the same period as that held by the parent(s)). If the child leaves the UK, he/she must hold leave to enter or remain in order to return to the UK.[13] Before 1983[edit] Between 1949 and 1982, birth in the UK or a Crown Colony was sufficient in itself to confer the status of Citizen of United Kingdom and Colonies (CUKC) irrespective of the status of parents, although only CUKCs with a connection to the UK (i.e., birth in the UK or has a UK-born parent or grandparent) would have right of abode in the UK after 1971 and would eventually become British citizens
British citizens
in 1983. CUKCs without a connection to the UK would become either British Overseas Territories citizens or British Overseas citizens in 1983 depending on whether they have a connection with another BOT. The only exception to this rule were children of diplomats and enemy aliens. This exception did not apply to most visiting forces, so, in general, children born in the UK before 1983 to visiting military personnel (e.g. US forces stationed in the UK) were CUKCs connected with UK and would become British citizens
British citizens
in 1983, albeit as a second nationality. British citizenship by descent[edit] "British citizenship by descent" is the category for the children born outside the UK or an Overseas Territory to a British citizen. Rules for acquiring British citizenship by descent depend on when the person was born. From 1983[edit] A child born outside the UK on or after 1 January 1983 (or outside a British Overseas Territory
British Overseas Territory
on or after 21 May 2002) automatically acquires British citizenship by descent if either parent is a British citizen otherwise than by descent at the time of the child's birth.

At least one parent must be a British citizen
British citizen
otherwise than by descent. As a general rule, an unmarried father cannot pass on British citizenship automatically in the case of a child born before 1 July 2006. If the parents marry subsequent to the birth the child normally becomes a British citizen
British citizen
at that point if legitimated by the marriage and the father was eligible to pass on British citizenship. If the unmarried British father was domiciled in a country that treated (at the date of birth of the child born before 1 July 2006) a child born to unmarried parents in the same way as a child born to married parents, then the father passed on British citizenship automatically to his child, even though the child was born before 1 July 2006 to unmarried parents.[14] Such countries are listed in the UK Home Office Immigration and Passport
Passport
Services publication "Legitimation and Domicile".[15] Where the parent is a British citizen
British citizen
by descent additional requirements apply. In the most common scenario, the parent is normally expected to have lived in the UK for three consecutive years and apply to register the child as a British citizen
British citizen
while the child is a minor (clause 43, Borders, Citizenship
Citizenship
and Immigration Act 2009, effective from 13 January 2010). Prior to this date, the age limit was 12 months. Before 21 May 2002, British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
were treated as 'overseas' for nationality purposes. The exceptions were Gibraltar, British citizens
British citizens
under the British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1981; and the Falkland Islands, granted British citizenship following the Falklands War under the British Nationality
Nationality
(Falkland Islands) Act 1983. Hence, children born to such parents on a British Overseas Territory
British Overseas Territory
other than those listed above acquired British citizenship by descent if they were born prior to 21 May 2002, while children born on or after that day on a British Overseas Territory
British Overseas Territory
(other than Akrotiri and Dhekelia) acquired British citizenship otherwise by descent as UK-born children. Children born overseas to parents on Crown Service are normally granted British citizenship otherwise than by descent, so their status is the same as it would have been had they been born in the UK. In exceptional cases, the Home Secretary
Home Secretary
may register a child of parents who are British by descent as a British citizen
British citizen
under discretionary provisions, for example if the child is stateless, or a second or subsequent generation born abroad into a British citizen family with strong links with the UK, or in 'compassionate circumstances'.[16]

Before 1983[edit] Before 1983, as a general rule CUKC status was transmitted automatically only for one generation, with registration in infancy possible for subsequent generations. Transmission was from the father only, and only if the parents were married. (See History of British nationality law.) Children ineligible for British citizenship at birth[edit] Children born outside the UK before 1 January 1983 to a CUKC mother who became a British citizen
British citizen
on 1 January 1983 and a foreign father are not British citizens
British citizens
by birth, and neither are children born between 1 January 1983 to 1 July 2006 to a British citizen
British citizen
father and a foreign mother out of wedlock. From 20 July 2009, the Borders, Citizenship
Citizenship
and Immigration Act 2009 provides that a person born outside the UK to a British mother may be entitled to register as a British citizen
British citizen
by descent if that person was born before 1 January 1983.[17] Before the 2009 changes, only persons born after 7 February 1961 and before 1 January 1983 were eligible for this provision that came into force in April 2003. Requirements for successful registration with form UKM are that the applicant be a child of a British mother born before 1983 and be of good character and attend a citizenship ceremony. Since 2010, there is no longer an application fee (of £540). Applicants do however still have to pay £80 for the citizenship ceremony.[18] From 6 April 2015, a child born out of wedlock before 1 July 2006 to a British father is entitled to register as a British citizen
British citizen
by descent under the Immigration Act 2014
Immigration Act 2014
using form UKF.[19] Such child must also meet character requirements, pay relevant processing fees and attend a citizenship ceremony.[20] However, if the applicant has a claim to register as a British citizen
British citizen
under other clauses of the British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1981, or has already acquired British citizenship after being legitimised, the application will be refused. Alternatively, if already resident in the UK, these children may seek naturalisation as a British citizen, which gives transmissible British citizenship otherwise than by descent. British citizenship by adoption[edit] A child adopted by a British citizen
British citizen
acquires British citizenship automatically only if:

the adoption order is made by a court in the UK, Channel Islands, Isle of Man or Falkland Islands on or after 1 January 1983, or in another British Overseas Territory
British Overseas Territory
on or after 21 May 2002; or it is a Convention adoption under the 1993 Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption effected on or after 1 June 2003 and the adopters are habitually resident in the UK on that date.

In both cases, at least one adoptive parent must be a British citizen on the date of the adoption. The requirements are different for persons adopted before 1983. In all other cases, an application for registration of the child as a British citizen
British citizen
must be made before the child is 18. Usually this is granted provided the Secretary of State accepts the adoption is bona fide and the child would have been a British citizen
British citizen
if the natural child of the adopters. Usually the adoption must have taken place under the law of a 'designated country' (most developed nations along with some others are 'designated' for this purpose) and be recognised in the UK. This is the standard method for children adopted by British citizens permanently resident overseas to acquire British citizenship. The cancellation or annulment of an adoption order does not cause loss of British citizenship acquired by that adoption. British children adopted by non-British nationals do not lose British nationality, even if they acquire a foreign nationality as a result of the adoption. Any person who obtains British nationality by this method are British otherwise than by descent, which means they have the same status as those born or naturalised in the UK and can pass on British nationality to their children. British citizenship by naturalisation[edit] Naturalisation as a British citizen
British citizen
is at the discretion of the Home Secretary, who may grant British citizenship to anyone they "think fit".[21] Although the Home Office
Home Office
sets down official requirements for naturalisation they may waive any of them, or may refuse citizenship to a person even if they meet all of the requirements.[22] However, applications for naturalisation are normally granted if the requirements are met. The requirements for naturalisation as a British citizen
British citizen
depend on whether or not one is the spouse or civil partner of a British citizen. For those married to or in a civil partnership with a British citizen, the applicant must:

Have held indefinite leave to remain in the UK (or an "equivalent" (for this purpose) such as the right of abode, Irish citizenship, or permanent residency as a citizen of an EU/EEA country or a family member of one) at the time they apply for naturalisation. As of 12 November 2015, EEA nationals are explicitly required to obtain a proof of permanent residency in the UK (in the form of permanent residency certificate) if they are to become a British citizen
British citizen
by naturalisation[23]Proof of permanent residence is obtained by completing form EEA (PR) for Home Office
Home Office
approval.[24] Have lived legally in the UK for three years Be of "good character", as deemed by the Home Office
Home Office
(in practice the Home Office
Home Office
carries out checks with the police and with other Government departments) show sufficient knowledge of life in the UK, either by passing the Life in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
test or by attending combined English language and citizenship classes. Proof of this must be supplied with one's application for naturalisation. Exemption from this and the language requirement (see below) is normally granted for those aged 65 or over, and may be granted to those aged between 60 and 65. Note that this is required for permanent residency, not just for citizenship, and married partners may be deported if they are unable to pass the test.[dubious – discuss] The test has attracted controversy for being "like a bad pub quiz"[25] and the subject of a critical, comprehensive report by Thom Brooks.[26] Meet specified English, Welsh or Scottish Gaelic language
Scottish Gaelic language
competence standards. Those who pass the Life in the UK test are deemed to meet English language
English language
requirements

For those not married to or in a civil partnership with a British citizen, the requirements are:[27][28]

