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Indian languages

Government Colony

Monarch of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Emperor/Empressa

 •  1858–1901 Victoria

 •  1901–1910 Edward VII

 •  1910–1936 George V

 •  1936 Edward VIII

 •  1936–1947 George VI

Viceroy
Viceroy
and Governor-Generalc

 •  1858–1862 (first) Charles Canning

 •  1947 (last)  Louis Mountbatten

Secretary of State

 •  1858–1859 (first) Edward Stanley

 •  1947 (last)  William Hare

Legislature Imperial Legislative Council

History

 •  Battle of Plassey
Battle of Plassey
and Indian Rebellion 23 June 1757 and 10 May 1857

 •  Government of India
India
Act 2 August 1858

 •  Indian Independence Act 18 July 1947

 •  Partition of India 15 August 1947

Currency Indian rupee

Preceded by Succeeded by

Company rule in India

Mughal Empire

Emirate of Afghanistan

Dominion
Dominion
of India

Dominion
Dominion
of Pakistan

British rule in Burma

Trucial States

Colony
Colony
of Aden

Straits Settlements

Today part of  Bangladesh   China
China
(disputed)  India  Myanmar  Pakistan  United Arab Emirates  Yemen

a. Title existed 1876–1948

c. Full title was " Viceroy
Viceroy
and Governor-General of India"

Part of a series on the

History of India

Ancient

Madrasian Culture Soanian, c. 500,000 BCE Neolithic, c. 7600 – c. 3300 BCE

Bhirrana
Bhirrana
7570 - 6200 BCE Jhusi
Jhusi
7106 BCE Lahuradewa 7000 BCE Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
7000 - 2600 BCE

Indus Valley Civilization, c. 3300 – c. 1700 BCE Post Indus Valley Period, c. 1700 – c. 1500 BCE Vedic Civilization, c. 1500 – c. 500 BCE

Early Vedic Period

Rise of Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movement

Later Vedic Period

Spread of Jainism - Parshvanatha Spread of Jainism - Mahavira Rise of Buddhism

Mahajanapadas, c. 500 – c. 345 BCE Nanda Dynasty, c. 345 – c. 322 BCE

Classical

Maurya Dynasty, c. 322 – c. 185 BCE Shunga Dynasty, c. 185 – c. 75 BCE Kanva Dynasty, c. 75 – c. 30 BCE Kushan Dynasty, c. 30 – c. 230 CE Satavahana Dynasty, c. 30 BCE – c. 220 CE Gupta Dynasty, c. 200 – c. 550 CE

Early medieval

Chalukya Dynasty, c. 543 – c. 753 CE Harsha's Dynasty, c. 606 CE – c. 647 CE Karakota Dynasty, c. 724 – c. 760 CE Arab Invasion, c. 738 CE Tripartite Struggle, c. 760 – c. 973 CE

Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
Dynasty Rastrakuta Dynasty Pala Dynasty

Chola Dynasty, c. 848 – c. 1251 CE 2nd Chalukya Dynasty, c. 973 – c. 1187 CE

Late medieval

Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, c. 1206 – c. 1526 CE

Slave Dynasty Khalji Dynasty Tugluq Dynasty Sayyid Dynasty Lodhi Dynasty

Pandyan Dynasty, c. 1251 – c. 1323 CE Vijayanagara, c. 1336 – c. 1646 CE Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate, c. 1342 – c. 1576 CE

Early modern

Mughal Dynasty, c. 1526 – c. 1540 CE Suri Dynasty, c. 1540 – c. 1556 CE Mughal Dynasty, c. 1556 – c. 1857 CE

Bengal
Bengal
Subah, c. 1576 – c. 1757 CE

Maratha Empire, c. 1674 – c. 1818 CE Company Raj, c. 1757 – c. 1858 CE Kingdom of Mysore, c. 1760 – c. 1799 CE Sikh Empire, c. 1799 – c. 1849 CE

Modern

The Great Rebellion, c. 1857 – c. 1858 CE British Raj, c. 1858 – c. 1947 CE

Independence Movement

Independent India, c. 1947 CE – present

Related articles

Timeline of Indian History Dynasties in Indian History Economic History Demographic History Linguistic History Architectural History Art History Literary History Philosophical History History of Religion Musical History Education History Coinage History Science and Technology History List of Inventions and Discoveries Military History Naval History Wars involving India

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The British Raj
British Raj
(/rɑːdʒ/; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani)[2] was the rule by the British Crown
British Crown
in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.[3][4][5][6] The rule is also called Crown rule in India,[7] or direct rule in India.[8] The region under British control was commonly called India
India
in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, and those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, and called the princely states. The de facto political amalgamation was also called the Indian Empire
Empire
and after 1876 issued passports under that name.[9][10] As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations
United Nations
in San Francisco in 1945.[11] This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, when, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria[12] (who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India). It lasted until 1947, when Britain′s Indian Empire
Empire
was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India
Dominion of India
(later the Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan
Dominion of Pakistan
(later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the eastern part of which, still later, became the People's Republic of Bangladesh). At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma
Lower Burma
was already a part of British India; Upper Burma
Upper Burma
was added in 1886, and the resulting union, Burma, was administered as an autonomous province until 1937, when it became a separate British colony, gaining its own independence in 1948.

Contents

1 Geographical extent 2 British India
British India
and the Princely States

2.1 Major provinces 2.2 Minor provinces 2.3 Princely states 2.4 Organization

3 Timeline of major events, legislation, public works 4 1858–1914

4.1 Aftermath of the Rebellion of 1857: Indian critiques, British response 4.2 Demographic history 4.3 Legal modernisation

5 Civilising mission

5.1 Education 5.2 Missions

6 Economic history

6.1 Economic trends

6.1.1 Industry 6.1.2 Railways 6.1.3 Irrigation 6.1.4 Policies

6.2 Economic impact

7 Famines, epidemics, public health 8 1860s–1890s: New middle class, Indian National Congress

8.1 1870s–1907: Social reformers, moderates vs. extremists 8.2 Partition of Bengal
Bengal
(1905–1911) 8.3 1906–1909: Muslim League, Minto-Morley reforms

9 1914–1947

9.1 1914–1918: First World War, Lucknow Pact 9.2 1917–1919: Satyagraha, Montagu-Chelmsford reforms, Jallianwalla Bagh 9.3 1920s: Non-cooperation, Khilafat, Simon Commission, Jinnah's fourteen points 9.4 1929–1937: Round Table conferences, Government of India
India
Act 9.5 1938–1941: World War II, Muslim League's Lahore
Lahore
Resolution 9.6 1942–1945: Cripps mission, Quit India
India
Resolution, INA 9.7 1946: Elections, Cabinet mission, Direct Action Day 9.8 1947: Planning for partition 9.9 1947: Violence, partition, independence

10 Ideological impact 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Bibliography

14.1 Surveys 14.2 Specialised topics 14.3 Economic history 14.4 Historiography and memory

15 Further reading

15.1 Year books and statistical records

Geographical extent[edit]

British India
British India
in 1880

The British Raj
British Raj
extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa
Goa
and Pondicherry.[13] This area is very diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, and the Thar desert.[14] In addition, at various times, it included Aden (from 1858 to 1937),[15] Lower Burma
Lower Burma
(from 1858 to 1937), Upper Burma
Upper Burma
(from 1886 to 1937), British Somaliland
British Somaliland
(briefly from 1884 to 1898), and Singapore
Singapore
(briefly from 1858 to 1867). Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown
British Crown
from 1937 until its independence in 1948. The Trucial States
Trucial States
of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and the states under the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
Residency were theoretically princely states as well as Presidencies and provinces of British India
British India
until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency.[16] Among other countries in the region, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
between 1793 and 1798.[17] The kingdoms of Nepal
Nepal
and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states.[18][19] The Kingdom of Sikkim
Kingdom of Sikkim
was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; however, the issue of sovereignty was left undefined.[20] The Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. British India
British India
and the Princely States[edit] Main articles: Presidencies and provinces of British India, Princely state, and Subdivisions of British India India
India
during the British Raj
British Raj
was made up of two types of territory: British India
British India
and the Native States (or Princely States).[21] In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18:

(4.) The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India
Governor-General of India
or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India. (5.) The expression "India" shall mean British India
British India
together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.[1]

In general, the term "British India" had been used (and is still used) to refer also to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India
India
from 1600 to 1858.[22] The term has also been used to refer to the "British in India".[23] The terms "Indian Empire" and " Empire
Empire
of India" (like the term "British Empire") were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India
Emperor of India
and the term was often used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches. The passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and " Empire
Empire
of India" on the inside.[24] In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised (in the name of the British Crown) by the central government of British India
British India
under the Viceroy; the remaining approximately 500 states were dependents of the provincial governments of British India
British India
under a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or Chief Commissioner (as the case might have been).[25] A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India
British India
rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local; in contrast, the courts of the Princely States existed under the authority of the respective rulers of those states.[25] Major provinces[edit]

Colonial India

Imperial entities of India

Dutch India 1605–1825

Danish India 1620–1869

French India 1668–1954

Portuguese India (1505–1961)

Casa da Índia 1434–1833

Portuguese East India
India
Company 1628–1633

British India (1612–1947)

East India
India
Company 1612–1757

Company rule in India 1757–1858

British Raj 1858–1947

British rule in Burma 1824–1948

Princely states 1721–1949

Partition of India

1947

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Main article: Presidencies and provinces of British India At the turn of the 20th century, British India
British India
consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor.

Areas and populations (excluding the dependent Native States) c. 1907[26]

Province of British India (and present day territories) Total area in km2 (sq mi) Population in 1901 (in millions) Chief administrative officer

Assam (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland) 7011130000000000000♠130,000 (50,000) 6 Chief Commissioner

Bengal (Bangladesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand
Jharkhand
and Odisha) 7011390000000000000♠390,000 (150,000) 75 Lieutenant-Governor

Bombay ( Sindh
Sindh
and parts of Maharashtra, Gujarat
Gujarat
and Karnataka) 7011320000000000000♠320,000 (120,000) 19 Governor-in-Council

Burma (Myanmar) 7011440000000000000♠440,000 (170,000) 9 Lieutenant-Governor

Central Provinces and Berar ( Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and parts of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
and Odisha) 7011270000000000000♠270,000 (100,000) 13 Chief Commissioner

Madras (Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and parts of Kerala, Karnataka, Odisha
Odisha
and Telangana) 7011370000000000000♠370,000 (140,000) 38 Governor-in-Council

Punjab (Punjab Province, Islamabad Capital Territory, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh
Chandigarh
and the National Capital Territory of Delhi) 7011250000000000000♠250,000 (97,000) 20 Lieutenant-Governor

United Provinces ( Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and Uttarakhand) 7011280000000000000♠280,000 (110,000) 48 Lieutenant-Governor

During the partition of Bengal
Bengal
(1905–1913), the new provinces of Assam
Assam
and East Bengal
Bengal
were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal
Bengal
was reunited with Bengal, and the new provinces in the east became: Assam, Bengal, Bihar
Bihar
and Orissa.[26] Minor provinces[edit]

Outline of South Asian history

Palaeolithic (2,500,000–250,000 BC)

Madrasian Culture

Soanian
Soanian
Culture

Neolithic (10,800–3300 BC)

Bhirrana
Bhirrana
Culture (7570–6200 BC)

Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
Culture (7000–3300 BC)

Edakkal Culture (5000–3000 BC)

Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
(3500–1500 BC)

Ahar-Banas Culture (3000–1500 BC)

Pandu Culture (1600–1500 BC)

Malwa Culture (1600–1300 BC)

Jorwe Culture (1400–700 BC)

Bronze Age (3300–1300 BC)

Indus Valley Civilisation (3300–1300 BC)

 – Early Harappan Culture (3300–2600 BC)

 – Mature Harappan Culture (2600–1900 BC)

 – Late Harappan Culture (1900–1300 BC)

Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BC)

 – Ochre Coloured Pottery culture (2000–1600 BC)

 – Swat culture (1600–500 BC)

Iron Age (1500–200 BC)

Vedic Civilisation (1500–500 BC)

 – Janapadas (1500–600 BC)

 – Black and Red ware culture (1300–1000 BC)

 – Painted Grey Ware culture (1200–600 BC)

 – Northern Black Polished Ware (700–200 BC)

Pradyota Dynasty (799–684 BC)

Haryanka Dynasty (684–424 BC)

Three Crowned Kingdoms (c. 600 BC–AD 1600)

Maha Janapadas (c. 600–300 BC)

Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)

Ror Dynasty (450 BC–AD 489)

Shishunaga Dynasty (424–345 BC)

Nanda Empire (380–321 BC)

Macedonian Empire (330–323 BC)

Maurya Empire (321–184 BC)

Seleucid India (312–303 BC)

Pandya Empire (c. 300 BC–AD 1345)

Chera Kingdom (c. 300 BC-AD 1102)

Chola Empire (c. 300 BC–AD 1279)

Pallava Empire (c. 250 BC–AD 800)

Maha-Megha-Vahana Empire (c. 250 BC–c. AD 500)

Parthian Empire (247 BC– AD 224)

Middle Kingdoms (230 BC– AD 1206)

Satavahana Empire (230 BC–AD 220)

Kuninda Kingdom (200 BC–AD 300)

Mitra Dynasty (c. 150 –c. 50 BC)

Shunga Empire (185–73 BC)

Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BC–AD 10)

Kanva Empire (75–26 BC)

Indo-Scythian Kingdom (50 BC–AD 400)

Indo-Parthian Kingdom (AD 21–c. 130)

Western Satrap Empire (AD 35–405 )

Kushan Empire (AD 60–240)

Bharshiva Dynasty (170–350)

Nagas of Padmavati (210–340)

Sasanian Empire (224–651)

Indo-Sassanid Kingdom (230–360)

Vakataka Empire (c. 250–c. 500)

Kalabhras Empire (c. 250–c. 600)

Gupta Empire (280–550)

Kadamba Empire (345–525)

Western Ganga Kingdom (350–1000)

Kamarupa
Kamarupa
Kingdom (350–1100)

Vishnukundina
Vishnukundina
Empire (420–624)

Maitraka
Maitraka
Empire (475–767)

Huna Kingdom (475–576)

Rai Kingdom (489–632)

Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
Empire (c. 500–1026)

Chalukya Empire (543–753)

Maukhari
Maukhari
Empire (c. 550–c. 700)

Harsha Empire (606–647)

Tibetan Empire (618–841)

Eastern Chalukya Kingdom (624–1075)

Rashidun Caliphate (632–661)

Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
Empire (650–1036)

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)

Pala Empire (750–1174)

Rashtrakuta Empire (753–982)

Paramara Kingdom (800–1327)

Yadava Empire (850–1334)

Chaulukya Kingdom (942–1244)

Western Chalukya Empire (973–1189)

Lohara Kingdom (1003–1320)

Hoysala Empire (1040–1346)

Sena Empire (1070–1230)

Eastern Ganga Empire (1078–1434)

Kakatiya Kingdom (1083–1323)

Zamorin Kingdom (1102–1766)

Kalachuris of Tripuri (675-1210)

Kalachuris of Kalyani (1156–1184)

Chutiya Kingdom (1187–1673)

Deva Kingdom (c. 1200–c. 1300)

Late medieval period (1206–1526)

Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate (1206–1526)

 – Mamluk Sultanate (1206–1290)

 – Khalji Sultanate (1290–1320)

 – Tughlaq Sultanate (1320–1414)

 – Sayyid Sultanate (1414–1451)

 – Lodi Sultanate (1451–1526)

Ahom Kingdom (1228–1826)

Chitradurga Kingdom (1300–1779)

Reddy Kingdom (1325–1448)

Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646)

Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate (1352–1576)

Garhwal Kingdom (1358–1803)

Mysore Kingdom (1399–1947)

Gajapati Kingdom (1434–1541)

Deccan Sultanates (1490–1596)

 – Ahmadnagar Sultanate (1490–1636)

 – Berar Sultanate (1490–1574)

 – Bidar Sultanate (1492–1619)

 – Bijapur Sultanate (1492–1686)

 – Golkonda Sultanate (1518–1687)

Keladi Kingdom (1499–1763)

Koch Kingdom (1515–1947)

Early modern period
Early modern period
(1526–1858)

Mughal Empire (1526–1858)

Sur Empire (1540–1556)

Madurai
Madurai
Kingdom (1559–1736)

Thanjavur Kingdom (1572–1918)

Bengal
Bengal
Subah (1576–1757)

Marava Kingdom (1600–1750)

Thondaiman Kingdom (1650–1948)

Maratha Empire (1674–1818)

Sikh Confederacy (1707–1799)

Travancore
Travancore
Kingdom (1729–1947)

Sikh Empire (1799–1849)

Colonial states (1510–1961)

Portuguese India (1510–1961)

Dutch India (1605–1825)

Danish India (1620–1869)

French India (1759–1954)

Company Raj (1757–1858)

British Raj (1858–1947)

Periods of Sri Lanka

Prehistory (Until 543 BC)

Early kingdoms period (543 BC–377 BC)

Anuradhapura period (377 BC–AD 1017)

Polonnaruwa period (1056–1232)

Transitional period (1232–1505)

Crisis of the Sixteenth Century (1505–1594)

Kandyan period (1594–1815)

British Ceylon (1815–1948)

Contemporary Sri Lanka (1948–present)

National histories

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka

Regional histories

Assam Balochistan Bengal Bihar Gujarat Himachal Pradesh Kabul Kashmir Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Rajasthan Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Punjab Odisha Sindh South India Tamil Nadu Tibet

Specialised histories

Agriculture Architecture Coinage Demographics Dynasties Economy Education Indology Influence on Southeast Asia Language Literature Maritime Metallurgy Military Partition of India Pakistan
Pakistan
studies Philosophy Religion Science & Technology Timeline

v t e

In addition, there were a few minor provinces that were administered by a Chief Commissioner:[27]

Minor province of British India (and present day territories) Total area in km2 (sq mi) Population in 1901 (in thousands) Chief administrative officer

Ajmer-Merwara (parts of Rajasthan) 7009700000000000000♠7,000 (2,700) 477 ex officio Chief Commissioner

Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Andaman and Nicobar Islands) 7010780000000000000♠78,000 (30,000) 25 Chief Commissioner

British Baluchistan (Balochistan) 7011120000000000000♠120,000 (46,000) 308 ex officio Chief Commissioner

Coorg (Kodagu district) 7009410000000000000♠4,100 (1,600) 181 ex officio Chief Commissioner

North West Frontier Province (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) 7010410000000000000♠41,000 (16,000) 2,125 Chief Commissioner

Princely states[edit] Main article: Princely state

1909 Map of the British Indian Empire, showing British India
British India
in two shades of pink and the princely states in yellow.

A Princely State, also called a Native State or an Indian State, was a British vassal state in India
India
with an indigenous nominal Indian ruler, subject to a subsidiary alliance.[28] There were 565 princely states when India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
became independent from Britain in August 1947. The princely states did not form a part of British India
British India
(i.e. the presidencies and provinces), as they were not directly under British rule. The larger ones had treaties with Britain that specified which rights the princes had; in the smaller ones the princes had few rights. Within the princely states external affairs, defence and most communications were under British control.[29] The British also exercised a general influence over the states' internal politics, in part through the granting or withholding of recognition of individual rulers. Although there were nearly 600 princely states, the great majority were very small and contracted out the business of government to the British. Some two hundred of the states had an area of less than 25 square kilometres (10 square miles).[28] The states were grouped into Agencies and Residencies. Organization[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Pakistan

Timeline

Ancient

Palaeolithic

Soanian
Soanian
Culture, c. 500,000 – 250,000 BCE

Neolithic

Mehrgarh, c. 7000 – c. 3000 BCE

Indus Valley Civilisation, c. 3300 – c. 1700 BCE Vedic Civilization, c. 1500 – c. 500 BCE Achaemenid Empire, c. 550 – c. 330 BCE

Gedrosia, c. 542 – c. 330 BCE Gandhara, c. 518 – c. 330 BCE Arachosia, c. 518 – c. 330 BCE Hindush, c. 517 – c. 330 BCE Sattagydia, c. 516 – c. 330 BCE

Ror Dynasty, c. 489 – c. 450 BCE Macedonian Empire, c. 329 – c. 323 BCE

Arachosia, c. 323 – c. 312 BCE Gedrosia, c. 323 – c. 312 BCE Paropamisadae, c. 323 – c. 312 BCE Porus, c. 323 – c. 312 BCE Taxiles, c. 323 – c. 312 BCE

Mauryan Empire, c. 322 – c. 200 BCE Seleucid Empire, c. 312 – c. 63 BCE Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, c. 190 – c. 140 BCE Indo-Greek Kingdom, c. 170 – c. 50 BCE Indo-Scythian Kingdom, c. 110 BCE – c. 95 CE

Apracharajas, c. 25 BCE – c. 50 CE Paratarajas, c. 120 – c. 300 CE

Classical

Parthian Empire, c. 90 BCE – c. 25 CE

Indo-Parthian Kingdom, c. 25 – c. 80 CE

Kushan Empire, c. 60 – 345 CE Sasanian Empire, c. 250 – 655 CE Indo-Sasanians, c. 240 – 410 CE

Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom, c. 240 – 410 CE

Gupta Empire, c. 345 – c. 455 CE Rai Dynasty, c. 415 – 644 CE Hephthalite Empire, c. 450 – 560 CE

Brahman Dynasty, c. 641 – 725 CE

Medieval

Caliphate, c. 643 – 860 CE

Rashidun Caliphate, c. 643 – 661 CE Umayyad Caliphate, c. 670 – 860 CE

Pala Empire, c. 770 – 850 CE Habbari Dynasty, c. 841 – 1024 CE Kabul Shahi, c. 870 – 1010 CE Samanid Empire, c. 905 – 999 CE Ghaznavids, c. 999 – 1186 CE Soomra Dynasty, c. 1024 – 1351 CE Ghurid Dynasty, c. 1170 – 1215 CE Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, c. 1206 – c. 1526 CE

Mamluk Dynasty, c. 1206 – c. 1290 CE Khalji Dynasty, c. 1290 – c. 1320 CE Tugluq Dynasty, c. 1320 – c. 1413 CE Sayyid Dynasty, c. 1414 – c. 1451 CE Lodhi Dynasty, c. 1451 – c. 1526 CE

Mongol Empire, c. 1221 – c. 1327 CE

Chagatai Khanate, c. 1225 – c. 1485 CE Ilkhanate, c. 1256 – c. 1353 CE Raees Dynasty, c. 1320 – 1620 CE Katoor Dynasty, c. 1570 – c. 1947 CE

Samma Dynasty, c. 1351 – c. 1524 CE Arghun Dynasty, c. 1520 – c. 1554 CE Mughal Empire, c. 1526 – c. 1707 CE Bombay
Bombay
Presidency, c. 1618 – c. 1947 CE Suri Dynasty, c. 1540 – c. 1556 CE Tarkhan Dynasty, c. 1554 – 1591 CE

Early modern

Durrani Empire, c. 1747 – c. 1826 CE

Las Bela, c. 1802 – c. 1947 CE

Misl, c. 1716 – c. 1799 CE Maratha Empire, c. 1758 – c. 1760 CE Sikh Empire, c. 1799 – c. 1849 CE British Raj, c. 1858 – c. 1947 CE

Independence Movement

Modern

Pakistan, c. 1947 CE – present

Dominion
Dominion
of Pakistan, c. 1947 – 1956 CE Islamic Republic, c. 1956 CE – present

History of provinces

Azad Kashmir Balochistan East Pakistan Gilgit-Baltistan Islamabad Capital Territory Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Punjab Sindh

Category Portal

v t e

Sir Charles Wood (1800–1885) was President of the Board of Control of the East India
India
Company from 1852 to 1855; he shaped British education policy in India, and was Secretary of State for India 1859–66. 

Lord Canning, the last Governor-General of India
Governor-General of India
under Company rule and the first Viceroy
Viceroy
of India
India
under Crown rule. 

Lord Salisbury was Secretary of State for India
Secretary of State for India
1874–78. 

Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
(usually called the Indian Mutiny by the British), the Government of India Act 1858
Government of India Act 1858
made changes in the governance of India
India
at three levels:

in the imperial government in London, in the central government in Calcutta, and in the provincial governments in the presidencies (and later in the provinces).[30]

In London, it provided for a cabinet-level Secretary of State for India
India
and a fifteen-member Council of India, whose members were required, as one prerequisite of membership, to have spent at least ten years in India
India
and to have done so no more than ten years before.[31] Although the Secretary of State formulated the policy instructions to be communicated to India, he was required in most instances to consult the Council, but especially so in matters relating to spending of Indian revenues. The Act envisaged a system of "double government" in which the Council ideally served both as a check on excesses in imperial policy making and as a body of up-to-date expertise on India. However, the Secretary of State also had special emergency powers that allowed him to make unilateral decisions, and, in reality, the Council's expertise was sometimes outdated.[32] From 1858 until 1947, twenty seven individuals served as Secretary of State for India
Secretary of State for India
and directed the India
India
Office; these included: Sir Charles Wood (1859–1866), Marquess of Salisbury (1874–1878; later Prime Minister of Britain), John Morley (1905–1910; initiator of the Minto-Morley Reforms), E. S. Montagu (1917–1922; an architect of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms), and Frederick Pethick-Lawrence
Frederick Pethick-Lawrence
(1945–1947; head of the 1946 Cabinet Mission to India). The size of the advisory Council was reduced over the next half-century, but its powers remained unchanged. In 1907, for the first time, two Indians were appointed to the Council.[33] They were K.G. Gupta
K.G. Gupta
and Syed Hussain Bilgrami. In Calcutta, the Governor-General remained head of the Government of India
India
and now was more commonly called the Viceroy
Viceroy
on account of his secondary role as the Crown's representative to the nominally sovereign princely states; he was, however, now responsible to the Secretary of State in London
London
and through him to Parliament. A system of "double government" had already been in place during the Company's rule in India
India
from the time of Pitt's India
India
Act of 1784. The Governor-General in the capital, Calcutta, and the Governor in a subordinate presidency ( Madras
Madras
or Bombay) was each required to consult his advisory council; executive orders in Calcutta, for example, were issued in the name of "Governor-General-in-Council" (i.e. the Governor-General with the advice of the Council). The Company's system of "double government" had its critics, since, from the time of the system's inception, there had been intermittent feuding between the Governor-General and his Council; still, the Act of 1858 made no major changes in governance.[34] However, in the years immediately thereafter, which were also the years of post-rebellion reconstruction, Viceroy
Viceroy
Lord Canning
Lord Canning
found the collective decision making of the Council to be too time-consuming for the pressing tasks ahead, so he requested the "portfolio system" of an Executive Council in which the business of each government department (the "portfolio") was assigned to and became the responsibility of a single council member.[33] Routine departmental decisions were made exclusively by the member, but important decisions required the consent of the Governor-General and, in the absence of such consent, required discussion by the entire Executive Council. This innovation in Indian governance was promulgated in the Indian Councils Act 1861. If the Government of India
India
needed to enact new laws, the Councils Act allowed for a Legislative Council—an expansion of the Executive Council by up to twelve additional members, each appointed to a two-year term—with half the members consisting of British officials of the government (termed official) and allowed to vote, and the other half, comprising Indians and domiciled Britons in India
India
(termed non-official) and serving only in an advisory capacity.[35] All laws enacted by Legislative Councils in India, whether by the Imperial Legislative Council in Calcutta
Calcutta
or by the provincial ones in Madras and Bombay, required the final assent of the Secretary of State in London; this prompted Sir Charles Wood, the second Secretary of State, to describe the Government of India
India
as "a despotism controlled from home".[33] Moreover, although the appointment of Indians to the Legislative Council was a response to calls after the 1857 rebellion, most notably by Sayyid Ahmad Khan, for more consultation with Indians, the Indians so appointed were from the landed aristocracy, often chosen for their loyalty, and far from representative.[36] Even so, the "... tiny advances in the practice of representative government were intended to provide safety valves for the expression of public opinion, which had been so badly misjudged before the rebellion".[37] Indian affairs now also came to be more closely examined in the British Parliament and more widely discussed in the British press.[38] With the promulgation of the Government of India
India
Act 1935, the Council of India
India
was abolished with effect from 1 April 1937 and a modified system of government enacted. The Secretary of State for India represented the Government of India
India
in the UK. He was assisted by a body of advisers numbering from 8–12 individuals, at least half of whom were required to have held office in India
India
for a minimum of 10 years, and had not relinquished office earlier than two years prior to their appointment as advisers to the Secretary of State.[39] The Viceroy
Viceroy
and Governor-General of India, a Crown appointee, typically held office for five years though there was no fixed tenure, and received an annual salary of Rs. 250,800 p.a. (£18,810 p.a.).[39][40] He headed the Viceroy's Executive Council, each member of which had responsibility for a department of the central administration. From 1 April 1937, the position of Governor-General in Council, which the Viceroy
Viceroy
and Governor-General concurrently held in the capacity of representing the Crown in relations with the Indian princely states, was replaced by the designation of "HM Representative for the Exercise of the Functions of the Crown in its Relations with the Indian States," or the "Crown Representative." The Executive Council was greatly expanded during the Second World War, and in 1947 comprised 14 Members (Secretaries), each of whom earned a salary of Rs. 66,000 p.a. (£4950 p.a.). The portfolios in 1946–1947 were:

External Affairs and Commonwealth Relations Home and Information and Broadcasting Food and transportation Transport and Railways Labour Industries and Supplies, Works, Mines and Power Education Defence Finance Commerce Communications Health Law

Until 1946, the Viceroy
Viceroy
held the portfolio for External Affairs and Commonwealth Relations, as well as heading the Political Department in his capacity as the Crown Representative. Each department was headed by a Secretary excepting the Railway Department, which was headed by a Chief Commissioner of Railways under a Secretary.[41] The Viceroy
Viceroy
and Governor-General was also the head of the bicameral Indian Legislature, consisting of an upper house (the Council of State) and a lower house (the Legislative Assembly). The Viceroy
Viceroy
was the head of the Council of State, while the Legislative Assembly, which was first opened in 1921, was headed by an elected President (appointed by the Viceroy
Viceroy
from 1921–1925). The Council of State consisted of 58 members (32 elected, 26 nominated), while the Legislative Assembly comprised 141 members (26 nominated officials, 13 others nominated and 102 elected). The Council of State existed in five-year periods and the Legislative Assembly for three-year periods, though either could be dissolved earlier or later by the Viceroy. The Indian Legislature was empowered to make laws for all persons resident in British India
British India
including all British subjects resident in India, and for all British Indian subjects residing outside India. With the assent of the King-Emperor and after copies of a proposed enactment had been submitted to both houses of the British Parliament, the Viceroy
Viceroy
could overrule the legislature and directly enact any measures in the perceived interests of British India
British India
or its residents if the need arose.[42] Effective from 1 April 1936, the Government of India
India
Act created the new provinces of Sind (separated from the Bombay
Bombay
Presidency) and Orissa (separated from the Province of Bihar
Bihar
and Orissa). Burma and Aden became separate Crown Colonies under the Act from 1 April 1937, thereby ceasing to be part of the Indian Empire. From 1937 onwards, British India
British India
was divided into 17 administrations: the three Presidencies of Madras, Bombay
Bombay
and Bengal, and the 14 provinces of the United Provinces, Punjab, Bihar, the Central Provinces and Berar, Assam, the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), Orissa, Sind, British Baluchistan, Delhi, Ajmer-Merwara, Coorg, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Panth Piploda. The Presidencies and the first eight provinces were each under a Governor, while the latter six provinces were each under a Chief Commissioner. The Viceroy
Viceroy
directly governed the Chief Commissioner provinces through each respective Chief Commissioner, while the Presidencies and the provinces under Governors were allowed greater autonomy under the Government of India Act.[43][44] Each Presidency or province headed by a Governor had either a provincial bicameral legislature (in the Presidencies, the United Provinces, Bihar
Bihar
and Assam) or a unicameral legislature (in the Punjab, Central Provinces and Berar, NWFP, Orissa and Sind). The Governor of each presidency or province represented the Crown in his capacity, and was assisted by a ministers appointed from the members of each provincial legislature. Each provincial legislature had a life of five years, barring any special circumstances such as wartime conditions. All bills passed by the provincial legislature were either signed or rejected by the Governor, who could also issue proclamations or promulgate ordinances while the legislature was in recess, as the need arose.[44] Each province or presidency comprised a number of divisions, each headed by a Commissioner and subdivided into districts, which were the basic administrative units and each headed by a Collector and Magistrate or Deputy Commissioner; in 1947, British India
British India
comprised 230 districts.[44] Timeline of major events, legislation, public works[edit]

The reigning British monarchs during the period of the British Raj, 1858–1947, in silver one rupee coins.

Two silver one rupee coins used in India
India
during the British Raj, showing Victoria, Queen, 1862 (left) and Victoria, Empress, 1886 (right) 

Silver one rupee coins showing Edward VII, King-Emperor, 1903 (left) and 1908 (right) 

Silver one rupee coins used in India
India
during the British Raj, showing George V, King-Emperor, 1913 (left) and 1919 (right) 

One rupee coins showing George VI, King-Emperor, 1940 (left) and just before India's independence in 1947 (right).[a] 

Period Major Events, Legislation, Public Works Presiding Viceroy

1 November 1858 – 21 March 1862 1858 reorganisation of British Indian Army
British Indian Army
(contemporaneously and hereafter Indian Army) Construction begins (1860): University of Bombay, University of Madras, and University of Calcutta Indian Penal Code passed into law in 1860. Upper Doab famine of 1860–1861 Indian Councils Act 1861 Establishment of Archaeological Survey of India
India
in 1861 James Wilson, financial member of Council of India
India
reorganises customs, imposes income tax, creates paper currency. Indian Police Act of 1861, creation of Imperial Police
Imperial Police
later known as Indian Police Service. The Viscount Canning[45]

21 March 1862–20 November 1863 Vicerory dies prematurely in Dharamsala The Earl of Elgin

12 January 1864 – 12 January 1869 Anglo- Bhutan
Bhutan
Duar War
Duar War
(1864–1865) Orissa famine of 1866 Rajputana famine of 1869 Creation of Department of Irrigation. Creation of Imperial Forestry Service
Imperial Forestry Service
in 1867 (now Indian Forest Service). " Nicobar Islands
Nicobar Islands
annexed and incorporated into India
India
1869" Sir John Lawrence, Bt[46]

12 January 1869 – 8 February 1872 Creation of Department of Agriculture (now Ministry of Agriculture) Major extension of railways, roads, and canals Indian Councils Act of 1870 Creation of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
as a Chief Commissionership (1872). Assassination of Lord Mayo in the Andamans. The Earl of Mayo[47]

3 May 1872 – 12 April 1876 Mortalities in Bihar
Bihar
famine of 1873–74 prevented by importation of rice from Burma. Gaikwad of Baroda dethroned for misgovernment; dominions continued to a child ruler. Indian Councils Act of 1874 Visit of the Prince of Wales, future Edward VII
Edward VII
in 1875–76. The Lord Northbrook[47]

12 April 1876 – 8 June 1880 Baluchistan established as a Chief Commissionership Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
(in absentia) proclaimed Empress of India
India
at Delhi Durbar of 1877. Great Famine of 1876–78: 5.25 million dead; reduced relief offered at expense of Rs. 80 million. Creation of Famine Commission of 1878–80 under Sir Richard Strachey. Indian Forest Act of 1878 Second Anglo-Afghan War. The Lord Lytton

8 June 1880 – 13 December 1884 End of Second Anglo-Afghan War. Repeal of Vernacular Press Act of 1878. Compromise on the Ilbert Bill. Local Government Acts extend self-government from towns to country. University of Punjab
University of Punjab
established in Lahore
Lahore
in 1882 Famine Code promulgated in 1883 by the Government of India. Creation of the Education Commission. Creation of indigenous schools, especially for Muslims. Repeal of import duties on cotton and of most tariffs. Railway extension. The Marquess of Ripon[48]

13 December 1884 – 10 December 1888 Passage of Bengal
Bengal
Tenancy Bill Third Anglo-Burmese War. Joint Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission appointed for the Afghan frontier. Russian attack on Afghans at Panjdeh
Panjdeh
(1885). The Great Game in full play. Report of Public Services Commission of 1886–87, creation of Imperial Civil Service (later Indian Civil Service
Indian Civil Service
(ICS), and today Indian Administrative Service) University of Allahabad
University of Allahabad
established in 1887 Queen Victoria's Jubilee, 1887. The Earl of Dufferin[49][50]

10 December 1888 – 11 October 1894 Strengthening of NW Frontier defence. Creation of Imperial Service Troops consisting of regiments contributed by the princely states. Gilgit Agency
Gilgit Agency
leased in 1899 British Parliament passes Indian Councils Act 1892, opening the Imperial Legislative Council
Imperial Legislative Council
to Indians. Revolution in princely state of Manipur
Manipur
and subsequent reinstatement of ruler. High point of The Great Game. Establishment of the Durand Line
Durand Line
between British India
British India
and Afghanistan, Railways, roads, and irrigation works begun in Burma. Border between Burma and Siam
Siam
finalised in 1893. Fall of the Rupee, resulting from the steady depreciation of silver currency worldwide (1873–93). Indian Prisons Act of 1894 The Marquess of Lansdowne[51]

11 October 1894 – 6 January 1899 Reorganisation of Indian Army (from Presidency System to the four Commands). Pamir agreement Russia, 1895 The Chitral Campaign (1895), the Tirah Campaign
Tirah Campaign
(1896–97) Indian famine of 1896–97
Indian famine of 1896–97
beginning in Bundelkhand. Bubonic plague
Bubonic plague
in Bombay
Bombay
(1896), Bubonic plague
Bubonic plague
in Calcutta
Calcutta
(1898); riots in wake of plague prevention measures. Establishment of Provincial Legislative Councils in Burma and Punjab; the former a new Lieutenant Governorship. The Earl of Elgin

6 January 1899 – 18 November 1905 Creation of the North West Frontier Province under a Chief Commissioner (1901). Indian famine of 1899–1900. Return of the bubonic plague, 1 million deaths Financial Reform Act of 1899; Gold Reserve Fund created for India. Punjab Land Alienation Act Inauguration of Department (now Ministry) of Commerce and Industry. Death of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
(1901); dedication of the Victoria Memorial Hall, Calcutta
Calcutta
as a national gallery of Indian antiquities, art, and history. Coronation Durbar in Delhi
Delhi
(1903); Edward VII
Edward VII
(in absentia) proclaimed Emperor of India. Francis Younghusband's British expedition to Tibet
British expedition to Tibet
(1903–04) North-Western Provinces
North-Western Provinces
(previously Ceded and Conquered Provinces) and Oudh renamed United Provinces in 1904 Reorganisation of Indian Universities Act (1904). Systemisation of preservation and restoration of ancient monuments by Archaeological Survey of India
India
with Indian Ancient Monument Preservation Act. Inauguration of agricultural banking with Cooperative Credit Societies Act of 1904 Partition of Bengal; new province of East Bengal
Bengal
and Assam
Assam
under a Lieutenant-Governor. Census of 1901 gives the total population at 294 million, including 62 million in the princely states and 232 million in British India.[52] About 170,000 are Europeans. 15 million men and 1 million women are literate. Of those school-aged, 25% of the boys and 3% of the girls attend. There are 207 million Hindus, and 63x million Muslims, along with 9 million Buddhists (in Burma), 3 million Christians, 2 million Sikhs, 1 million Jains, and 8.4 million who practise animism.[53] The Lord Curzon
Lord Curzon
of Kedleston[54][55]

18 November 1905 – 23 November 1910 Creation of the Railway Board Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 Indian Councils Act 1909
Indian Councils Act 1909
(also Minto-Morley Reforms) Appointment of Indian Factories Commission in 1909. Establishment of Department of Education in 1910 (now Ministry of Education) The Earl of Minto[56]

23 November 1910 – 4 April 1916 Visit of King George V
George V
and Queen Mary in 1911: commemoration as Emperor and Empress of India
India
at last Delhi
Delhi
Durbar King George V
George V
announces creation of new city of New Delhi
New Delhi
to replace Calcutta
Calcutta
as capital of India. Indian High Courts Act of 1911 Indian Factories Act of 1911 Construction of New Delhi, 1912–1929 World War I, Indian Army in: Western Front, Belgium, 1914; German East Africa (Battle of Tanga, 1914); Mesopotamian Campaign
Mesopotamian Campaign
(Battle of Ctesiphon, 1915; Siege of Kut, 1915–16); Battle of Galliopoli, 1915–16 Passage of Defence of India
India
Act 1915 The Lord Hardinge of Penshurst

4 April 1916 – 2 April 1921 Indian Army in: Mesopotamian Campaign
Mesopotamian Campaign
(Fall of Baghdad, 1917); Sinai and Palestine Campaign (Battle of Megiddo, 1918) Passage of Rowlatt Act, 1919 Government of India
India
Act 1919 (also Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms) Jallianwala Bagh
Jallianwala Bagh
Massacre, 1919 Third Anglo-Afghan War, 1919 University of Rangoon
University of Rangoon
established in 1920. The Lord Chelmsford

2 April 1921 – 3 April 1926 University of Delhi
University of Delhi
established in 1922. Indian Workers Compensation Act of 1923 The Earl of Reading

3 April 1926 – 18 April 1931 Indian Trade Unions Act of 1926, Indian Forest Act, 1927 Appointment of Royal Commission of Indian Labour, 1929 Indian Constitutional Round Table Conferences, London, 1930–32, Gandhi-Irwin Pact, 1931. The Lord Irwin

18 April 1931 – 18 April 1936 New Delhi
New Delhi
inaugurated as capital of India, 1931. Indian Workmen's Compensation Act of 1933 Indian Factories Act of 1934 Royal Indian Air Force
Royal Indian Air Force
created in 1932. Indian Military Academy
Indian Military Academy
established in 1932. Government of India
India
Act 1935 Creation of Reserve Bank of India The Earl of Willingdon

18 April 1936 – 1 October 1943 Indian Payment of Wages Act of 1936 Burma administered independently after 1937 with creation of new cabinet position Secretary of State for India
Secretary of State for India
and Burma, and with the Burma Office separated off from the India
India
Office Indian Provincial Elections of 1937 Cripps' mission to India, 1942. Indian Army in Mediterranean, Middle East and African theatres of World War II
World War II
(North African campaign): (Operation Compass, Operation Crusader, First Battle of El Alamein, Second Battle of El Alamein. East African campaign, 1940, Anglo-Iraqi War, 1941, Syria-Lebanon campaign, 1941, Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, 1941) Indian Army in Battle of Hong Kong, Battle of Malaya, Battle of Singapore Burma Campaign
Burma Campaign
of World War II
World War II
begins in 1942. The Marquess of Linlithgow

1 October 1943 – 21 February 1947 Indian Army becomes, at 2.5 million men, the largest all-volunteer force in history. World War II: Burma Campaign, 1943–45 (Battle of Kohima, Battle of Imphal) Bengal
Bengal
famine of 1943 Indian Army in Italian campaign (Battle of Monte Cassino) British Labour Party
British Labour Party
wins UK General Election of 1945 with Clement Attlee as prime minister. 1946 Cabinet Mission to India Indian Elections of 1946. The Viscount Wavell

21 February 1947 – 15 August 1947 Indian Independence Act 1947
Indian Independence Act 1947
of the British Parliament enacted on 18 July 1947. Radcliffe Award, August 1947 Partition of India India
India
Office and position of Secretary of State for India
Secretary of State for India
abolished; ministerial responsibility within the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
for British relations with India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
is transferred to the Commonwealth Relations Office. The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma

1858–1914[edit] Main article: History of the British Raj Aftermath of the Rebellion of 1857: Indian critiques, British response[edit]

Lakshmibai, The Rani of Jhansi, one of the principal leaders of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, who earlier had lost her kingdom as a result of Lord Dalhousie's Doctrine of Lapse.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
founder of the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College, later the Aligarh Muslim University, wrote one of the early critiques, The Causes of the Indian Mutiny.

An 1887 souvenir portrait of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
as Empress of India, 30 years after the war.

Although the rebellion had shaken the British enterprise in India, it had not derailed it. After the war, the British became more circumspect. Much thought was devoted to the causes of the rebellion, and from it three main lessons were drawn. At a more practical level, it was felt that there needed to be more communication and camaraderie between the British and Indians—not just between British army officers and their Indian staff but in civilian life as well.[57] The Indian army was completely reorganised: units composed of the Muslims and Brahmins of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, who had formed the core of the rebellion, were disbanded. New regiments, like the Sikhs
Sikhs
and Baluchis, composed of Indians who, in British estimation, had demonstrated steadfastness, were formed. From then on, the Indian army was to remain unchanged in its organisation until 1947.[58] The 1861 Census had revealed that the English population in India
India
was 125,945. Of these only about 41,862 were civilians as compared with about 84,083 European officers and men of the Army.[59] In 1880, the standing Indian Army consisted of 66,000 British soldiers, 130,000 Natives, and 350,000 soldiers in the princely armies.[60]

Viceroy
Viceroy
Lord Canning
Lord Canning
meets Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranbir Singh
Ranbir Singh
of Jammu & Kashmir, 9 March 1860.

It was also felt that both the princes and the large land-holders, by not joining the rebellion, had proved to be, in Lord Canning's words, "breakwaters in a storm".[57] They too were rewarded in the new British Raj
British Raj
by being officially recognised in the treaties each state now signed with the Crown.[61][not in citation given] At the same time, it was felt that the peasants, for whose benefit the large land-reforms of the United Provinces had been undertaken, had shown disloyalty, by, in many cases, fighting for their former landlords against the British. Consequently, no more land reforms were implemented for the next 90 years: Bengal
Bengal
and Bihar
Bihar
were to remain the realms of large land holdings (unlike the Punjab and Uttar Pradesh).[62] Lastly, the British felt disenchanted with Indian reaction to social change. Until the rebellion, they had enthusiastically pushed through social reform, like the ban on sati by Lord William Bentinck.[63] It was now felt that traditions and customs in India
India
were too strong and too rigid to be changed easily; consequently, no more British social interventions were made, especially in matters dealing with religion,[61] even when the British felt very strongly about the issue (as in the instance of the remarriage of Hindu child widows).[64] This was exemplified further in Queen Victoria's Proclamation released immediately after the rebellion. The proclamation stated that 'We disclaim alike our Right and Desire to impose Our Convictions on any of Our Subjects';[65] demonstrating official British commitment to abstaining from social intervention in India. Demographic history[edit] Main articles: Demography of India, Demographics of Burma, Demographics of Pakistan, and Demographics of Bangladesh The population of the territory that became the British Raj
British Raj
was 100 million by 1600 and remained nearly stationary until the 19th century. The population of the Raj reached 255 million according to the first census taken in 1881 of India.[66][67][68][69] Studies of India's population since 1881 have focused on such topics as total population, birth and death rates, growth rates, geographic distribution, literacy, the rural and urban divide, cities of a million, and the three cities with populations over eight million: Delhi, Greater Bombay, and Calcutta.[70] Mortality rates fell in 1920–45 era, primarily due to biological immunisation. Other factors included rising incomes and better living conditions, improved better nutrition, a safer and cleaner environment, and better official health policies and medical care.[71] Severe overcrowding in the cities caused major public health problems, as noted in an official report from 1938:[72]

In the urban and industrial areas ... cramped sites, the high values of land and the necessity for the worker to live in the vicinity of his work ... all tend to intensify congestion and overcrowding. In the busiest centres houses are built close together, eave touching eave, and frequently back to back .... Space is so valuable that, in place of streets and roads, winding lanes provide the only approach to the houses. Neglect of sanitation is often evidenced by heaps of rotting garbage and pools of sewage, whilst the absence of latrines enhance the general pollution of air and soil.

Legal modernisation[edit]

Elephant Carriage of the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Rewa, Delhi Durbar
Delhi Durbar
of 1903.

Singha argues that after 1857 the colonial government strengthened and expanded its infrastructure via the court system, legal procedures, and statutes. New legislation merged the Crown and the old East India Company courts and introduced a new penal code as well as new codes of civil and criminal procedure, based largely on English law. In the 1860s–1880s the Raj set up compulsory registration of births, deaths, and marriages, as well as adoptions, property deeds, and wills. The goal was to create a stable, usable public record and verifiable identities. However, there was opposition from both Muslim and Hindu elements who complained that the new procedures for census-taking and registration threatened to uncover female privacy. Purdah
Purdah
rules prohibited women from saying their husband's name or having their photograph taken. An all- India
India
census was conducted between 1868 and 1871, often using total numbers of females in a household rather than individual names. Select groups which the Raj reformers wanted to monitor statistically included those reputed to practice female infanticide, prostitutes, lepers, and eunuchs.[73] Murshid argues that women were in some ways more restricted by the modernisation of the laws. They remained tied to the strictures of their religion, caste, and customs, but now with an overlay of British Victorian attitudes. Their inheritance rights to own and manage property were curtailed; the new English laws were somewhat harsher. Court rulings restricted the rights of second wives and their children regarding inheritance. A woman had to belong to either a father or a husband to have any rights.[74] Civilising mission[edit]

University of Lucknow
University of Lucknow
founded by the British in 1867 in India

Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800–1859) presented his Whiggish interpretation of English history as an upward progression always leading to more liberty and more progress. Macaulay simultaneously was a leading reformer involved in transforming the educational system of India. He would base it on the English language
English language
so that India
India
could join the mother country in a steady upward progress. Macaulay took Burke's emphasis on moral rule and implemented it in actual school reforms, giving the British Empire
Empire
a profound moral mission to civilise the natives. Yale professor Karuna Mantena has argued that the civilising mission did not last long, for she says that benevolent reformers were the losers in key debates, such as those following the 1857 rebellion in India, and the scandal of Governor Edward Eyre's brutal repression of the Morant Bay rebellion
Morant Bay rebellion
in Jamaica in 1865. The rhetoric continued but it became an alibi for British misrule and racism. No longer was it believed that the natives could truly make progress, instead they had to be ruled by heavy hand, with democratic opportunities postponed indefinitely. As a result:

The central tenets of liberal imperialism were challenged as various forms of rebellion, resistance and instability in the colonies precipitated a broad-ranging reassessment....the equation of 'good government' with the reform of native society, which was at the core of the discourse of liberal empire, would be subject to mounting skepticism.[75]

English historian Peter Cain, has challenged Mantena, arguing that the imperialists truly believed that British rule would bring to the subjects the benefits of ‘ordered liberty’, thereby Britain could fulfil its moral duty and achieve its own greatness. Much of the debate took place in Britain itself, and the imperialists worked hard to convince the general population that the civilising mission was well under-way. This campaign served to strengthen imperial support at home, and thus, says Cain, to bolster the moral authority of the gentlemanly elites who ran the Empire.[76] Education[edit] Main article: History of education in the Indian subcontinent § Colonial Era

The University of Calcutta, established 1857, is one of the three oldest modern state universities in India.

The British made widespread education in English a high priority.[77] During the time of the East India
India
Company, Thomas Babington Macaulay had made schooling taught in English a priority for the Raj in his famous minute of February 1835 and succeeded in implementing ideas previously put forward by Lord William Bentinck
Lord William Bentinck
(the governor general between 1828 and 1835). Bentinck favoured the replacement of Persian by English as the official language, the use of English as the medium of instruction, and the training of English-speaking Indians as teachers. He was inspired by utilitarian ideas and called for "useful learning." However, Bentinck's proposals were rejected by London officials.[78][79] Under Macaulay, thousands of elementary and secondary schools were opened; they typically had an all-male student body. Missionaries opened their own schools that taught Christianity and the three Rs. Bellenoit argues that as civil servants became more isolated and resorted to scientific racism, missionary schools became more engaged with Indians, grew increasingly sympathetic to Indian culture, and adamantly opposed scientific racism.[80] Universities in Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras
Madras
were established in 1857, just before the Rebellion. By 1890 some 60,000 Indians had matriculated, chiefly in the liberal arts or law. About a third entered public administration, and another third became lawyers. The result was a very well educated professional state bureaucracy. By 1887 of 21,000 mid-level civil service appointments, 45% were held by Hindus, 7% by Muslims, 19% by Eurasians (European father and Indian mother), and 29% by Europeans. Of the 1000 top-level positions, almost all were held by Britons, typically with an Oxbridge degree.[81] The government, often working with local philanthropists, opened 186 universities and colleges of higher education by 1911; they enrolled 36,000 students (over 90% men). By 1939 the number of institutions had doubled and enrolment reached 145,000. The curriculum followed classical British standards of the sort set by Oxford and Cambridge and stressed English literature and European history. Nevertheless, by the 1920s the student bodies had become hotbeds of Indian nationalism.[82] Missions[edit]

St. Paul's Cathedral was built in 1847 and served as the chair of the Bishop of Calcutta, who served as the metropolitan of the Church of India, Burma and Ceylon.[83]

Further information: Protestantism in India As the Anglican
Anglican
Church was the established church of England, "it had an impact on India
India
with the arrival of the British".[84] Citing the Great Commission, Joseph White, a Laudian Professor of Arabic
Laudian Professor of Arabic
at the University of Oxford, "preached before the university in 1784 on the duty of promoting the universal and progressive message of Christianity 'among our Mahometan and Gentoo Subjects in India'."[85] In 1889, the Prime Minister of Great Britain, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury expressed similar sentiments, stating that "It is not only our duty but is in our interest to promote the diffusion of Christianity as far as possible throughout the length and breadth of India."[86] The growth of the British Indian Army
British Indian Army
led to the arrival of many Anglican
Anglican
chaplains in India.[87] Following the arrival of the Church of England's Church Mission Society
Church Mission Society
in 1814, the Diocese
Diocese
of Calcutta of the Church of India, Burma and Ceylon
Church of India, Burma and Ceylon
(CIBC) was erected, with its St. Paul's Cathedral being built in 1847.[84] By 1930, the Church of India, Burma and Ceylon had fourteen dioceses across the Indian Empire.[88] Missionaries from other Christian denominations
Christian denominations
came to British India as well; Lutheran
Lutheran
missionaries, for example, arrived in Calcutta
Calcutta
in 1836 and by "the year 1880 there were over 31,200 Lutheran
Lutheran
Christians spread out in 1,052 villages".[86] Methodists
Methodists
began arriving in India in 1783 and established missions with a focus on "education, health ministry, and evangelism".[89][90] In the 1790s, Christians from the London
London
Missionary Society and Baptist Missionary Society, began doing missionary work in the Indian Empire.[91] In Neyoor, the London Missionary Society Hospital "pioneered improvements in the public health system for the treatment of diseases even before organized attempts were made by the colonial Madras
Madras
Presidency, reducing the death rate substantially".[92] After 1857, the establishment of schools and hospitals by British Christian missionaries became the "a pivotal feature of missionary work and the principal vehicles for conversion".[93][90] Christ Church College (1866) and St. Stephen's College (1881) are two examples of prominent church-affiliated educational institutions founded during the British Raj.[94] Within educational institutions established during the British Raj, Christian texts, especially the Bible, were a part of the curricula.[93] During the British Raj, Christian missionaries developed writing systems for Indian languages that previously did not have one.[95][96] Christian missionaries in India also worked to increase literacy and also engaged in social activism, such as fighting against prostitution, championing the right of widowed women to remarry, and trying to stop early marriages for women.[97] Among British women, zenana missions became a popular method to win converts to Christianity.[93] Economic history[edit]

One Mohur
Mohur
depicting Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
(1862).

Further information: Economy of India
India
under the British Raj
British Raj
and Economic history of India Economic trends[edit] The Indian economy grew at about 1% per year from 1880 to 1920, and the population also grew at 1%.[98] All three sectors of the economy – agriculture, manufacturing, and services – accelerated in the postcolonial India. In agriculture a "green revolution" took place in the 1970s. The most important difference between colonial and postcolonial India
India
was the utilization of land surplus with productivity-led growth by using high-yielding variety seeds, chemical fertilizers and more intensive application of water. All these three inputs were subsidized by the state.[99] The result was, on average, no long-term change in per capita income levels, though cost of living had grown higher. Agriculture was still dominant, with most peasants at the subsistence level. Extensive irrigation systems were built, providing an impetus for switching to cash crops for export and for raw materials for Indian industry, especially jute, cotton, sugarcane, coffee and tea.[100] India's global share of GDP fell drastically from above 20% to less than 5% in the colonial period.[101] Historians have been bitterly divided on issues of economic history, with the Nationalist school (following Nehru) arguing that India
India
was poorer at the end of British rule than at the beginning and that impoverishment occurred because of the British.[102] Industry[edit] The entrepreneur Jamsetji Tata
Jamsetji Tata
(1839–1904) began his industrial career in 1877 with the Central India
India
Spinning, Weaving, and Manufacturing Company in Bombay. While other Indian mills produced cheap coarse yarn (and later cloth) using local short-staple cotton and cheap machinery imported from Britain, Tata did much better by importing expensive longer-stapled cotton from Egypt and buying more complex ring-spindle machinery from the United States to spin finer yarn that could compete with imports from Britain.[103] In the 1890s, he launched plans to move into heavy industry using Indian funding. The Raj did not provide capital, but, aware of Britain's declining position against the US and Germany in the steel industry, it wanted steel mills in India. It promised to purchase any surplus steel Tata could not otherwise sell.[104] The Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO), now headed by his son Dorabji Tata (1859–1932), opened its plant at Jamshedpur in Bihar
Bihar
in 1908. It used American technology, not British[105] and became the leading iron and steel producer in India, with 120,000 employees in 1945. TISCO became India's proud symbol of technical skill, managerial competence, entrepreneurial flair, and high pay for industrial workers.[106] The Tata family, like most of India's big businessmen, were Indian nationalists but did not trust the Congress because it seemed too aggressively hostile to the Raj, too socialist, and too supportive of trade unions.[107] Railways[edit]

Extent of Great Indian Peninsular Railway
Great Indian Peninsular Railway
network in 1870. The GIPR was one of the largest rail companies at that time.

The railway network of India
India
in 1909, when it was the fourth largest railway network in the world.

"The most magnificent railway station in the world." says the caption of the stereographic tourist picture of Victoria Terminus, Bombay, which was completed in 1888.

British India
British India
built a modern railway system in the late nineteenth century which was the fourth largest in the world. The railways at first were privately owned and operated. It was run by British administrators, engineers and craftsmen. At first, only the unskilled workers were Indians.[108] The East India
India
Company (and later the colonial government) encouraged new railway companies backed by private investors under a scheme that would provide land and guarantee an annual return of up to five percent during the initial years of operation. The companies were to build and operate the lines under a 99-year lease, with the government having the option to buy them earlier.[109] Two new railway companies, Great Indian Peninsular Railway
Great Indian Peninsular Railway
(GIPR) and East Indian Railway
East Indian Railway
(EIR) began in 1853–54 to construct and operate lines near Bombay
Bombay
and Calcutta. The first passenger railway line in North India
India
between Allahabad and Kanpur opened in 1859. In 1854, Governor-General Lord Dalhousie
Lord Dalhousie
formulated a plan to construct a network of trunk lines connecting the principal regions of India. Encouraged by the government guarantees, investment flowed in and a series of new rail companies were established, leading to rapid expansion of the rail system in India.[110] Soon several large princely states built their own rail systems and the network spread to the regions that became the modern-day states of Assam, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Andhra Pradesh. The route mileage of this network increased from 1,349 kilometres (838 mi) in 1860 to 25,495 kilometres (15,842 mi) in 1880, mostly radiating inland from the three major port cities of Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta.[111] Most of the railway construction was done by Indian companies supervised by British engineers.[112] The system was heavily built, using a wide gauge, sturdy tracks and strong bridges. By 1900 India had a full range of rail services with diverse ownership and management, operating on broad, metre and narrow gauge networks. In 1900, the government took over the GIPR network, while the company continued to manage it.[112] During the First World War, the railways were used to transport troops and grains to the ports of Bombay
Bombay
and Karachi
Karachi
en route to Britain, Mesopotamia, and East Africa. With shipments of equipment and parts from Britain curtailed, maintenance became much more difficult; critical workers entered the army; workshops were converted to making artillery; some locomotives and cars were shipped to the Middle East. The railways could barely keep up with the increased demand.[113] By the end of the war, the railways had deteriorated for lack of maintenance and were not profitable. In 1923, both GIPR and EIR were nationalised.[114][115] Headrick shows that until the 1930s, both the Raj lines and the private companies hired only European supervisors, civil engineers, and even operating personnel, such as locomotive engineers. The government's Stores Policy required that bids on railway contracts be made to the India
India
Office in London, shutting out most Indian firms.[115] The railway companies purchased most of their hardware and parts in Britain. There were railway maintenance workshops in India, but they were rarely allowed to manufacture or repair locomotives. TISCO steel could not obtain orders for rails until the war emergency.[116] The Second World War severely crippled the railways as rolling stock was diverted to the Middle East, and the railway workshops were converted into munitions workshops.[117] After independence in 1947, forty-two separate railway systems, including thirty-two lines owned by the former Indian princely states, were amalgamated to form a single nationalised unit named the Indian Railways. India
India
provides an example of the British Empire
Empire
pouring its money and expertise into a very well built system designed for military reasons (after the Mutiny of 1857), with the hope that it would stimulate industry. The system was overbuilt and too expensive for the small amount of freight traffic it carried. Christensen (1996), who looked at colonial purpose, local needs, capital, service, and private-versus-public interests, concluded that making the railways a creature of the state hindered success because railway expenses had to go through the same time-consuming and political budgeting process as did all other state expenses. Railway costs could therefore not be tailored to the timely needs of the railways or their passengers.[118] Irrigation[edit] Main article: Irrigation in India The British Raj
British Raj
invested heavily in infrastructure, including canals and irrigation systems in addition to railways, telegraphy, roads and ports.[119][120][121] The Ganges Canal reached 350 miles from Hardwar to Cawnpore, and supplied thousands of miles of distribution canals. By 1900 the Raj had the largest irrigation system in the world. One success story was Assam, a jungle in 1840 that by 1900 had 4,000,000 acres under cultivation, especially in tea plantations. In all, the amount of irrigated land multiplied by a factor of eight. Historian David Gilmour says:

By the 1870s the peasantry in the districts irrigated by the Ganges Canal were visibly better fed, housed and dressed than before; by the end of the century the new network of canals in the Punjab at producing even more prosperous peasantry there.[122]

Policies[edit] In the second half of the 19th century, both the direct administration of India
India
by the British Crown
British Crown
and the technological change ushered in by the industrial revolution had the effect of closely intertwining the economies of India
India
and Great Britain.[123] In fact many of the major changes in transport and communications (that are typically associated with Crown Rule of India) had already begun before the Mutiny. Since Dalhousie had embraced the technological revolution underway in Britain, India
India
too saw rapid development of all those technologies. Railways, roads, canals, and bridges were rapidly built in India
India
and telegraph links equally rapidly established in order that raw materials, such as cotton, from India's hinterland could be transported more efficiently to ports, such as Bombay, for subsequent export to England.[124] Likewise, finished goods from England, were transported back, just as efficiently, for sale in the burgeoning Indian markets. Massive railway projects were begun in earnest and government railway jobs and pensions attracted a large number of upper caste Hindus into the civil service for the first time. The Indian Civil Service was prestigious and paid well, but it remained politically neutral.[125] Imports of British cotton covered 55% of the Indian market by 1875.[126] Industrial production as it developed in European factories was unknown until the 1850s when the first cotton mills were opened in Bombay, posing a challenge to the cottage-based home production system based on family labour.[127]

The Queen's Own Madras
Madras
Sappers and Miners, 1896

Taxes in India
India
decreased during the colonial period for most of India's population; with the land tax revenue claiming 15% of India's national income during Mogul times compared with 1% at the end of the colonial period. The percentage of national income for the village economy increased from 44% during Mogul times to 54% by the end of colonial period. India's per capita GDP decreased from $550[clarification needed] in 1700 to $520 by 1857, although it later increased to $618, by 1947.[128] Economic impact[edit]

A significant fact which stands out is that those parts of India
India
which have been longest under British rule are the poorest today. Indeed some kind of chart might be drawn up to indicate the close connection between length of British rule and progressive growth of poverty.

— Jawaharlal Nehru, on the economic effects of the British rule, in his book The Discovery of India[129]

Historians continue to debate whether the long-term impact of British rule was to accelerate the economic development of India, or to distort and retard it. In 1780, the conservative British politician Edmund Burke
Edmund Burke
raised the issue of India's position: he vehemently attacked the East India
India
Company, claiming that Warren Hastings
Warren Hastings
and other top officials had ruined the Indian economy and society. Indian historian Rajat Kanta Ray (1998) continues this line of attack, saying the new economy brought by the British in the 18th century was a form of "plunder" and a catastrophe for the traditional economy of the Mughal Empire.[130] Ray accuses the British of depleting the food and money stocks and of imposing high taxes that helped cause the terrible Bengal
Bengal
famine of 1770, which killed a third of the people of Bengal.[131] P. J. Marshall shows that recent scholarship has reinterpreted the view that the prosperity of the formerly benign Mughal rule gave way to poverty and anarchy.[132] He argues the British takeover did not make any sharp break with the past, which largely delegated control to regional Mughal rulers and sustained a generally prosperous economy for the rest of the 18th century. Marshall notes the British went into partnership with Indian bankers and raised revenue through local tax administrators and kept the old Mughal rates of taxation. Many historians agree that the East India
India
Company inherited an onerous taxation system that took one-third of the produce of Indian cultivators.[130] Instead of the Indian nationalist account of the British as alien aggressors, seizing power by brute force and impoverishing all of India, Marshall presents the interpretation (supported by many scholars in India
India
and the West) that the British were not in full control but instead were players in what was primarily an Indian play and in which their rise to power depended upon excellent co-operation with Indian elites.[132] Marshall admits that much of his interpretation is still highly controversial among many historians.[133] Famines, epidemics, public health[edit] Main articles: Famine in India
India
§ British rule, and Timeline of major famines in India
India
during British rule See also: Category:Famines in British India.

Child who starved to death during the Bengal
Bengal
famine of 1943

According to economist Angus Maddison, "The British contributed to public health by introducing smallpox vaccination, establishing Western medicine and training modern doctors, by killing rats, and establishing quarantine procedures. As a result, the death rate fell and the population of India
India
grew more than two-and-a-half times between 1757 and 1947."[134]

Population growth worsened the plight of the peasantry. As a result of peace and improved sanitation and health, the Indian population rose from perhaps 100 million in 1700 to 300 million by 1920. While encouraging agricultural productivity, the British also provided economic incentives to have more children to help in the fields. Although a similar population increase occurred in Europe at the same time, the growing numbers could be absorbed by industrialisation or emigration to the Americas and Australia. India
India
enjoyed neither an industrial revolution nor an increase in food growing. Moreover, Indian landlords had a stake in the cash crop system and discouraged innovation. As a result, population numbers far outstripped the amount of available food and land, creating dire poverty and widespread hunger. — Craig A. Lockard, Societies, Networks, and Transitions[135]

Famines in India
India
(Estimated deaths in millions)

This article duplicates the scope of other articles, specifically, Timeline of major famines in India
India
during British rule. Please discuss this issue on the talk page and edit it to conform with's Manual of Style. (May 2017)

Major famines in India
India
during British rule

Famine Years Deaths[b]

Great Bengal
Bengal
Famine 1769–1770

10[136]

Chalisa famine 1783–1784

11[137]

Doji bara famine 1789–1795

11[138]

Agra famine of 1837–38 1837–1838

0.8[139]

Eastern Rajputana 1860–1861

2[139]

Orissa famine of 1866 1865–1867

1[140]

Rajputana famine of 1869 1868–1870

1.5[141]

Bihar
Bihar
famine of 1873–74 1873–1874

0

Great Famine of 1876–78 1876–1878

10.3[142]

Odisha, Bihar 1888–1889

0.15[143]

Indian famine of 1896–97 1896–1897

5[139]

Indian famine of 1899–1900 1899–1900

1[139]

Bombay
Bombay
Presidency 1905–1906

0.23[144]

Bengal
Bengal
famine of 1943 1943–1944

1.5[144]

Total (1765–1947)[145][146][147] 1769–1944 55.48

During the British Raj, India
India
experienced some of the worst famines ever recorded, including the Great Famine of 1876–1878, in which 6.1 million to 10.3 million people died[148] and the Indian famine of 1899–1900, in which 1.25 to 10 million people died.[149] Recent research, including work by Mike Davis and Amartya Sen,[150] argue that famines in India
India
were made more severe by British policies in India. An El Niño
El Niño
event caused the Indian famine of 1876–1878.[151] Having been criticised for the badly bungled relief-effort during the Orissa famine of 1866,[152] British authorities began to discuss famine policy soon afterwards, and in early 1868 Sir William Muir, Lieutenant-Governor of the North Western Provinces, issued a famous order stating that:[153]

... every District officer would be held personally responsible that no deaths occurred from starvation which could have been avoided by any exertion or arrangement on his part or that of his subordinates.

The first cholera pandemic began in Bengal, then spread across India by 1820. Ten thousand British troops and countless Indians died during this pandemic.[154] Estimated deaths in India
India
between 1817 and 1860 exceeded 15 million. Another 23 million died between 1865 and 1917.[155] The Third Pandemic
Pandemic
of plague started in China
China
in the middle of the 19th century, spreading disease to all inhabited continents and killing 10 million people in India
India
alone.[156] Waldemar Haffkine, who mainly worked in India, became the first microbiologist to develop and deploy vaccines against cholera and bubonic plague. In 1925 the Plague Laboratory in Bombay
Bombay
was renamed the Haffkine Institute. Fevers ranked as one of the leading causes of death in India
India
in the 19th century.[157] Britain's Sir Ronald Ross, working in the Presidency General Hospital
Presidency General Hospital
in Calcutta, finally proved in 1898 that mosquitoes transmit malaria, while on assignment in the Deccan at Secunderabad, where the Centre for Tropical and Communicable Diseases is now named in his honour.[158] In 1881 there were around 120,000 leprosy patients. The central government passed the Lepers Act of 1898, which provided legal provision for forcible confinement of leprosy sufferers in India.[159] Under the direction of Mountstuart Elphinstone
Mountstuart Elphinstone
a program was launched to propagate smallpox vaccination.[160] Mass vaccination in India resulted in a major decline in smallpox mortality by the end of the 19th century.[161] In 1849 nearly 13% of all Calcutta
Calcutta
deaths were due to smallpox.[162] Between 1868 and 1907, there were approximately 4.7 million deaths from smallpox.[163] Sir Robert Grant directed his attention to establishing a systematic institution in Bombay
Bombay
for imparting medical knowledge to the natives.[164] In 1860, Grant Medical College
Grant Medical College
became one of the four recognised colleges for teaching courses leading to degrees (alongside Elphinstone College, Deccan College and Government Law College, Mumbai).[132] 1860s–1890s: New middle class, Indian National Congress[edit] Main article: Indian National Congress By 1880, a new middle class had arisen in India
India
and spread thinly across the country. Moreover, there was a growing solidarity among its members, created by the "joint stimuli of encouragement and irritation."[165] The encouragement felt by this class came from its success in education and its ability to avail itself of the benefits of that education such as employment in the Indian Civil Service. It came too from Queen Victoria's proclamation of 1858 in which she had declared, "We hold ourselves bound to the natives of our Indian territories by the same obligation of duty which bind us to all our other subjects."[166] Indians were especially encouraged when Canada was granted dominion status in 1867 and established an autonomous democratic constitution.[166] Lastly, the encouragement came from the work of contemporaneous Oriental scholars like Monier Monier-Williams and Max Müller, who in their works had been presenting ancient India as a great civilisation. Irritation, on the other hand, came not just from incidents of racial discrimination at the hands of the British in India, but also from governmental actions like the use of Indian troops in imperial campaigns (e.g. in the Second Anglo-Afghan War) and the attempts to control the vernacular press (e.g. in the Vernacular Press Act of 1878).[167] It was, however, Viceroy
Viceroy
Lord Ripon's partial reversal of the Ilbert Bill (1883), a legislative measure that had proposed putting Indian judges in the Bengal Presidency
Bengal Presidency
on equal footing with British ones, that transformed the discontent into political action.[168] On 28 December 1885, professionals and intellectuals from this middle-class—many educated at the new British-founded universities in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras, and familiar with the ideas of British political philosophers, especially the utilitarians assembled in Bombay. The seventy men founded the Indian National Congress; Womesh Chandra Bonerjee
Womesh Chandra Bonerjee
was elected the first president. The membership comprised a westernised elite, and no effort was made at this time to broaden the base. During its first twenty years, the Congress primarily debated British policy toward India; however, its debates created a new Indian outlook that held Great Britain responsible for draining India
India
of its wealth. Britain did this, the nationalists claimed, by unfair trade, by the restraint on indigenous Indian industry, and by the use of Indian taxes to pay the high salaries of the British civil servants in India.[169] 1870s–1907: Social reformers, moderates vs. extremists[edit] Thomas Baring served as Viceroy
Viceroy
of India
India
1872–1876. Baring's major accomplishments came as an energetic reformer who was dedicated to upgrading the quality of government in the British Raj. He began large scale famine relief, reduced taxes, and overcame bureaucratic obstacles in an effort to reduce both starvation and widespread social unrest. Although appointed by a Liberal government, his policies were much the same as Viceroys appointed by Conservative governments.[170]

Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a constitutional social reformer and moderate nationalist, was elected president of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
in 1905. 

Congress "extremist" Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
speaking in 1907 as the party split into the Moderates and the Extremists. Seated at the table is Aurobindo Ghosh
Aurobindo Ghosh
and to his right (in the chair) is Lala Lajpat Rai, both allies of Tilak. 

Social reform was in the air by the 1880s. For example, Pandita Ramabai, poet, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scholar, and a champion of the emancipation of Indian women, took up the cause of widow remarriage, especially of Brahamin widows, later converted to Christianity.[171] By 1900 reform movements had taken root within the Indian National Congress. Congress member Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
founded the Servants of India
India
Society, which lobbied for legislative reform (for example, for a law to permit the remarriage of Hindu child widows), and whose members took vows of poverty, and worked among the untouchable community.[172] By 1905, a deep gulf opened between the moderates, led by Gokhale, who downplayed public agitation, and the new "extremists" who not only advocated agitation, but also regarded the pursuit of social reform as a distraction from nationalism. Prominent among the extremists was Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who attempted to mobilise Indians by appealing to an explicitly Hindu political identity, displayed, for example, in the annual public Ganapati
Ganapati
festivals that he inaugurated in western India.[173] Partition of Bengal
Bengal
(1905–1911)[edit] Main articles: Partition of Bengal (1905)
Partition of Bengal (1905)
and Swadeshi
Swadeshi
movement

Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
was the first leader of the Indian Independence Movement and known as Father of Indian Unrest and Maker of Modern India 

Viceroy
Viceroy
Curzon (1899–1905). He promoted many reforms but his partitioning of Bengal
Bengal
into Muslim and Hindu provinces outraged the people. 

Sir Khawaja Salimullah, an influential Bengali aristocrat and British ally, who strongly favoured the creation of Eastern Bengal
Bengal
and Assam 

Surendranath Banerjee, a Congress moderate, who led the opposition to the partition of Bengal
Bengal
with the Swadeshi movement
Swadeshi movement
to buy Indian-made cloth. 

Cover of a 1909 issue of the Tamil magazine Vijaya showing "Mother India" with her diverse progeny and the rallying cry "Vande Mataram". 

The Viceroy
Viceroy
Lord Curzon
Lord Curzon
(1899–1905) was unusually energetic in pursuit of efficiency and reform.[174] His agenda included the creation of the North-West Frontier Province; small changes in the Civil Service; speeding up the operations of the secretariat; setting up a gold standard to ensure a stable currency; creation of a Railway Board; irrigation reform; reduction of peasant debts; lowering the cost of telegrams; archaeological research and the preservation of antiquities; improvements in the universities; police reforms; upgrading the roles of the Native States; a new Commerce and Industry Department; promotion of industry; revised land revenue policies; lowering taxes; setting up agricultural banks; creating an Agricultural Department; sponsoring agricultural research; establishing an Imperial Library; creating an Imperial Cadet Corps; new famine codes; and, indeed, reducing the smoke nuisance in Calcutta.[175] Trouble emerged for Curzon when he divided the largest administrative subdivision in British India, the Bengal
Bengal
Province, into the Muslim-majority province of Eastern Bengal
Bengal
and Assam
Assam
and the Hindu-majority province of West Bengal
West Bengal
(present-day Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar, and Odisha). Curzon's act, the Partition of Bengal—which some considered administratively felicitous, communally charged, sowed the seeds of division among Indians in Bengal
Bengal
and, which had been contemplated by various colonial administrations since the time of Lord William Bentinck, but never acted upon—was to transform nationalist politics as nothing else before it. The Hindu elite of Bengal, among them many who owned land in East Bengal
Bengal
that was leased out to Muslim peasants, protested fervidly.[176] Following the Partition of Bengal, which was a strategy set out by Lord Curzon
Lord Curzon
to weaken the nationalist movement, Tilak encouraged the Swadeshi movement
Swadeshi movement
and the Boycott movement.[177] The movement consisted of the boycott of foreign goods and also the social boycott of any Indian who used foreign goods. The Swadeshi movement
Swadeshi movement
consisted of the usage of natively produced goods. Once foreign goods were boycotted, there was a gap which had to be filled by the production of those goods in India
India
itself. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
said that the Swadeshi
Swadeshi
and Boycott movements are two sides of the same coin. The large Bengali Hindu middle-class (the Bhadralok), upset at the prospect of Bengalis being outnumbered in the new Bengal
Bengal
province by Biharis and Oriyas, felt that Curzon's act was punishment for their political assertiveness. The pervasive protests against Curzon's decision took the form predominantly of the Swadeshi
Swadeshi
("buy Indian") campaign led by two-time Congress president, Surendranath Banerjee, and involved boycott of British goods.[178] The rallying cry for both types of protest was the slogan Bande Mataram ("Hail to the Mother"), which invoked a mother goddess, who stood variously for Bengal, India, and the Hindu goddess Kali. Sri Aurobindo never went beyond the law when he edited the Bande Mataram magazine; it preached independence but within the bounds of peace as far as possible. Its goal was Passive Resistance.[179] The unrest spread from Calcutta
Calcutta
to the surrounding regions of Bengal
Bengal
when students returned home to their villages and towns. Some joined local political youth clubs emerging in Bengal
Bengal
at the time, some engaged in robberies to fund arms, and even attempted to take the lives of Raj officials. However, the conspiracies generally failed in the face of intense police work.[180] The Swadeshi
Swadeshi
boycott movement cut imports of British textiles by 25%. The swadeshi cloth, although more expensive and somewhat less comfortable than its Lancashire competitor, was worn as a mark of national pride by people all over India.[181] 1906–1909: Muslim League, Minto-Morley reforms[edit] Main article: All- India
India
Muslim League

1909 Prevailing Religions, Map of British India, 1909, showing the prevailing majority religions based on the Census of 1901. 

Hakim Ajmal Khan, a founder of the Muslim League, became the president of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
in 1921. 

Lord Minto, the Conservative viceroy met with the Muslim delegation in June 1906. The Minto-Morley Reforms
Minto-Morley Reforms
of 1909 called for separate Muslim electorates. 

The Hindu
The Hindu
protests against the partition of Bengal
Bengal
led the Muslim elite in India
India
to organise in 1906 the All India
India
Muslim League. The League favoured the partition of Bengal, since it gave them a Muslim majority in the eastern half. In 1905, when Tilak and Lajpat Rai attempted to rise to leadership positions in the Congress, and the Congress itself rallied around symbolism of Kali, Muslim fears increased. The Muslim elite, including Dacca Nawab and Khwaja Salimullah, expected that a new province with a Muslim majority would directly benefit Muslims aspiring to political power.[182] The first steps were taken toward self-government in British India
British India
in the late 19th century with the appointment of Indian counsellors to advise the British viceroy and the establishment of provincial councils with Indian members; the British subsequently widened participation in legislative councils with the Indian Councils Act of 1892. Municipal Corporations and District Boards were created for local administration; they included elected Indian members. The Indian Councils Act 1909, known as the Morley-Minto Reforms (John Morley was the secretary of state for India, and Minto was viceroy) – gave Indians limited roles in the central and provincial legislatures. Upper class Indians, rich landowners and businessmen were favoured. The Muslim community was made a separate electorate and granted double representation. The goals were quite conservative but they did advance the elective principle.[56] The partition of Bengal
Bengal
was rescinded in 1911 and announced at the Delhi Durbar
Delhi Durbar
at which King George V
George V
came in person and was crowned Emperor of India. He announced the capital would be moved from Calcutta
Calcutta
to Delhi, a Muslim stronghold. Morley was especially vigilant in crushing revolutionary groups.[183] 1914–1947[edit] 1914–1918: First World War, Lucknow Pact[edit]

Indian medical orderlies attending to wounded soldiers with the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
during World War I. 

Sepoy Khudadad Khan, the first Indian to be awarded the Victoria Cross, the British Empire's highest war-time medal for gallantry. Khan, from Chakwal District, Punjab (present-day Pakistan) was fighting on the Western Front in 1914. 

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
(seated in carriage, on the right, eyes downcast, with black flat-top hat) receives a big welcome in Karachi in 1916 after his return to India
India
from South Africa. 

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, seated, third from the left, was a supporter of the Lucknow Pact, which, in 1916, ended the three-way rift between the Extremists, the Moderates and the League. 

The First World War
First World War
would prove to be a watershed in the imperial relationship between Britain and India. Shortly prior to the outbreak of war, the Government of India
India
had indicated that they could furnish two divisions plus a cavalry brigade, with a further division in case of emergency.[184] Some 1.4 million Indian and British soldiers of the British Indian Army
British Indian Army
took part in the war, primarily in Iraq and the Middle East. Their participation had a wider cultural fallout as news spread how bravely soldiers fought and died alongside British soldiers, as well as soldiers from dominions like Canada and Australia.[185] India's international profile rose during the 1920s, as it became a founding member of the League of Nations
League of Nations
in 1920 and participated, under the name, "Les Indes Anglaises" (British India), in the 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
in Antwerp.[186] Back in India, especially among the leaders of the Indian National Congress, the war led to calls for greater self-government for Indians.[185] After the 1906 split between the moderates and the extremists, organised political activity by the Congress had remained fragmented until 1914, when Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
was released from prison and began to sound out other Congress leaders about possible re-unification. That, however, had to wait until the demise of Tilak's principal moderate opponents, Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
and Pherozeshah Mehta, in 1915, whereupon an agreement was reached for Tilak's ousted group to re-enter the Congress.[185] In the 1916 Lucknow session of the Congress, Tilak's supporters were able to push through a more radical resolution which asked for the British to declare that it was their, "aim and intention ... to confer self-government on India at an early date."[185] Soon, other such rumblings began to appear in public pronouncements: in 1917, in the Imperial Legislative Council, Madan Mohan Malaviya
Madan Mohan Malaviya
spoke of the expectations the war had generated in India, "I venture to say that the war has put the clock ... fifty years forward ... (The) reforms after the war will have to be such, ... as will satisfy the aspirations of her (India's) people to take their legitimate part in the administration of their own country."[185] The 1916 Lucknow Session of the Congress was also the venue of an unanticipated mutual effort by the Congress and the Muslim League, the occasion for which was provided by the wartime partnership between Germany and Turkey. Since the Turkish Sultan, or Khalifah, had also sporadically claimed guardianship of the Islamic holy sites of Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem, and since the British and their allies were now in conflict with Turkey, doubts began to increase among some Indian Muslims about the "religious neutrality" of the British, doubts that had already surfaced as a result of the reunification of Bengal
Bengal
in 1911, a decision that was seen as ill-disposed to Muslims.[187] In the Lucknow Pact, the League joined the Congress in the proposal for greater self-government that was campaigned for by Tilak and his supporters; in return, the Congress accepted separate electorates for Muslims in the provincial legislatures as well as the Imperial Legislative Council. In 1916, the Muslim League had anywhere between 500 and 800 members and did not yet have its wider following among Indian Muslims of later years; in the League itself, the pact did not have unanimous backing, having largely been negotiated by a group of "Young Party" Muslims from the United Provinces (UP), most prominently, two brothers Mohammad and Shaukat Ali, who had embraced the Pan-Islamic cause;[187] however, it did have the support of a young lawyer from Bombay, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who was later to rise to leadership roles in both the League and the Indian independence movement. In later years, as the full ramifications of the pact unfolded, it was seen as benefiting the Muslim minority élites of provinces like UP and Bihar
Bihar
more than the Muslim majorities of Punjab and Bengal, nonetheless, at the time, the "Lucknow Pact", was an important milestone in nationalistic agitation and was seen so by the British.[187] During 1916, two Home Rule Leagues were founded within the Indian National Congress by Tilak and Annie Besant, respectively, to promote Home Rule among Indians, and also to elevate the stature of the founders within the Congress itself.[188] Mrs. Besant, for her part, was also keen to demonstrate the superiority of this new form of organised agitation, which had achieved some success in the Irish home rule movement, to the political violence that had intermittently plagued the subcontinent during the years 1907–1914.[188] The two Leagues focused their attention on complementary geographical regions: Tilak's in western India, in the southern Bombay
Bombay
presidency, and Mrs. Besant's in the rest of the country, but especially in the Madras Presidency and in regions like Sind and Gujarat
Gujarat
that had hitherto been considered politically dormant by the Congress.[188] Both leagues rapidly acquired new members – approximately thirty thousand each in a little over a year – and began to publish inexpensive newspapers. Their propaganda also turned to posters, pamphlets, and political-religious songs, and later to mass meetings, which not only attracted greater numbers than in earlier Congress sessions, but also entirely new social groups such as non-Brahmins, traders, farmers, students, and lower-level government workers.[188] Although they did not achieve the magnitude or character of a nationwide mass movement, the Home Rule leagues both deepened and widened organised political agitation for self-rule in India. The British authorities reacted by imposing restrictions on the Leagues, including shutting out students from meetings and banning the two leaders from travelling to certain provinces.[188] The year 1915 also saw the return of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
to India. Already known in India
India
as a result of his civil liberties protests on behalf of the Indians in South Africa, Gandhi followed the advice of his mentor Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
and chose not to make any public pronouncements during the first year of his return, but instead spent the year travelling, observing the country first-hand, and writing.[189] Earlier, during his South Africa sojourn, Gandhi, a lawyer by profession, had represented an Indian community, which, although small, was sufficiently diverse to be a microcosm of India itself. In tackling the challenge of holding this community together and simultaneously confronting the colonial authority, he had created a technique of non-violent resistance, which he labelled Satyagraha (or, Striving for Truth).[190] For Gandhi, Satyagraha
Satyagraha
was different from "passive resistance", by then a familiar technique of social protest, which he regarded as a practical strategy adopted by the weak in the face of superior force; Satyagraha, on the other hand, was for him the "last resort of those strong enough in their commitment to truth to undergo suffering in its cause."[190] Ahimsa
Ahimsa
or "non-violence", which formed the underpinning of Satyagraha, came to represent the twin pillar, with Truth, of Gandhi's unorthodox religious outlook on life.[190] During the years 1907–1914, Gandhi tested the technique of Satyagraha
Satyagraha
in a number of protests on behalf of the Indian community in South Africa against the unjust racial laws.[190] Also, during his time in South Africa, in his essay, Hind Swaraj, (1909), Gandhi formulated his vision of Swaraj, or "self-rule" for India
India
based on three vital ingredients: solidarity between Indians of different faiths, but most of all between Hindus and Muslims; the removal of untouchability from Indian society; and the exercise of swadeshi – the boycott of manufactured foreign goods and the revival of Indian cottage industry.[189] The first two, he felt, were essential for India
India
to be an egalitarian and tolerant society, one befitting the principles of Truth and Ahimsa, while the last, by making Indians more self-reliant, would break the cycle of dependence that was not only perpetrating the direction and tenor of the British rule in India, but also the British commitment to it.[189] At least until 1920, the British presence itself, was not a stumbling block in Gandhi's conception of swaraj; rather, it was the inability of Indians to create a modern society.[189] 1917–1919: Satyagraha, Montagu-Chelmsford reforms, Jallianwalla Bagh[edit]

Gandhi at the time of the Kheda
Kheda
Satyagraha, 1918

Edwin Montagu, left, the Secretary of State for India, whose report, led to the Government of India
India
Act 1919, also known as the Montford Reforms or the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms

Headlines about the Rowlatt Bills (1919) from a nationalist newspaper in India. Although all non-official Indians on the Legislative Council voted against the Rowlatt Bills, the government was able to force their passage by using its majority.[191]

The Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919, a few months after the massacre which had occurred on 13 April

Gandhi made his political debut in India
India
in 1917 in Champaran
Champaran
district in Bihar, near the Nepal
Nepal
border, where he was invited by a group of disgruntled tenant farmers who, for many years, had been forced into planting indigo (for dyes) on a portion of their land and then selling it at below-market prices to the British planters who had leased them the land.[192] Upon his arrival in the district, Gandhi was joined by other agitators, including a young Congress leader, Rajendra Prasad, from Bihar, who would become a loyal supporter of Gandhi and go on to play a prominent role in the Indian independence movement. When Gandhi was ordered to leave by the local British authorities, he refused on moral grounds, setting up his refusal as a form of individual Satyagraha. Soon, under pressure from the Viceroy
Viceroy
in Delhi
Delhi
who was anxious to maintain domestic peace during wartime, the provincial government rescinded Gandhi's expulsion order, and later agreed to an official enquiry into the case. Although, the British planters eventually gave in, they were not won over to the farmers' cause, and thereby did not produce the optimal outcome of a Satyagraha
Satyagraha
that Gandhi had hoped for; similarly, the farmers themselves, although pleased at the resolution, responded less than enthusiastically to the concurrent projects of rural empowerment and education that Gandhi had inaugurated in keeping with his ideal of swaraj. The following year Gandhi launched two more Satyagrahas – both in his native Gujarat – one in the rural Kaira district where land-owning farmers were protesting increased land-revenue and the other in the city of Ahmedabad, where workers in an Indian-owned textile mill were distressed about their low wages. The satyagraha in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
took the form of Gandhi fasting and supporting the workers in a strike, which eventually led to a settlement. In Kaira, in contrast, although the farmers' cause received publicity from Gandhi's presence, the satyagraha itself, which consisted of the farmers' collective decision to withhold payment, was not immediately successful, as the British authorities refused to back down. The agitation in Kaira gained for Gandhi another lifelong lieutenant in Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, who had organised the farmers, and who too would go on to play a leadership role in the Indian independence movement.[193] Champaran, Kaira, and Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
were important milestones in the history of Gandhi's new methods of social protest in India. In 1916, in the face of new strength demonstrated by the nationalists with the signing of the Lucknow Pact and the founding of the Home Rule leagues, and the realisation, after the disaster in the Mesopotamian campaign, that the war would likely last longer, the new Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford, cautioned that the Government of India
India
needed to be more responsive to Indian opinion.[194] Towards the end of the year, after discussions with the government in London, he suggested that the British demonstrate their good faith – in light of the Indian war role – through a number of public actions, including awards of titles and honours to princes, granting of commissions in the army to Indians, and removal of the much-reviled cotton excise duty, but, most importantly, an announcement of Britain's future plans for India
India
and an indication of some concrete steps. After more discussion, in August 1917, the new Liberal Secretary of State for India, Edwin Montagu, announced the British aim of "increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration, and the gradual development of self-governing institutions, with a view to the progressive realisation of responsible government in India
India
as an integral part of the British Empire."[194] Although the plan envisioned limited self-government at first only in the provinces – with India emphatically within the British Empire
Empire
– it represented the first British proposal for any form of representative government in a non-white colony. Earlier, at the onset of World War I, the reassignment of most of the British army in India
India
to Europe and Mesopotamia, had led the previous Viceroy, Lord Harding, to worry about the "risks involved in denuding India
India
of troops."[185] Revolutionary violence had already been a concern in British India; consequently, in 1915, to strengthen its powers during what it saw was a time of increased vulnerability, the Government of India
India
passed the Defence of India
India
Act, which allowed it to intern politically dangerous dissidents without due process, and added to the power it already had – under the 1910 Press Act – both to imprison journalists without trial and to censor the press.[195] It was under the Defence of India
India
act that the Ali brothers were imprisoned in 1916, and Annie Besant, a European woman, and ordinarily more problematic to imprison, in 1917.[195] Now, as constitutional reform began to be discussed in earnest, the British began to consider how new moderate Indians could be brought into the fold of constitutional politics and, simultaneously, how the hand of established constitutionalists could be strengthened. However, since the Government of India
India
wanted to ensure against any sabotage of the reform process by extremists, and since its reform plan was devised during a time when extremist violence had ebbed as a result of increased governmental control, it also began to consider how some of its wartime powers could be extended into peacetime.[195] Consequently, in 1917, even as Edwin Montagu, announced the new constitutional reforms, a committee chaired by a British judge, Mr. S. A. T. Rowlatt, was tasked with investigating "revolutionary conspiracies", with the unstated goal of extending the government's wartime powers.[194] The Rowlatt committee presented its report in July 1918 and identified three regions of conspiratorial insurgency: Bengal, the Bombay
Bombay
presidency, and the Punjab.[194] To combat subversive acts in these regions, the committee recommended that the government use emergency powers akin to its wartime authority, which included the ability to try cases of sedition by a panel of three judges and without juries, exaction of securities from suspects, governmental overseeing of residences of suspects,[194] and the power for provincial governments to arrest and detain suspects in short-term detention facilities and without trial.[191] With the end of World War I, there was also a change in the economic climate. By the end of 1919, 1.5 million Indians had served in the armed services in either combatant or non-combatant roles, and India had provided £146 million in revenue for the war.[196] The increased taxes coupled with disruptions in both domestic and international trade had the effect of approximately doubling the index of overall prices in India
India
between 1914 and 1920.[196] Returning war veterans, especially in the Punjab, created a growing unemployment crisis,[197] and post-war inflation led to food riots in Bombay, Madras, and Bengal provinces,[197] a situation that was made only worse by the failure of the 1918–19 monsoon and by profiteering and speculation.[196] The global influenza epidemic and the Bolshevik Revolution
Bolshevik Revolution
of 1917 added to the general jitters; the former among the population already experiencing economic woes,[197] and the latter among government officials, fearing a similar revolution in India.[198] To combat what it saw as a coming crisis, the government now drafted the Rowlatt committee's recommendations into two Rowlatt Bills.[191] Although the bills were authorised for legislative consideration by Edwin Montagu, they were done so unwillingly, with the accompanying declaration, "I loathe the suggestion at first sight of preserving the Defence of India
India
Act in peacetime to such an extent as Rowlatt and his friends think necessary."[194] In the ensuing discussion and vote in the Imperial Legislative Council, all Indian members voiced opposition to the bills. The Government of India
India
was, nevertheless, able to use of its "official majority" to ensure passage of the bills early in 1919.[194] However, what it passed, in deference to the Indian opposition, was a lesser version of the first bill, which now allowed extrajudicial powers, but for a period of exactly three years and for the prosecution solely of "anarchical and revolutionary movements", dropping entirely the second bill involving modification the Indian Penal Code.[194] Even so, when it was passed, the new Rowlatt Act aroused widespread indignation throughout India, and brought Gandhi to the forefront of the nationalist movement.[191] Meanwhile, Montagu and Chelmsford themselves finally presented their report in July 1918 after a long fact-finding trip through India
India
the previous winter.[199] After more discussion by the government and parliament in Britain, and another tour by the Franchise and Functions Committee for the purpose of identifying who among the Indian population could vote in future elections, the Government of India
India
Act 1919 (also known as the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms) was passed in December 1919.[199] The new Act enlarged both the provincial and Imperial legislative councils and repealed the Government of India's recourse to the "official majority" in unfavourable votes.[199] Although departments like defence, foreign affairs, criminal law, communications, and income-tax were retained by the Viceroy
Viceroy
and the central government in New Delhi, other departments like public health, education, land-revenue, local self-government were transferred to the provinces.[199] The provinces themselves were now to be administered under a new dyarchical system, whereby some areas like education, agriculture, infrastructure development, and local self-government became the preserve of Indian ministers and legislatures, and ultimately the Indian electorates, while others like irrigation, land-revenue, police, prisons, and control of media remained within the purview of the British governor and his executive council.[199] The new Act also made it easier for Indians to be admitted into the civil service and the army officer corps. A greater number of Indians were now enfranchised, although, for voting at the national level, they constituted only 10% of the total adult male population, many of whom were still illiterate.[199] In the provincial legislatures, the British continued to exercise some control by setting aside seats for special interests they considered cooperative or useful. In particular, rural candidates, generally sympathetic to British rule and less confrontational, were assigned more seats than their urban counterparts.[199] Seats were also reserved for non-Brahmins, landowners, businessmen, and college graduates. The principal of "communal representation", an integral part of the Minto-Morley Reforms, and more recently of the Congress-Muslim League Lucknow Pact, was reaffirmed, with seats being reserved for Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians, and domiciled Europeans, in both provincial and Imperial legislative councils.[199] The Montagu-Chelmsford reforms
Montagu-Chelmsford reforms
offered Indians the most significant opportunity yet for exercising legislative power, especially at the provincial level; however, that opportunity was also restricted by the still limited number of eligible voters, by the small budgets available to provincial legislatures, and by the presence of rural and special interest seats that were seen as instruments of British control.[199] Its scope was unsatisfactory to the Indian political leadership, famously expressed by Annie Beasant as something "unworthy of England to offer and India
India
to accept".[200][citation not found] The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Jallianwala Bagh massacre
or " Amritsar
Amritsar
massacre", took place in the Jallianwala Bagh
Jallianwala Bagh
public garden in the predominantly Sikh northern city of Amritsar. After days of unrest Brigadier-General Reginald E.H. Dyer forbade public meetings and on Sunday 13 April 1919 fifty British Indian Army soldiers commanded by Dyer began shooting at an unarmed gathering of thousands of men, women, and children without warning. Casualty estimates vary widely, with the Government of India
India
reporting 379 dead, with 1,100 wounded.[201] The Indian National Congress estimated three times the number of dead. Dyer was removed from duty but he became a celebrated hero in Britain among people with connections to the Raj.[202] Historians consider the episode was a decisive step towards the end of British rule in India.[203] 1920s: Non-cooperation, Khilafat, Simon Commission, Jinnah's fourteen points[edit]

Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
with Dr. Annie Besant
Annie Besant
en route to a meeting in Madras in September 1921. Earlier, in Madurai, on 21 September 1921, Gandhi had adopted the loin-cloth for the first time as a symbol of his identification with India's poor. 

An early 1920s poster advertising a Congress non-co-operation "Public Meeting" and a "Bonfire of Foreign Clothes" in Bombay, and expressing support for the " Karachi
Karachi
Khilafat Conference." 

Hindus and Muslims, displaying the flags of both the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League, collecting clothes to be later burnt as a part of the non-co-operation movement initiated by Gandhi. 

Photograph of the staff and students of the National College, Lahore, founded in 1921 by Lala Lajpat Rai
Lala Lajpat Rai
for students preparing for the non-co-operation movement. Standing, fourth from the right, is future revolutionary Bhagat Singh. 

In 1920, after the British government refused to back down, Gandhi began his campaign of non-cooperation, prompting many Indians to return British awards and honours, to resign from civil service, and to again boycott British goods. In addition, Gandhi reorganised the Congress, transforming it into a mass movement and opening its membership to even the poorest Indians. Although Gandhi halted the non-cooperation movement in 1922 after the violent incident at Chauri Chaura, the movement revived again, in the mid-1920s. The visit, in 1928, of the British Simon Commission, charged with instituting constitutional reform in India, resulted in widespread protests throughout the country.[204] Earlier, in 1925, non-violent protests of the Congress had resumed too, this time in Gujarat, and led by Patel, who organised farmers to refuse payment of increased land taxes; the success of this protest, the Bardoli Satyagraha, brought Gandhi back into the fold of active politics.[204] 1929–1937: Round Table conferences, Government of India
India
Act[edit]

Allama Muhammad Iqbal, fifth from left, arriving at the 1930 session of the All India
India
Muslim League, where he delivered his presidential address outlining his plan for a homeland for the Muslims of British India. 

British PM Ramsay MacDonald
Ramsay MacDonald
to the right of Gandhi at the 2nd Round Table Conference. Foreground, fourth from left, is B. R. Ambedkar representing the "Depressed Classes." 

A second-day cancellation of the series "Inauguration of New Delhi," 27 February 1931, commemorating the new city designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. 

The Indian general election, 1934
Indian general election, 1934
was the first general election that the INC participated in. The party won a majority of the general seats. 

A first-day cover issued on 1 April 1937 commemorating the separation of Burma from the British Indian Empire. 

At its annual session in Lahore, the Indian National Congress, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, issued a demand for Purna Swaraj (Hindustani language: "complete independence"), or Purna Swarajya. The declaration was drafted by the Congress Working Committee, which included Gandhi, Nehru, Patel, and Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari. Gandhi subsequently led an expanded movement of civil disobedience, culminating in 1930 with the Salt Satyagraha, in which thousands of Indians defied the tax on salt, by marching to the sea and making their own salt by evaporating seawater. Although, many, including Gandhi, were arrested, the British government eventually gave in, and in 1931 Gandhi travelled to London
London
to negotiate new reform at the Round Table Conferences. In local terms, British control rested on the Indian Civil Service, but it faced growing difficulties. Fewer and fewer young men in Britain were interested in joining, and the continuing distrust of Indians resulted in a declining base in terms of quality and quantity. By 1945 Indians were numerically dominant in the ICS and at issue was loyal divided between the Empire
Empire
and independence.[205] The finances of the Raj depended on land taxes, and these became problematic in the 1930s. Epstein argues that after 1919 it became harder and harder to collect the land revenue. The Raj's suppression of civil disobedience after 1934 temporarily increased the power of the revenue agents but after 1937 they were forced by the new Congress-controlled provincial governments to hand back confiscated land. Again the outbreak of war strengthened them, in the face of the Quit India
India
movement the revenue collectors had to rely on military force and by 1946–47 direct British control was rapidly disappearing in much of the countryside.[206] In 1935, after the Round Table Conferences, Parliament passed the Government of India
India
Act 1935, which authorised the establishment of independent legislative assemblies in all provinces of British India, the creation of a central government incorporating both the British provinces and the princely states, and the protection of Muslim minorities. The future Constitution of independent India
India
was based on this act.[207] However, it divided the electorate into 19 religious and social categories, e.g., Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Depressed Classes, Landholders, Commerce and Industry, Europeans, Anglo-Indians, etc., each of which was given separate representation in the Provincial Legislative Assemblies. A voter could cast a vote only for candidates in his own category. The 1935 Act provided for more autonomy for Indian provinces, with the goal of cooling off nationalist sentiment. The act provided for a national parliament and an executive branch under the purview of the British government, but the rulers of the princely states managed to block its implementation. These states remained under the full control of their hereditary rulers, with no popular government. To prepare for elections Congress built up its grass roots membership from 473,000 in 1935 to 4.5 million in 1939.[208] In the 1937 elections Congress won victories in seven of the eleven provinces of British India.[209] Congress governments, with wide powers, were formed in these provinces. The widespread voter support for the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
surprised Raj officials, who previously had seen the Congress as a small elitist body.[210]

1938–1941: World War II, Muslim League's Lahore
Lahore
Resolution[edit]

Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
and Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
(left) on their way to meet the viceroy Lord Linlithgow (13 October 1939) after the outbreak of World War II. 

A. K. Fazlul Huq, known as the Sher-e-Bangla or Tiger of Bengal, was the first elected Premier of Bengal, leader of the K. P. P. and an important ally of the All India
India
Muslim League 

Chaudhari Khaliquzzaman
Chaudhari Khaliquzzaman
(left) seconding the 1940 Lahore
Lahore
Resolution of the Muslim League with Jinnah
Jinnah
(right) presiding, and Liaquat Ali Khan (centre) 

Newly arrived Indian troops on the quayside in Singapore, November 1941 

Indian Army Sikh troops in action during Operation Crusader
Operation Crusader
in Western Desert Campaign in North Africa in November/December 1941. 

While the Muslim League was a small elite group in 1927 with only 1300 members, it grew rapidly once it became an organisation that reached out to the masses, reaching 500,000 members in Bengal
Bengal
in 1944, 200,000 in Punjab, and hundreds of thousands elsewhere.[211] Jinnah
Jinnah
now was well positioned to negotiate with the British from a position of power.[212] With the outbreak of World War II
World War II
in 1939, the viceroy, Lord Linlithgow, declared war on India's behalf without consulting Indian leaders, leading the Congress provincial ministries to resign in protest. The Muslim League, in contrast, supported Britain in the war effort and maintained its control of the government in three major provinces, Bengal, Sind and the Punjab.[213] Jinnah
Jinnah
repeatedly warned that Muslims would be unfairly treated in an independent India
India
dominated by the Congress. On 24 March 1940 in Lahore, the League passed the " Lahore
Lahore
Resolution", demanding that, "the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India
India
should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign." Although there were other important national Muslim politicians such as Congress leader Ab'ul Kalam Azad, and influential regional Muslim politicians such as A. K. Fazlul Huq of the leftist Krishak Praja Party
Krishak Praja Party
in Bengal, Sikander Hyat Khan
Sikander Hyat Khan
of the landlord-dominated Punjab Unionist Party, and Abd al-Ghaffar Khan of the pro-Congress Khudai Khidmatgar
Khudai Khidmatgar
(popularly, "red shirts") in the North West Frontier Province, the British, over the next six years, were to increasingly see the League as the main representative of Muslim India.[214] The Congress was secular and strongly opposed having any religious state.[211] It insisted there was a natural unity to India, and repeatedly blamed the British for "divide and rule" tactics based on prompting Muslims to think of themselves as alien from Hindus.[citation needed] Jinnah
Jinnah
rejected the notion of a united India, and emphasised that religious communities were more basic than an artificial nationalism. He proclaimed the Two-Nation Theory,[215] stating at Lahore
Lahore
on 23 March 1940:

[Islam and Hinduism] are not religions in the strict sense of the word, but are, in fact, different and distinct social orders and it is a dream that the Hindus and Muslims can ever evolve a common nationality ... The Hindu
The Hindu
and Muslim belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature [sic]. They neither intermarry nor interdine together and indeed they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspects on life and of life are different ... To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the government of such a state.[216]

While the regular Indian army in 1939 included about 220,000 native troops, it expanded tenfold during the war[217] and small naval and air force units were created. Over two million Indians volunteered for military service in the British Army. They played a major role in numerous campaigns, especially in the Middle East and North Africa. Casualties were moderate (in terms of the world war), with 24,000 killed; 64,000 wounded; 12,000 missing (probably dead), and 60,000 captured at Singapore
Singapore
in 1942.[218][219] London
London
paid most of the cost of the Indian Army, which had the effect of erasing India's national debt. It ended the war with a surplus of £1,300 million. In addition, heavy British spending on munitions produced in India
India
(such as uniforms, rifles, machine-guns, field artillery, and ammunition) led to a rapid expansion of industrial output, such as textiles (up 16%), steel (up 18%), chemicals (up 30%). Small warships were built, and an aircraft factory opened in Bangalore. The railway system, with 700,000 employees, was taxed to the limit as demand for transportation soared.[220] 1942–1945: Cripps mission, Quit India
India
Resolution, INA[edit]

Subhas Chandra Bose
Subhas Chandra Bose
(second from left) with Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
(right), 1942.

The series of stamps, "Victory," issued by the Government of India
India
to commemorate the allied victory in World War II.

The British government sent the Cripps' mission in 1942 to secure Indian nationalists' co-operation in the war effort in exchange for a promise of independence as soon as the war ended. Top officials in Britain, most notably Prime Minister Winston Churchill, did not support the Cripps Mission and negotiations with the Congress soon broke down.[221] Congress launched the "Quit India" movement in July 1942 demanding the immediate withdrawal of the British from India
India
or face nationwide civil disobedience. On 8 August the Raj arrested all national, provincial and local Congress leaders, holding tens of thousands of them until 1945. The country erupted in violent demonstrations led by students and later by peasant political groups, especially in Eastern United Provinces, Bihar, and western Bengal. The large wartime British Army presence crushed the movement in a little more than six weeks;[222] nonetheless, a portion of the movement formed for a time an underground provisional government on the border with Nepal.[222] In other parts of India, the movement was less spontaneous and the protest less intensive, however it lasted sporadically into the summer of 1943. It did not slow down the British war effort or recruiting for the army.[223] Earlier, Subhas Chandra Bose, who had been a leader of the younger, radical, wing of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
in the late 1920s and 1930s, had risen to become Congress President from 1938 to 1939.[224] However, he was ousted from the Congress in 1939 following differences with the high command,[225] and subsequently placed under house arrest by the British before escaping from India
India
in early 1941.[226] He turned to Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan for help in gaining India's independence by force.[227] With Japanese support, he organised the Indian National Army, composed largely of Indian soldiers of the British Indian army who had been captured by the Japanese in the Battle of Singapore. As the war turned against them, the Japanese came to support a number of puppet and provisional governments in the captured regions, including those in Burma, the Philippines
Philippines
and Vietnam, and in addition, the Provisional Government of Azad Hind, presided by Bose.[227] Bose's effort, however, was short lived. In mid-1944 the British army first halted and then reversed the Japanese U-Go offensive, beginning the successful part of the Burma Campaign. Bose's Indian National Army largely disintegrated during the subsequent fighting in Burma, with its remaining elements surrendering with the recapture of Singapore
Singapore
in September 1945. Bose died in August from third degree burns received after attempting to escape in an overloaded Japanese plane which crashed in Taiwan,[228] which many Indians believe did not happen.[229][230][231] Although Bose was unsuccessful, he roused patriotic feelings in India.[232] 1946: Elections, Cabinet mission, Direct Action Day[edit] See also: Interim Government of India

Members of the 1946 Cabinet Mission to India
India
meeting Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Far left is Lord Pethick Lawrence; far right is Sir Stafford Cripps.

In January 1946, a number of mutinies broke out in the armed services, starting with that of RAF servicemen frustrated with their slow repatriation to Britain.[233] The mutinies came to a head with mutiny of the Royal Indian Navy in Bombay
Bombay
in February 1946, followed by others in Calcutta, Madras, and Karachi. Although the mutinies were rapidly suppressed, they had the effect of spurring the new Labour government in Britain to action, and leading to the Cabinet Mission to India
India
led by the Secretary of State for India, Lord Pethick Lawrence, and including Sir Stafford Cripps, who had visited four years before.[233] Also in early 1946, new elections were called in India. Earlier, at the end of the war in 1945, the colonial government had announced the public trial of three senior officers of Bose's defeated Indian National Army who stood accused of treason. Now as the trials began, the Congress leadership, although ambivalent towards the INA, chose to defend the accused officers.[234] The subsequent convictions of the officers, the public outcry against the convictions, and the eventual remission of the sentences, created positive propaganda for the Congress, which only helped in the party's subsequent electoral victories in eight of the eleven provinces.[235] The negotiations between the Congress and the Muslim League, however, stumbled over the issue of the partition. Jinnah
Jinnah
proclaimed 16 August 1946, Direct Action Day, with the stated goal of highlighting, peacefully, the demand for a Muslim homeland in British India. The following day Hindu-Muslim riots broke out in Calcutta
Calcutta
and quickly spread throughout British India. Although the Government of India
India
and the Congress were both shaken by the course of events, in September, a Congress-led interim government was installed, with Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
as united India's prime minister.[236] 1947: Planning for partition[edit]

Percentage of Hindus by district. Map of British Indian Empire, 1909.

Percentage of Muslims by district. Map of British Indian Empire, 1909.

Later that year, the Labour government in Britain, its exchequer exhausted by the recently concluded World War II, and conscious that it had neither the mandate at home, the international support, nor the reliability of native forces for continuing to control an increasingly restless British India,[237]

By the end of 1945, he and the Commander-in-Chief of India, General Auckinleck were advising that there was a real threat in 1946 of large-scale anti-British disorder amounting to even a well-organised rising aiming to expel the British by paralysing the administration.[213][238]

...it was clear to Attlee that everything depended on the spirit and reliability of the Indian Army:

"Provided that they do their duty, armed insurrection in India
India
would not be an insoluble problem.[213] If, however, the Indian Army was to go the other way, the picture would be very different ...

Thus, Wavell concluded, if the army and the police "failed" Britain would be forced to go. In theory, it might be possible to revive and reinvigorate the services, and rule for another fifteen to twenty years, but:

It is a fallacy to suppose that the solution lies in trying to maintain status quo. We have no longer the resources, nor the necessary prestige or confidence in ourselves.[239] decided to end British rule of India, and in early 1947 Britain announced its intention of transferring power no later than June 1948.[213]

As independence approached, the violence between Hindus and Muslims in the provinces of Punjab and Bengal
Bengal
continued unabated. With the British army unprepared for the potential for increased violence, the new viceroy, Louis Mountbatten, advanced the date for the transfer of power, allowing less than six months for a mutually agreed plan for independence.[238] In June 1947, the nationalist leaders, including Sardar Patel, Nehru and Abul Kalam Azad
Abul Kalam Azad
on behalf of the Congress, Jinnah
Jinnah
representing the Muslim League, B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
representing the Untouchable community, and Master Tara Singh
Master Tara Singh
representing the Sikhs, agreed to a partition of the country along religious lines in stark opposition to Gandhi's views.[213] The predominantly Hindu and Sikh areas were assigned to the new nation of India
India
and predominantly Muslim areas to the new nation of Pakistan; the plan included a partition of the Muslim-majority provinces of Punjab and Bengal.[240] 1947: Violence, partition, independence[edit] Main article: Partition of India
Partition of India
§ Geographic partition, 1947 On 15 August 1947, the new Dominion of Pakistan
Dominion of Pakistan
(later Islamic Republic of Pakistan), with Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
as the Governor-General; and the Union of India, (later Republic of India) with Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
as the prime minister, and the viceroy, Louis Mountbatten, staying on as its first Governor General came into being; with official ceremonies taking place in Karachi
Karachi
on 14 August and New Delhi
Delhi
on 15 August. This was done so that Mountbatten could attend both ceremonies.[241] The great majority of Indians remained in place with independence, but in border areas millions of people (Muslim, Sikh, and Hindu) relocated across the newly drawn borders. In Punjab, where the new border lines divided the Sikh regions in half, there was much bloodshed; in Bengal and Bihar, where Gandhi's presence assuaged communal tempers, the violence was more limited. In all, somewhere between 250,000 and 500,000 people on both sides of the new borders, among both the refugee and resident populations of the three faiths, died in the violence.[242] Other estimates of the number of deaths are as high as 1,500,000.[243] Ideological impact[edit] At independence and after the independence of India, India
India
has maintained such central British institutions as parliamentary government, one-person, one-vote and the rule of law through nonpartisan courts.[130] It retained as well the institutional arrangements of the Raj such as district administration, universities and stock exchanges. One major change was the rejection of its former separate princely states. Metcalf shows that over the course of two centuries, British intellectuals and Indian specialists made the highest priority bringing peace, unity and good government to India.[244] They offered many competing methods to reach the goal. For example, Cornwallis recommended turning Bengali Zamindar
Zamindar
into the sort of English landlords that controlled local affairs in England.[244] Munro proposed to deal directly with the peasants. Sir William Jones and the Orientalists promoted Sanskrit, while Macaulay promoted the English language.[245] Zinkin argues that in the long-run, what matters most about the legacy of the Raj is the British political ideologies which the Indians took over after 1947, especially the belief in unity, democracy, the rule of law and a certain equality beyond caste and creed.[244] Zinkin sees this not just in the Congress party but also among Hindu Nationalists in the Bharatiya Janata Party, which specifically emphasises Hindu traditions.[246][247]

See also[edit]

British Empire
Empire
portal India
India
portal

List of Governors-General of India Company rule in India Legislatures of British India Indian independence movement Western imperialism in Asia Interim Government of India Colonial India Glossary of the British Raj (Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
words) Direct colonial rule

Notes[edit]

^ The only other emperor during this period, Edward VIII, 1938, did not issue any Indian currency under his name. ^ in millions

References[edit]

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Interpretation Act 1889
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and the nationalist movement: neutrality, politics and continuity", Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, (Nov 2010), 48#4 pp. 404–32 ^ B. R. Tomlinson, The economy of modern India, 1860–1970 (1996) p. 109 ^ Judith Brown, Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy (1994) p. 12 ^ Angus Maddison, The World Economy, pp. 109–12, (2001) ^ Nehru 1946, p. 295 ^ a b c "Britain in India, Ideology and Economics to 1900". Fsmitha. F. Smith. Retrieved 2 August 2014.  ^ Rajat Kanta Ray, "Indian Society and the Establishment of British Supremacy, 1765–1818", in The Oxford History of the British Empire: vol. 2, "The Eighteenth Century" ed. by P. J. Marshall, (1998), pp. 508–29 ^ a b c "Impact of British Rule on India: Economic, Social and Cultural (1757–1857)" (PDF). Nios.ac.uk. NIOS. Retrieved 2 August 2014.  ^ P.J. Marshall, "The British in Asia: Trade to Dominion, 1700–1765", in The Oxford History of the British Empire: vol. 2, The Eighteenth Century ed. by P. J. Marshall, (1998), pp. 487–507 ^ Maddison, Angus (1971). Class Structure and Economic Growth: India and Pakistan
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Since the Moghuls. Taylor & Francis. p. 53. ISBN 0-415-38259-9.  ^ Lockard, Craig A. (2010). Societies, Networks, and Transitions, Volume 3. Cengage Learning. ISBN 1-4390-8534-X.  ^ Desai, Raychaudhuri & Kumar 1983, p. 528. ^ Grove 2007, p. 80. ^ Grove 2007, p. 83. ^ a b c d Fieldhouse 1996, p. 132. ^ Desai, Raychaudhuri & Kumar 1983, p. 529. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India
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vol. III 1907, p. 488. ^ Davis 2001, p. 7. ^ Desai, Raychaudhuri & Kumar 1983, pp. 530. ^ a b Desai, Raychaudhuri & Kumar 1983, p. 531. ^ Bose 1918, pp. 79–81. ^ Rai 2008, pp. 263–281. ^ Koomar 2009, pp. 13–14. ^ Davis, Mike. Late Victorian Holocausts. 1. Verso, 2000. ISBN 978-1-85984-739-8 p. 7 ^ Davis, Mike. Late Victorian Holocausts. 1. Verso, 2000. ISBN 978-1-85984-739-8 p. 173 ^ Sen, Amartya. Development as Freedom. ISBN 978-0-385-72027-4 ch 7 ^ Ó Gráda, C.: "Famine: A Short History Archived 12 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.". Princeton University Press. ^ Hall-Matthews 2008, p. 1 ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India
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vol. III 1907, p. 478 ^ John Pike (24 July 2011). "Cholera – Biological Weapons". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ The 1832 Cholera Epidemic in New York State, By G. William Beardslee ^ Infectious Diseases: Plague Through History, sciencemag.org ^ Malaria
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Archived 10 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine., National Library of Scotland 2007 ^ "Other histories of smallpox in South Asia". Smallpoxhistory.ucl.ac.uk. 18 July 2006. Archived from the original on 16 April 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ "Feature Story: Smallpox". Vigyanprasar.gov.in. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ Rogers, L (January 1945). " Smallpox
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and Vaccination in British India During the Last Seventy Years" (PDF). Proc. R. Soc. Med. 38: 135–40. PMC 2181657 . PMID 19993010.  ^ Smallpox
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– some unknown heroes in smallpox eradication ^ "Sir JJ Group of Hospitals". Grantmedicalcollege-jjhospital.org. Archived from the original on 20 April 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ Spear 1990, p. 169 ^ a b Majumdar, Raychaudhuri & Datta 1950, p. 888 ^ F.H. Hinsley, ed. The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 11: Material Progress and World-Wide Problems, 1870–98 (1962) contents pp. 411–36. ^ Spear 1990, p. 170 ^ Bose & Jalal 2003, p. 100 ^ James S. Olson and Robert S. Shadle, Historical Dictionary of the British Empire
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(1996) p. 116 ^ Helen S. Dyer, Pandita Ramabai: the story of her life (1900) online ^ David Ludden, India
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and South Asia: a short history (2002) p.197 ^ Stanley A. Wolpert, Tilak and Gokhale: revolution and reform in the making of modern India
India
(1962) p 67 ^ Michael Edwardes, High Noon of Empire: India
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under Curzon (1965) p. 77 ^ Moore, "Imperial India, 1858–1914", p. 435 ^ John R. McLane, "The Decision to Partition Bengal
Bengal
in 1905", Indian Economic and Social History Review, July 1965, 2#3, pp. 221–37 ^ Ranbir Vohra, The Making of India: A Historical Survey (Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, Inc, 1997), 120 ^ V. Sankaran Nair, Swadeshi
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(2007) ch. 2 ^ a b c d e f g h Brown 1994, pp. 203–04 ^ a b c Brown 1994, pp. 201–02 ^ a b c Brown 1994, pp. 195–96 ^ a b c Stein 2001, p. 304 ^ Ludden 2002, p. 208 ^ a b c d e f g h i Brown 1994, pp. 205–07 ^ Chhabra 2005, p. 2 ^ Nick Lloyd, The Amritsar
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Bombay
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Act: last act of the Raj (2009) ^ a b " India
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(2004). The Idea of Pakistan. Brookings Institution Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-8157-1502-1.  ^ D. N. Panigrahi (2004). India's partition: the story of imperialism in retreat. Routledge. pp. 151–152. ISBN 978-1-280-04817-3.  ^ Recruitment was especially active in the Punjab province of British India, under the leadership of Premier Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan, who believed in cooperating with the British to achieve eventual independence for the Indian nation. For details of various recruitment drives by Sir Sikandar between 1939 and 1942, see Tarin, Omer; Dando, Neal (Autumn 2010). "Memoirs of the Second World War: Major Shaukat Hayat Khan". Durbar: Journal of the Indian Military Historical Society (Critique). 27 (3): 136–37.  ^ Roy, Kaushik (2009). "Military Loyalty in the Colonial Context: A Case Study of the Indian Army during World War II". Journal of Military History. 73 (2).  ^ Alan Jeffreys, and Patrick Rose, eds. The Indian Army 1939–47: Experience and Development (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), 244 pp. online review ^ John F. Riddick, The history of British India: a chronology (2006) p. 142 ^ Shyam Ratna Gupta, "New Light on the Cripps Mission", India Quarterly, (Jan 1972), Vol. 28 Issue 1, p. 69–74 ^ a b (Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, pp. 206–07) ^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, pp. 418–20 ^ Stein 2010, pp. 305, 325": Jawaharlal Nehru
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Subhas Chandra Bose
and India's Struggle against Empire, Harvard University Press, p. 320, ISBN 978-0-674-04754-9, retrieved 21 September 2013  ^ Stein 2001, p. 345. ^ a b (Judd 2004, pp. 172–73) ^ (Judd 2004, pp. 170–71) ^ (Judd 2004, p. 172) ^ Sarvepalli Gopal (1976). Jawaharlal Nehru: A Biography. Harvard University Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-0-674-47310-2. Retrieved 21 February 2012.  ^ Hyam 2007, p. 106 ^ a b "Indian Independence". British Library: Help for Researchers. British Library. Retrieved 2 August 2014. portal to educational sources available in the India
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Bharatiya Janata Party
(Westview Press, 1994), p. 14

Bibliography[edit]

Media related to British Raj
British Raj
at Wikimedia Commons British Raj
British Raj
travel guide from Wikivoyage

Surveys[edit]

