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Flag of Great Britain
Flag of Great Britain

British West Florida in 1767.

CAPITAL Pensacola (1763)

GOVERNOR

• 1763 George Johnstone

HISTORY

Treaty of Paris (1763)
Treaty of Paris (1763)
10 February 1763

Peace of Paris (1783)
Peace of Paris (1783)
1783

Britain formed West Florida from part of Spanish Florida , as well as territory received from French Louisiana
Louisiana

WEST FLORIDA was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
from 1763 until 1783 when it was ceded to Spain as part of the Peace of Paris .

British West Florida comprised parts of the modern U.S. states of Louisiana
Louisiana
, Mississippi
Mississippi
, Alabama
Alabama
and Florida
Florida
. Effective British control ended in 1781 when Spain captured Pensacola . The territory subsequently became a colony of Spain , parts of which were gradually annexed piecemeal by the United States beginning in 1810.

CONTENTS

* 1 Creation * 2 British era * 3 Spanish conquest * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography

CREATION

Further information: Great Britain in the Seven Years\' War

In 1762, during the Seven Years\' War , a British expedition attacked and occupied Havana , the capital of Cuba
Cuba
. To secure the return of this valuable city, Spain agreed to cede its territory of La Florida to the victorious Great Britain under the 1763 Treaty of Paris . France ceded a large segment of New France
New France
to Great Britain, including its territory east of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River except for the city of New Orleans .

The British divided this southern region of the North American continent into two separate colonies: East Florida
Florida
, with its capital in St. Augustine and West Florida , with Pensacola as its capital . Many of the Spanish inhabitants of Florida
Florida
were evacuated to Cuba, and new British settlers arrived including some from the thirteen colonies .

By separate treaty France ceded its lands west of the Mississippi
Mississippi
to Spain, which formed Spanish Louisiana
Louisiana
with the capital at New Orleans .

BRITISH ERA

In 1763 British troops arrived and took possession of Pensacola. George Johnstone was appointed as the first British Governor, and in 1764 a colonial assembly was established. The structure of the colony was modeled after the existing British colonies in America , as opposed to Quebec
Quebec
, which was based on a different structure. In contrast to East Florida, where there was little development and population growth, West Florida began to boom in the years following the British takeover, and thousands of new arrivals came to take advantage of the favorable conditions there.

West Florida was invited to send delegates to the First Continental Congress which was convened to present colonial grievances against the British Parliament to George III , but along with several other colonies, including East Florida, they declined the invitation. Once the American War of Independence
American War of Independence
had broken out, the colonists remained overwhelmingly loyal to the Crown. In 1778 the Willing Expedition proceeded with a small force down the Mississippi, ransacking estates and plantations, until they were eventually defeated by a local militia. In the wake of this, the area received a small number of British reinforcements.

SPANISH CONQUEST

Spanish troops storm Pensacola in 1781 Main article: Gulf Coast campaign

Following an agreement signed at Aranjuez , Spain entered the American Revolutionary War on the side of France but not the Thirteen Colonies . Spanish troops under Bernardo de Galvez
Bernardo de Galvez
advanced and seized Baton Rouge and Mobile . In 1781 Spain captured Pensacola and its garrison. As part of the 1783 Peace of Paris , Great Britain ceded the territories of West Florida and East Florida
Florida
back to Spain.

When Spain acquired West Florida in 1783, the eastern British boundary was the Apalachicola River, but Spain in 1785 moved it eastward to the Suwannee River
Suwannee River
. The purpose was to transfer San Marcos and the district of Apalachee from East Florida
Florida
to West Florida.

SEE ALSO

* West Florida * East Florida
Florida
* British America
British America
* Spanish West Florida * Dominion
Dominion
of British West Florida , 21st century micronation

REFERENCES

* ^ John Richard Alden (1957). The South in the Revolution, 1763–1789. Louisiana
Louisiana
State University Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-8071-0013-4 . * ^ Coker, William S; Shofner, Jerrell H.; Morris, Joan Perry; Malone, Myrtle Davidson (1991). Florida
Florida
from the Beginning to 1992 : a Columbus Jubilee Commemorative. Houston: Pioneer Publications. p. 4. Retrieved 28 June 2014. * ^ Spencer Tucker; James R. Arnold; Roberta Wiener (30 September 2011). The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 751. ISBN 978-1-85109-697-8 . * ^ Wright, J. Leitch (1972). "Research Opportunities in the Spanish Borderlands: West Florida, 1781-1821". Latin American Research Review. Latin American Studies Association. 7 (2): 24–34. JSTOR 2502623 . Wright also notes, "It was some time after 1785 before it was clearly established that Suwannee was the new eastern boundary of the province of Apalachee." * ^ Weber, David J. (1992). The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven, Connecticut, USA: Yale University Press. p. 275. Spain never drew a clear line to separate the two Floridas, but West Florida extended easterly to include Apalachee Bay, which Spain shifted from the jurisdiction of St. Augustine to more accessible Pensacola. * ^ "The Evolution of a State, Map of Florida
Florida
Counties - 1820". 10th Circuit Court of Florida. Retrieved 2016-01-26. Under Spanish rule, Florida
Florida
was divided by the natural separation of the Suwanee River into West Florida and East Florida. * ^ Klein, Hank. "History Mystery: Was Destin Once in Walton County?". The Destin Log. Retrieved 2016-01-26. On July 21, 1821 all of what had been West Florida was named Escambia County, after the Escambia River. It stretched from the Perdido River to the Suwanee River with its county seat at Pensacola.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Calloway, Colin Gordon. The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America. Oxford University Press, 2006. * Chavez, Thomas E. Spain and the Independence of the United States: An Intrinsic Gift. University of New Mexico Press, 2003.