Five years' legal residence in the UK Indefinite leave to remain or "equivalent" for this purpose (see above) must have been held for 12 months the applicant must intend to continue to live in the UK or work overseas for the UK government or a British corporation or association the same "good character" standards apply as for those married to British citizens the same language and knowledge of life in the UK standards apply as for those married to British citizens

Those applying for British citizenship in the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and Isle of Man (where the application is mainly based on residence in the Crown Dependencies rather than the UK) do not have to sit the Life in the UK Test. In the Isle of Man, there is a Life in the Isle of Man Test, consisting of certain questions taken from the Life in the UK Test syllabus and certain questions taken from a separate syllabus relating to matters specific to the Isle of Man. In due course it is expected that Regulations will be introduced to that effect in the Channel Islands. The provisions for proving knowledge of English, Welsh or Scottish Gaelic remain unchanged until that date for applicants in the Crown Dependencies. In the rare cases where an applicant is able to apply for naturalisation from outside the United Kingdom, a paper version of the Life in the UK Test may be available at a British diplomatic mission.[29] As of 11 February 2009[update], wait times for naturalisation applications were reportedly up to 6 months.[30] The UK Border Agency stated that this was occurring because of the widespread changes proposed to the immigration laws expected to take effect in late 2009.[31] Fees for naturalisation (including Citizenship
Citizenship
ceremony fee) have been rising steadily far faster than inflation; in 2013[32] the fee was £874 for single applications, £1,550 for joint application for husband and wife or civil partners living together if applying at the same time. In 2015 the fee for a single applicant increased to £1005.[33] Citizens of EEA States and Switzerland[edit] The immigration status for citizens of European Economic Area
European Economic Area
states and Switzerland
Switzerland
has changed since 1983. This is important in terms of eligibility for naturalisation, and whether the UK-born child of such a person is a British citizen.[34] Before 2 October 2000[edit] In general, before 2 October 2000, any EEA citizen exercising Treaty rights in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was deemed "settled" in the United Kingdom. Hence a child born to that person in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
would normally be a British citizen
British citizen
by birth. 2 October 2000 to 29 April 2006[edit] The Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations[35] provided that with only a few exceptions, citizens of EU and European Economic Area states were not generally considered "settled" in the UK unless they applied for and obtained permanent residency. This is relevant in terms of eligibility to apply for naturalisation or obtaining British citizenship for UK born children (born on or after 2 October 2000). 30 April 2006 onwards[edit] On 30 April 2006, the Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations 2006 came into force, with citizens of EEA states and Switzerland automatically acquiring permanent residence after 5 years' residence in the UK exercising Treaty rights. Children born in the UK to EEA/Swiss parents are normally British citizens automatically if at least one parent has been exercising Treaty rights for five years. If the parents have lived in the UK for less than five years when the child is born, the child may be registered as British under section 1(3) of the British Nationality Act once the parents complete five years' residence. Children born between 2 October 2000 and 29 April 2006 may be registered as British citizens
British citizens
as soon as one parent has completed five years' residence exercising Treaty rights in the UK. Irish citizens[edit] Because of section 2(1) of the Ireland Act 1949
Ireland Act 1949
(which states that the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
would not be treated as a foreign country for the purposes of British law), Irish citizens are exempt from these restrictions and are normally treated as "settled" in the UK immediately upon taking up residence.[citation needed] This status may be threatened by Brexit, according to an untested [in court] legal opinion.[36] Swiss citizens[edit] From 1 June 2002, citizens of Switzerland
Switzerland
are accorded EEA rights in the UK.[citation needed] Citizens of Greece, Spain and Portugal[edit] Greek citizens did not acquire full Treaty rights in the UK until 1 January 1988[37] and citizens of Spain and Portugal did not acquire these rights until 1 January 1992.[37] Ten years rule[edit] Non-British children with an EEA or Swiss parent may be registered as British once the parent becomes "settled" in the UK under the terms of the Immigration Regulations dealing with EEA citizens. A separate entitlement exists for any such UK-born child registered as British if they live in the UK until age 10, regardless of their or their parent's immigration status. Registration as a British citizen[edit] Registration is a simpler method of acquiring citizenship than naturalisation, but only certain people are eligible. British nationals (other than British citizens) who have indefinite leave to remain or the right of abode in the UK are eligible for British citizenship by registration after five years' residence in the United Kingdom. This is an entitlement under s4 of the 1981 Act (section 4 registration). Other cases where persons may be entitled to registration (either as a matter of law or policy) include:

Children born in the UK where a parent obtains British citizenship or 'settled' status (for example, indefinite leave to remain) after the child is born provided he/she is under the age of 18[7][8] Children born in the UK who live in the UK until the age of 10[9][8] Children born in the UK or on a qualified British Overseas Territory to a parent who became a member of the armed forces after the child's birth, if he or she was born on or after 13 January 2010 Children born outside the UK or a qualified British Overseas Territory to a parent who was a member of the armed forces at the time of the child's birth and stationed outside the UK or a qualified BOT, if he or she was born on or after 13 January 2010 Children born to a British father who is not married to the mother British Overseas citizens, British subjects and British protected persons who have no other nationality Certain British nationals from Hong Kong
Hong Kong
who meet the requirements of the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(War Wives and Widows) Act 1996 or the British Nationality
Nationality
(Hong Kong) Act 1997 British Nationals (Overseas)
British Nationals (Overseas)
who do not hold any other citizenship or nationality before 19 March 2009 (see Borders, Citizenship
Citizenship
and Immigration Act 2009 regarding the extension of Section 4B of the British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1981) Persons born outside the UK to a British born or naturalised mother. Certain children born outside the UK to a British citizen
British citizen
by descent Certain children born in the UK who are stateless Persons who acquire British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
citizenship after 21 May 2002 (except those connected solely with the Sovereign Base Areas of Cyprus) Children under 18 who are adopted outside the UK by British citizens Former British citizens
British citizens
who renounced British citizenship

The Home Secretary
Home Secretary
can exercise discretion under Section 3(1) of the British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1981 and register a child as a British citizen even if he/she does not meet the formal criteria.[38] Acquisition of British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
citizenship[edit] The British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1981 contains provisions for acquisition and loss of British Dependent Territories citizenship (BDTC) (renamed British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
citizenship (BOTC) in 2002) on a broadly similar basis to those for British citizenship. The Home Secretary
Home Secretary
has delegated his powers to grant BOTC to the Governors of the Overseas Territories. Only in exceptional cases is a person registered or naturalised as a BOTC by the Home Office
Home Office
in the UK. On 21 May 2002, any BOTC who did not hold British citizenship (except those from the Sovereign Base Areas) automatically acquired it under the British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
Act 2002. Those who acquired BOTC through naturalisation or registration after that date are entitled to register as British citizens
British citizens
under s4A of the 1981 Act. Acquisition of other categories of British nationality[edit] It is unusual for a person to be able to acquire British Overseas citizenship, British National (Overseas), British subject or British protected person status. They are not generally transmissible by descent, nor are they open to acquisition by registration, except for certain instances to prevent statelessness. The Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002
Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002
granted British Overseas Citizens, British Subjects and British Protected Persons the right to register as British citizens
British citizens
if they have no other citizenship or nationality and have not after 4 July 2002 renounced, voluntarily relinquished or lost through action or inaction any citizenship or nationality. Previously such persons would have not had the right of abode in any country, and would have thus been de facto stateless. Despite strong resistance from senior officials at the Home Office,[39] the then Home Secretary, David Blunkett, said on 3 July 2002 that this would "right a historic wrong" that left stateless tens of thousands of Asian people who had worked closely with British colonial administrations.[40] Persons connected with former British colonies[edit] British Overseas citizenship is generally held by persons connected with former British colonies and who did not lose their British Nationality
Nationality
upon the independence of those colonies. British Nationals (Overseas)
British Nationals (Overseas)
and Hong Kong[edit] Main article: British nationality and Hong Kong See also: Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Special
Special
Administrative Region passport, Home Return Permit, and Chinese nationality law After the withdrawal of BDTC status from all BDTCs by virtue of a connection with Hong Kong
Hong Kong
on 30 June 1997, most of them are now either British Nationals (Overseas)
British Nationals (Overseas)
and/or British citizens
British citizens
(with or without nationality of China), or Chinese nationals only. The remaining few became British Overseas citizens. Before the handover in 1997, former BDTCs from Hong Kong
Hong Kong
had been able to acquire British citizenship under legislation passed in 1990, 1996 and 1997. In other cases, certain persons may already hold British citizenship as a matter of entitlement or through registration under normal procedures. Although it is no longer possible to acquire British National (Overseas) status after 31 December 1997, stateless children born to such parents are entitled to British Overseas citizenship and can subsequently apply to register as British citizens
British citizens
under the Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002. Since 2009, BN(O)s without other nationalities or citizenship are able to register as British citizens
British citizens
under the Borders, Citizenship
Citizenship
and Immigration Act 2009 as well. British citizens
British citizens
and BN(O)s who are of full or partial Chinese descent are also Chinese nationals under Chinese law unless they have renounced their Chinese nationality with the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
SAR Government. As China does not recognise multiple nationality, those persons are considered by China as solely Chinese nationals before and after the handover of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and hence are not eligible for consular protection when on Chinese soil. Although holding the same nationality under the Chinese nationality law, Chinese nationals with a connection to Hong Kong
Hong Kong
or Macau have been categorised differently from Chinese nationals domiciled in Mainland China. In February 2006, in response to extensive representations made by Lord Avebury and Tameem Ebrahim,[41] British authorities announced that 600 British citizenship applications of ethnic minority children of Indian descent from Hong Kong
Hong Kong
were wrongly refused.[42] The applications dated from the period July 1997 onwards. Where applicants in such cases confirm that they still wish to receive British citizenship, the decision is reconsidered on request. No additional fee is required in such cases. A template to request reconsideration is available for those who want a prior application reconsidered.[43] Persons born in the Republic of Ireland[edit] See also: British nationality and the Republic of Ireland Approximately 800,000 persons born before 1949 and connected with the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
remain entitled to claim British subject status under section 31 of the 1981 Act. Descendants of the Electress Sophia of Hanover[edit] Eligible descendants from the Electress Sophia of Hanover
Electress Sophia of Hanover
may hold British Overseas citizenship based on their status as British subjects before 1949. Where such a person acquired a right of abode in the UK before 1983, it is possible for British citizenship to have been acquired. See also History of British nationality law and Sophia Naturalization
Naturalization
Act 1705. Loss of British nationality[edit] Renunciation and resumption of British nationality[edit] All categories of British nationality can be renounced by a declaration made to the Home Secretary. A person ceases to be a British national on the date the Home Secretary
Home Secretary
registers the declaration of renunciation. If a declaration is registered in the expectation of acquiring another citizenship but one is not acquired within six months of the registration, it does not take effect and the person remains a British national. Renunciations made to other authorities (such as the general renunciation made as part of the US naturalization ceremony) are not recognized by the UK. The forms must be sent through the UK Border Agency's citizenship renunciation process.[44] There are provisions for the resumption of British citizenship or British overseas territories citizenship renounced for the purpose of gaining or retaining another citizenship. This can generally only be done once as a matter of entitlement. Further opportunities to resume British citizenship are discretionary. British subjects, British Overseas citizens and British Nationals (Overseas) cannot resume their British nationality after renunciation. Automatic loss of British nationality[edit] British subjects (other than British subjects by virtue of a connection with the Republic of Ireland) and British protected persons lose British nationality upon acquiring any other form of nationality.

These provisions do not apply to British citizens. British Overseas Territories citizens (BOTCs) who acquire another nationality do not lose their BOTC status but they may be liable to lose belonger status in their home territory under its immigration laws. Such persons are advised to contact the governor of that territory for information. British Overseas citizens (BOCs) do not lose their BOC status upon acquisition of another citizenship but any entitlement to registration as a British citizen
British citizen
on the grounds of having no other nationality no longer exist after acquiring another citizenship.

Revocation of British nationality[edit] Under the Immigration, Asylum and Nationality
Nationality
Act 2006, people with dual nationality who are British nationals can be deprived of their British citizenship if the Secretary of State is satisfied that "deprivation is conducive to the public good"; there is a right of appeal.[45] This provision has been in force since 16 June 2006 when the Immigration, Nationality
Nationality
and Asylum Act 2006 (Commencement No 1) Order 2006 came into force.[46] Loss of British nationality in this way applies to people born in the UK as British citizens
British citizens
and who also hold another nationality.[45][47] As the provision applies only to dual nationals, its application cannot render a person stateless. The Home Office
Home Office
does not issue information on these cases and is resistant to answering questions,[45] for example under the Freedom of Information Act 2000.[48] As of 15 July 2013[update] at least 17 people had been deprived of their British citizenship, in most cases on the recommendation of MI5. It appears that the government usually waits until the person has left Britain, then sends a warning notice to their British home and signs a deprivation order a day or two later.[45] Appeals are heard at the highly secretive Special Immigration Appeals Commission (SIAC), where the government can submit evidence that cannot be seen or challenged by the appellant.[45] Previously since 2003 under the Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002, British nationals could be deprived of their citizenship only if the Secretary of State was satisfied they were responsible for acts seriously prejudicial to the vital interests of the United Kingdom or an Overseas Territory. British nationals who are naturalised or registered may lose British nationality if it was obtained by fraud or concealment of a material fact. The nationality laws of the US, Canada
Canada
and Australia
Australia
have similar provisions to revoke local nationality from citizens who gained such citizenship via naturalisation. Multiple nationality and multiple citizenship[edit] Since the British Nationality
Nationality
Act of 1948, there is in general no restriction in UK law on a British national holding citizenship of other countries. Different rules apply to British protected persons and certain British subjects. A person who is a British subject other than by connection with the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
loses that status on acquiring any other nationality or citizenship, and a British protected person ceases to be such on acquiring any other nationality or citizenship. Although British Overseas citizens are not subject to loss of citizenship, British Overseas citizens may lose an entitlement to register as a British citizen
British citizen
under s4B of the 1981 Act if they acquire any other citizenship. A number of other countries do not allow multiple citizenship. If a person has British nationality and is also a national of a country that does not allow dual nationality, the authorities of that country may regard the person as having lost that nationality or may refuse to recognize the British nationality. British nationals who acquire the nationality of a country that does not allow dual nationality may be required by the other country to renounce British nationality to retain the other citizenship. None of this affects a person's national status under UK law. Under the international Master Nationality
Nationality
Rule a state may not give diplomatic protection to one of its nationals with dual nationality in a country where the person also holds citizenship. A British subject who acquired foreign citizenship by naturalisation before 1949 were deemed to have lost his or her British subject status at the time[citation needed]. No specific provisions were made in the 1948 legislation for such former British subjects to acquire or otherwise resume British nationality, and hence such a person would not be a British citizen
British citizen
today. However, women who lost British nationality on marriage to a foreign man before 1949 were deemed to have reacquired British subject status immediately before the coming into force of the 1948 act. The UK is a signatory to the Convention on the Reduction of Cases of Multiple Nationality
Nationality
and on Military Obligations in Cases of Multiple Nationality
Nationality
(1963 Strasbourg Convention). Chapter 1 requires that persons naturalised by another European member country automatically forfeit their original nationality[49] but the UK ratified only Chapter 2, so the convention does not limit the ability of British citizens to become dual citizens of other European countries.[50] British citizenship ceremonies[edit]

A British citizenship ceremony in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets

From 1 January 2004, all new applicants for British citizenship by naturalisation or registration aged 18 or over if their application is successful must attend a citizenship ceremony and either make an affirmation or take an oath of allegiance to the monarch, and make a pledge to the UK. Citizenship
Citizenship
ceremonies are normally organised by:

local councils in England, Scotland, and Wales the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Office the governments of the Isle of Man, Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey the Governors of British Overseas Territories British consular offices outside the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and territories.

Persons from the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
born before 1949 reclaiming British subject status under section 31 of the 1981 Act do not need to attend a citizenship ceremony. If such a person subsequently applies for British citizenship by registration or naturalisation, attendance at a ceremony is required. For those who applied for British citizenship before 2004:

the oath of allegiance was administered privately through signing a witnessed form in front of a solicitor or other accredited person those who already held British nationality (other than British protected persons) were exempt, as were those citizens of countries with the Queen as Head of State (such as Australia
Australia
and Canada).

Citizenship
Citizenship
of the European Union[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Declaration by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on 31 December 1982 on the definition of the term “nationals”

British nationals who are " United Kingdom
United Kingdom
nationals for European Union purposes", namely:

British citizens; British subjects with the right of abode; and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar

have become citizens of the European Union
European Union
under European Union
European Union
law and enjoy rights of free movement and the right to vote in elections for the European Parliament.[51] When in a non-EU country where there is no British embassy, British citizens
British citizens
have the right to get consular protection from the embassy of any other EU country present in that country.[52][53] British citizens
British citizens
can live and work in any country within the EU as a result of the right of free movement and residence granted in Article 21 of the EU Treaty.[54] By virtue of a special provision in the UK Accession Treaty, British citizens who are connected with the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and Isle of Man (i.e. "Channel Islanders and Manxmen") do not have the right to live in other European Union
European Union
countries (except the Republic of Ireland through the long-established Common Travel Area) unless they have connections through descent or residence in the United Kingdom. Statistics on British Citizenship: 1998 to 2009[edit] The Home Office
Home Office
Research and Statistics Division publishes an annual report with statistics on grants of British citizenship broken down by type and former nationality. Since 2003, the report has also included research on take-up rates for British citizenship. Travel freedom of British citizens[edit]

Visa requirements for British citizens   United Kingdom   Freedom of movement   Visa not required   Visa on arrival   eVisa   Visa available both on arrival or online   Visa required prior to arrival

Main article: Visa requirements for British citizens Visa requirements for British citizens
British citizens
are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of the United Kingdom. In 2017, British citizens
British citizens
had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 173 countries and territories, ranking the British passport 4th in terms of travel freedom (tied with Austrian, Belgian, Dutch, French, Luxembourgish, Norwegian and Singaporean passports) according to the Henley visa restrictions index.[55] Additionally, the World Tourism Organization
World Tourism Organization
also published a report on 15 January 2016 ranking the British passport
British passport
1st in the world (tied with Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and Singapore) in terms of travel freedom, with a mobility index of 160 (out of 215 with no visa weighted by 1, visa on arrival weighted by 0.7, eVisa by 0.5, and traditional visa weighted by 0).[56] Visa requirements for other classes of British nationals such as British Nationals (Overseas), British Overseas Citizens, British Overseas Territories Citizens, British Protected Persons or British Subjects are different. See also[edit]

British Nationality
Nationality
Act Citizen Information Project Modern immigration to the United Kingdom Commonwealth citizen

Notes[edit]

^ Lord Goldsmith citizenship review ^ British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
Act 2002, c.8. ^ "Naturalisation Booklet – The Requirements" (PDF).  ^ "Types of British nationality". UK Government. Retrieved 7 September 2015.  ^ "Register as a British Citizen - Stateless People". Gov.uk. Retrieved 10 August 2014.  ^ "Settled" outlined in section 50 of the British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1981 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1981/61#commentary-c1925606 ^ a b British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1981, Section 1(3) ^ a b c d "Register as a British citizen
British citizen
- GOV.UK".  ^ a b British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1981, Section 1(4) ^ UK Government - UK Visas and Immigration: Guidance on registering a stateless person born in the UK or a British overseas territory on or after 1 January 1983 as a British citizen
British citizen
or a British overseas territories citizen using form S3 ^ "Immigration Directorates' Instructions, Chapter 08, Section 4A (Children born in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
who are not British citizens)" (pdf). Home Office. November 2009.  ^ Akinyemi v Secretary of State for the Home Department
Secretary of State for the Home Department
[2017] EWCA Civ 236 ^ "Immigration Rules, paragraphs 304-309". Home Office.  ^ See chapter on “Legitimacy” in UK Border Agency Nationality Instructions, Volume 2, Section 2, paragraphs 1.1, 1.2 and 5.1.2 (second example). http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/nationalityinstructions/nisec2gensec/legitimacy?view=Binary ^ "Legitimation and domicile".  ^ " Home Office
Home Office
Nationality
Nationality
Instructions (Chapter 9: Registration of Minors at Discretion), Section 9.12" (PDF).  ^ "newbook.book" (PDF). Retrieved 13 August 2010.  ^ "Register as a British citizen: Born before 1983 to a British mother". gov.uk. Retrieved 13 June 2016.  ^ "S65 of Immigration Act 2014". Legislation.gov.uk.  ^ "Register as a British citizen: Born before 1 July 2006 to a British father". Gov.uk.  ^ "British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1981 (c. 61) - Statute Law Database". Statutelaw.gov.uk. 5 December 2005. Retrieved 13 August 2010.  ^ "British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1981 (c. 61) - Statute Law Database". Statutelaw.gov.uk. Retrieved 13 August 2010.  ^ Michael Pumo. "New requirement for EEA British citizenship applicants". Smith Stone Walters.  ^ Anne Morris. "EEA PR". DavidsonMorris.  ^ "British citizenship test 'like bad pub quiz'". BBC News.  ^ Brooks, Thom. "The 'Life in the United Kingdom' Citizenship
Citizenship
Test: Is it Unfit for Purpose?". Social Science Research Network. SSRN 2280329 .  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Become a British Citizen". gov.uk. UK government. 10 June 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2015.  ^ "British Nationality
Nationality
Act 1981, SCHEDULE 1, Naturalisation as a British citizen
British citizen
under section 6(1)". The National Archives. Retrieved 13 October 2015.  ^ Details (pdf) Archived 14 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Link to notice regarding wait times on the UK Border Agency website as of 11 February 2009". Ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk. Retrieved 13 August 2010.  ^ Link to news report on UK Border Agency website dated 11 February 2009 Archived 14 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Link to fees form - UK Border Agency website dated 6 April 2013" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2013.  ^ "Become a British citizen".  ^ " European Economic Area
European Economic Area
and Swiss nationals" (PDF). Immigration and Nationality
Nationality
Directorate, Home Office.  ^ "Statutory Instrument 2000 No. 2326". Opsi.gov.uk. Retrieved 13 August 2010.  ^ Quinn, Ben; Doward, Jamie (3 December 2017). " Brexit
Brexit
puts special rights for Irish citizens in UK 'at risk']". The Observer.  ^ a b " Passport
Passport
policy - Treaty Rights" (PDF).  ^ " Home Office
Home Office
Nationality
Nationality
instructions (Chapter 9: Registration of Minors at Discretion)" (PDF).  ^ "Letter from the Director of the INPD to the Home Secretary" (PDF). 19 June 2002. Retrieved 13 August 2010.  ^ "UK UK Politics UK to right 'immigration wrong'". BBC News. 5 July 2002. Retrieved 13 August 2010.  ^ "britishcitizen.info" (PDF).  ^ https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200506/ldlwa/060228wa1.pdf ^ "britishcitizen.info" (PDF).  ^ "UK Border Agency How do I give up British citizenship or another form of British nationality?". Bia.homeoffice.gov.uk. Retrieved 13 August 2010.  ^ a b c d e Ian Cobain. "Obama's secret kill list – the disposition matrix". the Guardian.  ^ "The Immigration, Asylum and Nationality
Nationality
Act 2006 (Commencement No. 1) Order 2006". Opsi.gov.uk. Retrieved 13 August 2010.  ^ "Apply to the Special Immigration Appeals Commission - GOV.UK" (PDF).  ^ "Deprivation of citizenship". WhatDoTheyKnow.  ^ "Liste complète". Bureau des Traités.  ^ "Recherches sur les traités". Bureau des Traités.  ^ "United Kingdom". European Union. Retrieved 4 May 2015.  ^ Article 20(2)(c) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. ^ Rights abroad: Right to consular protection: a right to protection by the diplomatic or consular authorities of other Member States when in a non-EU Member State, if there are no diplomatic or consular authorities from the citizen's own state (Article 23): this is due to the fact that not all member states maintain embassies in every country in the world (14 countries have only one embassy from an EU state). Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
(UK), Barbados
Barbados
(UK), Belize
Belize
(UK), Central African Republic (France), Comoros
Comoros
(France), Gambia
Gambia
(UK), Guyana
Guyana
(UK), Liberia
Liberia
(Germany), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(UK), San Marino (Italy), São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
(Portugal), Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(UK), Timor-Leste
Timor-Leste
(Portugal), Vanuatu
Vanuatu
(France) ^ "Treaty on the Function of the European Union
European Union
(consolidated version)" (PDF). Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-07-10.  ^ "Global Ranking - Visa Restriction Index 2017" (PDF). Henley & Partners. Retrieved 14 March 2017.  ^ "Visa Openness Report 2016" (PDF). World Tourism Organization. Retrieved 17 January 2016. 

External links[edit]

Home Office
Home Office
Nationality
Nationality
Instructions: Volume 1, Volume 2 British Nationality
Nationality
Acts: 1981, 1965, 1964, 1958, 1948, 1772, 1730 Thom Brooks
Thom Brooks
- The 'Life in the United Kingdom' Citizenship
Citizenship
Test: Is It Unfit for Purpose? report 2013 British Nationality
Nationality
Acts, summary at www.gov.uk of the main Acts from 1844 to 2002 relevant to British nationality and their principal effects, identifying provisions still in force. Includes Acts named "Aliens Act", " Naturalization
Naturalization
Act", etc., not restricted to those named "British Nationality
Nationality
Act". Online tool to check if one is a British citizen
British citizen
by the British government

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