Allan, J., T. Wolseley Haig, H. H. Dodwell. The Cambridge Shorter History of India
History of India
(1934) 996 pp. online; at Google Bandhu, Deep Chand. History of Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
(2003) 405pp Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar (2004), From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India, New Delhi
New Delhi
and London: Orient Longmans. Pp. xx, 548., ISBN 978-81-250-2596-2 . Bayly, C. A. (1990), Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire
Empire
(The New Cambridge History of India), Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 248, ISBN 978-0-521-38650-0 . Brown, Judith M. (1994), Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy, Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 474, ISBN 978-0-19-873113-9 . Bose, Sugata; Jalal, Ayesha (2003), Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-30787-1  Copland, Ian (2001), India
India
1885–1947: The Unmaking of an Empire (Seminar Studies in History Series), Harlow and London: Pearson Longmans. Pp. 160, ISBN 978-0-582-38173-5  Coupland, Reginald. India: A Re-Statement (Oxford University Press, 1945), evaluation of the Raj, emphasising government. online edition Dodwell H. H., ed. The Cambridge History of India. Volume 6: The Indian Empire
Empire
1858–1918. With Chapters on the Development of Administration 1818–1858 (1932) 660 pp. online edition; also published as vol 5 of the Cambridge History of the British Empire Herbertson, A.J. and O.J.R. Howarth. eds. The Oxford Survey Of The British Empire
Empire
(6 vol 1914) online vol 2 on Asia pp. 1–328 on India James, Lawrence. Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India
British India
(2000) Judd, Denis (2004), The Lion and the Tiger: The Rise and Fall of the British Raj, 1600–1947, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 280, ISBN 978-0-19-280358-0 . Kumar, Dharma, and Meghnad Desai, eds. The Cambridge Economic History of India, Volume 2: c. 1757–2003 (2010), 1114pp; articles by scholars ISBN 978-81-250-2731-7 Louis, William Roger, and Judith M. Brown, eds. The Oxford History of the British Empire
Empire
(5 vol 1999–2001), with numerous articles on the Raj Ludden, David. India
India
And South Asia: A Short History (2002) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra; Raychaudhuri, Hemchandra; Datta, Kalikinkar (1950), An advanced history of India  Majumdar, R. C. ed. (1970). British paramountcy and Indian renaissance. (The history and culture of the Indian people) Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. Mansingh, Surjit The A to Z of India
India
(2010), a concise historical encyclopaedia Marshall, P. J. (2001), The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire, 400 pp., Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press., ISBN 978-0-521-00254-7 . Markovits, Claude, ed. (2005), A History of Modern India
India
1480–1950 (Anthem South Asian Studies), Anthem Press. Pp. 607, ISBN 978-1-84331-152-2 . Metcalf, Barbara (2006), A Concise History of Modern India
India
(Cambridge Concise Histories), Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. xxxiii, 372, ISBN 978-0-521-68225-1  Moon, Penderel. The British Conquest and Dominion of India
Dominion of India
(2 vol. 1989) 1235pp; the fullest scholarly history of political and military events from a British top-down perspective; Panikkar, K. M. (1953). Asia and Western dominance, 1498-1945, by K.M. Panikkar. London: G. Allen and Unwin. Peers, Douglas M. (2006), India
India
under Colonial Rule 1700–1885, Harlow and London: Pearson Longmans. Pp. xvi, 163, ISBN 0-582-31738-X . Riddick, John F. The history of British India: a chronology (2006) excerpt and text search, covers 1599–1947 Riddick, John F. Who Was Who in British India
British India
(1998), covers 1599–1947 Sarkar, Sumit. Modern India, 1885–1947 (2002) Smith, Vincent A. (1958) The Oxford History of India
History of India
(3rd ed.) the Raj section was written by Percival Spear Somervell, D.C. The Reign of King George V, (1936) covers Raj 1910–35 pp. 80–84, 282–91, 455–64 online free Spear, Percival (1990) [First published 1965], A History of India, Volume 2, New Delhi
New Delhi
and London: Penguin Books. Pp. 298, ISBN 978-0-14-013836-8 . Stein, Burton (2001), A History of India, New Delhi
New Delhi
and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiv, 432, ISBN 978-0-19-565446-2 . Thompson, Edward, and G.T. Garratt. Rise and Fulfilment of British Rule in India
India
(1934) 690 pages; scholarly survey, 1599–1933 excerpt and text search Wolpert, Stanley (2003), A New History of India, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 544, ISBN 978-0-19-516678-1 . Wolpert, Stanley, ed. Encyclopedia of India
India
(4 vol. 2005) comprehensive coverage by scholars

Specialised topics[edit]

Baker, David (1993), Colonialism in an Indian Hinterland: The Central Provinces, 1820–1920, Delhi: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 374, ISBN 978-0-19-563049-7  Bayly, C. A. (2000), Empire
Empire
and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780–1870 (Cambridge Studies in Indian History and Society), Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 426, ISBN 978-0-521-66360-1  Bayly, Christopher; Harper, Timothy (2007), Forgotten Wars: Freedom and Revolution in Southeast Asia, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-02153-2, retrieved 21 September 2013  Bayly, Christopher; Harper, Timothy (2005), Forgotten Armies: The Fall of British Asia, 1941–1945, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-01748-1, retrieved 22 September 2013  Brown, Judith M. Gandhi: Prisoner of Hope (1991), scholarly biography Brown, Judith M.; Louis, Wm. Roger, eds. (2001), Oxford History of the British Empire: The Twentieth Century, Oxford University Press. pp. 800, ISBN 978-0-19-924679-3  Buckland, C.E. Dictionary of Indian Biography (1906) 495 pp. full text Carrington, Michael. Officers, Gentlemen, and Murderers: Lord Curzon's campaign against "collisions" between Indians and Europeans, 1899–1905, Modern Asian Studies / Volume 47 / Issue 03 / May 2013, pp. 780–819. Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan (1998), Imperial Power and Popular Politics: Class, Resistance and the State in India, 1850–1950, (Cambridge Studies in Indian History & Society). Cambridge University Press. Pp. 400, ISBN 978-0-521-59692-3 . Chatterji, Joya (1993), Bengal
Bengal
Divided: Hindu Communalism and Partition, 1932–1947, Cambridge University Press. Pp. 323, ISBN 978-0-521-52328-8 . Copland, Ian (2002), Princes of India
India
in the Endgame of Empire, 1917–1947, (Cambridge Studies in Indian History & Society). Cambridge University Press. Pp. 316, ISBN 978-0-521-89436-4 . Manmath Nath Das (1964). India
India
under Morley and Minto: politics behind revolution, repression and reforms. G. Allen and Unwin.  Dewey, Clive. Anglo-Indian Attitudes: The Mind of the Indian Civil Service (2003) Ewing, Ann. "Administering India: The Indian Civil Service", History Today, June 1982, 32#6 pp. 43–48, covers 1858–1947 Gilmartin, David. 1988. Empire
Empire
and Islam: Punjab and the Making of Pakistan. University of California Press. 258 pages. ISBN 978-0-520-06249-8. Gilmour, David. The Ruling Caste: Imperial Lives in the Victorian Raj (2007) Excerpt and text search Gilmour, David. Curzon: Imperial Statesman (2006) excerpt and text search Gopal, Sarvepalli (1 January 1976). Jawaharlal Nehru: A Biography. Harvard U. Press. ISBN 978-0-674-47310-2. Retrieved 21 February 2012.  Sarvepalli Gopal (1953). The viceroyalty of Lord Ripon, 1880–1884. Oxford U. Press. Retrieved 21 February 2012.  Gould, William (2004), Hindu Nationalism and the Language of Politics in Late Colonial India, Cambridge U. Press. Pp. 320 . Gopal, Sarvepalli. British Policy in India
India
1858–1905 (2008) Gopal, Sarvepalli. Viceroyalty of Lord Irwin 1926–1931 (1957) Jalal, Ayesha (1993), The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan, Cambridge U. Press, 334 pages . Kaminsky, Arnold P. The India
India
Office, 1880–1910 (1986) excerpt and text search, focus on officials in London Khan, Yasmin. India
India
At War: The Subcontinent and the Second World War (2015), wide-ranging scholarly survey excerpt; also published as Khan, Yasmin. The Raj At War: A People's History Of India's Second World War (2015) a major, comprehensive scholarly study Khan, Yasmin (2007), The Great Partition: The Making of India
India
and Pakistan, Yale U. Press, 250 pages, ISBN 978-0-300-12078-3  Klein, Ira (July 2000), "Materialism, Mutiny and Modernization in British India", Modern Asian Studies, Cambridge University Press, 34 (3): 545–80, JSTOR 313141  Kumar, Deepak. Science and the Raj: A Study of British India
British India
(2006) Low, D. A. (2002), Britain and Indian Nationalism: The Imprint of Ambiguity 1929–1942, Cambridge University Press. Pp. 374, ISBN 978-0-521-89261-2 . Lipsett, Chaldwell. Lord Curzon
Lord Curzon
in India
India
1898–1903 (1903) excerpt and text search 128pp MacMillan, Margaret. Women of the Raj: The Mothers, Wives, and Daughters of the British Empire
Empire
in India
India
(2007) Metcalf, Thomas R. (1991), The Aftermath of Revolt: India, 1857–1870, Riverdale Co. Pub. Pp. 352, ISBN 978-81-85054-99-5  Metcalf, Thomas R. (1997), Ideologies of the Raj, Cambridge University Press, Pp. 256, ISBN 978-0-521-58937-6  Moore, Robin J. "Imperial India, 1858–1914", in Porter, ed. Oxford History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, (2001a), pp. 422–46 Moore, Robin J. " India
India
in the 1940s", in Robin Winks, ed. Oxford History of the British Empire: Historiography, (2001b), pp. 231–42 Porter, Andrew, ed. (2001), Oxford History of the British Empire: Nineteenth Century, Oxford University Press. Pp. 800, ISBN 978-0-19-924678-6  Masood Ashraf Raja. Constructing Pakistan: Foundational Texts and the Rise of Muslim National Identity, 1857–1947, Oxford 2010, ISBN 978-0-19-547811-2 Ramusack, Barbara (2004), The Indian Princes and their States (The New Cambridge History of India), Cambridge University Press. Pp. 324, ISBN 978-0-521-03989-5  Moore, Robin J. " India
India
in the 1940s", in Robin Winks, ed. Oxford History of the British Empire: Historiography (2001), pp. 231–42 Raghavan, Srinath. India's War: World War II
World War II
and the Making of Modern South Asia (2016). wide-ranging scholarly survey excerpt Read, Anthony, and David Fisher; The Proudest Day: India's Long Road to Independence (W. W. Norton, 1999) online edition; detailed scholarly history of 1940–47 Riddick, John F. The History of British India: A Chronology (2006) excerpt Riddick, John F. Who Was Who in British India
British India
(1998); 5000 entries excerpt Shaikh, Farzana (1989), Community and Consensus in Islam: Muslim Representation in Colonial India, 1860—1947, Cambridge University Press. Pp. 272., ISBN 978-0-521-36328-0 . Talbot, Ian; Singh, Gurharpal, eds. (1999), Region and Partition: Bengal, Punjab and the Partition of the Subcontinent, Oxford University Press. Pp. 420, ISBN 978-0-19-579051-1 . Thatcher, Mary. Respected Memsahibs: an Anthology (Hardinge Simpole, 2008) Tinker, Hugh (1968), " India
India
in the First World War
First World War
and after" Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1918–19: From War to Peace. (Oct. 1968), pp. 89–107, ISSN 0022-0094 . Voigt, Johannes. India
India
in The Second World War (1988) Wainwright, A. Martin (1993), Inheritance of Empire: Britain, India, and the Balance of Power in Asia, 1938–55, Praeger Publishers. Pp. xvi, 256, ISBN 978-0-275-94733-0 . Wolpert, Stanley A. Jinnah
Jinnah
of Pakistan
Pakistan
(2005) Wolpert, Stanley (2007), "India: British Imperial Power 1858–1947 ( Indian nationalism
Indian nationalism
and the British response, 1885–1920; Prelude to Independence, 1920–1947)", Encyclopædia Britannica . Wolpert, Stanley A. Tilak and Gokhale: revolution and reform in the making of modern India
India
(1962) full text online

Economic history[edit]

Anstey, Vera. The economic development of India
India
(4th ed. 1952), 677pp; thorough scholarly coverage; focus on 20th century down to 1939 Chaudhary, Latika, et al. eds. A New Economic History of Colonial India
India
(2015) Derbyshire, I. D. (1987), "Economic Change and the Railways in North India, 1860–1914", Population Studies, Cambridge University Press, 21 (3): 521–45, doi:10.1017/s0026749x00009197, JSTOR 312641  Dutt, Romesh C. The Economic History of India
History of India
under early British Rule, first published 1902, 2001 edition by Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-24493-0 Kumar, Dharma, ed. Cambridge Economic History of India: Vol. 2, 1757–2003 (2nd ed. 2005); 1150pp; comprehensive coverage by international scholars Lockwood, David. The Indian Bourgeoisie: A Political History of the Indian Capitalist Class in the Early Twentieth Century (I.B. Tauris, 2012) 315 pages; focus on Indian entrepreneurs who benefited from the Raj, but ultimately sided with the Indian National Congress. Roy, Tirthankar (Summer 2002), "Economic History and Modern India: Redefining the Link", The Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, 16 (3): 109–30, doi:10.1257/089533002760278749, JSTOR 3216953  Sarkar, J. (2013, reprint). Economics of British India
British India
... Third edition. Enlarged and partly rewritten. Calcutta: M.C. Sarkar & Sons. Simmons, Colin (1985), "'De-Industrialization', Industrialization and the Indian Economy, c. 1850–1947", Modern Asian Studies, Cambridge University Press, 19 (3): 593–622, doi:10.1017/s0026749x00007745, JSTOR 312453  Tirthankar, Roy. "Financing the Raj: the City of London
London
and colonial India
India
1858–1940." Business History 56#6 (2014): 1024–1026. Tomlinson, B. R. The Economy of Modern India, 1860–1970 (The New Cambridge History of India) (1996) excerpt and text search Tomlinson, B. H. " India
India
and the British Empire, 1880–1935", Indian Economic and Social History Review, (Oct 1975), 12#4 pp. 337–380

Historiography and memory[edit]

Andrews, C.F. (2017). India
India
and the Simon Report. Routledge
Routledge
reprint of 1930 first edition. p. 11. ISBN 9781315444987.  Durant, Will (2011, reprint). The case for India. New York, N.Y: Simon and Schuster. Ellis, Catriona (2009). "Education for All: Reassessing the Historiography of Education in Colonial India". History Compass. 7 (2): 363–75. doi:10.1111/j.1478-0542.2008.00564.x.  Gilmartin, David (2015). "The Historiography of India's Partition: Between Civilization and Modernity". The Journal of Asian Studies. 74 (1): 23–41. doi:10.1017/s0021911814001685.  Major, Andrea (2011). "Tall tales and true: India, historiography and British imperial imaginings". Contemporary South Asia. 19 (3): 331–32. doi:10.1080/09584935.2011.594257.  Mantena, Rama Sundari. The Origins of Modern Historiography in India: Antiquarianism and Philology (2012) Moor-Gilbert, Bart. Writing India, 1757–1990: The Literature of British India
British India
(1996) on fiction written in English Mukherjee, Soumyen. "Origins of Indian Nationalism: Some Questions on the Historiography of Modern India." Sydney Studies in Society and Culture 13 (2014). online Parkash, Jai. "Major trends of historiography of revolutionary movement in India-Phase II." (PhD dissertation, Maharshi Dayanand University, 2013). online Philips, Cyril H. ed. Historians of India, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Ceylon (1961), reviews the older scholarship Stern, Philip J (2009). "History and Historiography of the English East India
India
Company: Past, Present, and Future". History Compass. 7 (4): 1146–80. doi:10.1111/j.1478-0542.2009.00617.x.  Whitehead, Clive. "The historiography of British imperial education policy, Part I: India." History of Education 34#3 (2005): 315–329. Winks, Robin, ed. Historiography (1999) vol. 5 in William Roger Louis, eds. The Oxford History of the British Empire, chapters 11–15, online Winks, Robin W. The Historiography of the British Empire-Commonwealth: Trends, Interpretations and Resources (1966); this book is by a different set of authors from the previous 1999 entry online Young, Richard Fox, ed., Indian Christian Historiography from Below, from Above, and in Between India
India
and the Indianness of Christianity: Essays on Understanding—Historical, Theological, and Bibliographical—in Honor of Robert Eric Frykenberg (2009)

Further reading[edit]

Simon Report (1930) vol 1, wide-ranging survey of conditions Keith, Arthur Berriedale (1912). Responsible government
Responsible government
in the dominions. The Clarendon press. , major primary source

Year books and statistical records[edit]

Indian Year-book for 1862: A review of social, intellectual, and religious progress in India
India
and Ceylon (1863), ed. by John Murdoch online edition 1861 edition The Year-book of the Imperial Institute of the United Kingdom, the colonies and India: a statistical record of the resources and trade of the colonial and Indian possessions of the British Empire
Empire
(2nd. ed.), India, 1893, pp. 375–462 – via Google Books  The Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
(26 vol, 1908–31), highly detailed description of all of India
India
in 1901. online edition Statistical abstract relating to British India, from 1895–96 to 1904–05 (London, 1906) full text online, The Cyclopedia of India: biographical, historical, administrative, commercial (1908) business history, biographies, illustrations The Indian year book: 1914 (1914) snippets The Indian Annual Register: A digest of public affairs of India regarding the nation's activities in the matters, political, economic, industrial, educational, etc. during the period 1919–1947 online

1930 edition 1921 edition 1919–1947 editions

v t e

Indian Independence Movement

History

Colonisation Porto Grande de Bengala Dutch Bengal East India
India
Company British Raj French India Portuguese India Battle of Plassey Battle of Buxar Anglo-Mysore Wars

First Second Third Fourth

Anglo-Maratha Wars

First Second Third

Polygar Wars Vellore Mutiny First Anglo-Sikh War Second Anglo-Sikh War Sannyasi Rebellion Rebellion of 1857 Radcliffe Line more

Philosophies and ideologies

Ambedkarism Gandhism Hindu nationalism Indian nationalism Khilafat Movement Muslim nationalism in South Asia Satyagraha Socialism Swadeshi
Swadeshi
movement Swaraj

Events and movements

Partition of Bengal
Bengal
(1905) Partition of Bengal
Bengal
(1947) Revolutionaries Direct Action Day Delhi- Lahore
Lahore
Conspiracy The Indian Sociologist Singapore
Singapore
Mutiny Hindu–German Conspiracy Champaran
Champaran
Satyagraha Kheda