* v * t * e

British Empire
British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
Historical flags of the British Empire
British Empire

EUROPE

* 1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) * 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca * Since 1713 Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) * 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) * 1807–1890 Heligoland
Heligoland
* 1809–1864 Ionian Islands * 1878–1960 Cyprus
Cyprus
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Irish Free State

NORTH AMERICA

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

* 1579 New Albion
New Albion
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Bermuda
* 1620–1691 Plymouth * 1623–1883 Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
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Nevis
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Antigua
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Anguilla
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Cape Breton Island
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Quebec
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Florida
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Upper Canada
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Turks and Caicos Islands

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Columbia District
/ Oregon Country
Oregon Country
1 * 1833–1960 Windward Islands * 1833–1960 Leeward Islands * 1841–1867 Canada * 1849–1866 Vancouver Island * 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands * 1858–1866 British Columbia * 1859–1870 North-Western Territory
North-Western Territory
* 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda * 1862–1863 Stickeen * 1866–1871 British Columbia * 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada 2 * 1871–1964 Honduras * 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Nevis
* 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago * 1907–1949 Newfoundland 3 * 1958–1962 West Indies Federation
West Indies Federation

* 1. Occupied jointly with the United States. * 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster . See Name of Canada . * 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

SOUTH AMERICA

* 1631–1641 Providence Island * 1651–1667 Willoughbyland
Willoughbyland
* 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands 4 * 1831–1966 Guiana * Since 1833 Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
5 * Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
5

* 4. Now a department of Colombia . * 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

AFRICA

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

* Since 1658 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
14 * 1792–1961 Sierra Leone * 1795–1803 Cape Colony
Cape Colony

* Since 1815 Ascension Island
Ascension Island
14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
14 * 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope * 1807–1808 Madeira * 1810–1968 Mauritius
Mauritius
* 1816–1965 The Gambia * 1856–1910 Natal * 1862–1906 Lagos * 1868–1966 Basutoland
Basutoland
* 1874–1957 Gold Coast * 1882–1922 Egypt

* 1884–1900 Niger Coast * 1884–1966 Bechuanaland * 1884–1960 Somaliland * 1887–1897 Zululand * 1890–1962 Uganda * 1890–1963 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
* 1891–1964 Nyasaland
Nyasaland
* 1891–1907 Central Africa * 1893–1968 Swaziland * 1895–1920 East Africa * 1899–1956 Sudan

* 1900–1914 Northern Nigeria * 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria * 1900–1910 Orange River * 1900–1910 Transvaal * 1903–1976 Seychelles
Seychelles
* 1910–1931 South Africa * 1914–1960 Nigeria * 1915–1931 South-West Africa
South-West Africa
* 1919–1961 Cameroons 6 * 1920–1963 Kenya * 1922–1961 Tanganyika 6 * 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
7 * 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

* 6. League of Nations mandate
League of Nations mandate
. * 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia
Rhodesia
) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement
Lancaster House Agreement
. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

ASIA

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

* 1685–1824 Bencoolen * 1702–1705 Pulo Condore * 1757–1947 Bengal * 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite * 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang
Padang
* 1786–1946 Penang * 1795–1948 Ceylon * 1796–1965 Maldives

* 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton * 1819–1826 Malaya * 1824–1948 Burma * 1826–1946 Straits Settlements
Straits Settlements
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* 1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) * 1882–1963 North Borneo
North Borneo
* 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States
Unfederated Malay States
* 1888–1984 Brunei * 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman
Muscat and Oman
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Trucial States
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Federated Malay States
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Cyprus

* 1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) * 1918–1961 Kuwait * 1920–1932 Mesopotamia 8 * 1921–1946 Transjordan 8 * 1923–1948 Palestine 8 * 1945–1946 South Vietnam * 1946–1963 North Borneo
North Borneo
* 1946–1963 Sarawak * 1946–1963 Singapore * 1946–1948 Malayan Union
Malayan Union
* 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
* Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus
Cyprus
) * Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius
Mauritius
and the Seychelles
Seychelles
)

8 League of Nations mandate
League of Nations mandate
. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

OCEANIA

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

* 1788–1901 New South Wales * 1803–1901 Van Diemen\'s Land /Tasmania * 1807–1863 Auckland Islands
Auckland Islands
9 * 1824–1980 New Hebrides
New Hebrides
* 1824–1901 Queensland * 1829–1901 Swan River /Western Australia * 1836–1901 South Australia * since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

* 1841–1907 New Zealand * 1851–1901 Victoria * 1874–1970 Fiji 10 * 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories * 1884–1949 Papua * 1888–1901 Rarotonga /Cook Islands 9 * 1889–1948 Union Islands
Union Islands
9 * 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands
Gilbert and Ellice Islands
11 * 1893–1978 Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
12

* 1900–1970 Tonga * 1900–1974 Niue 9 * 1901–1942 *Australia * 1907–1953 *New Zealand * 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru * 1919–1949 New Guinea * 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea 13

* 9. Now part of the * Realm of New Zealand
Realm of New Zealand
. * 10. Suspended member. * 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and * Tuvalu
Tuvalu
. * 12. Now the * Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
. * 13. Now * Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
.

ANTARCTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC

* Since 1658 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
14 * Since 1815 Ascension Island
Ascension Island
14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
14 * Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory
British Antarctic Territory
15 * 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia ) * 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand )

* 14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha ; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha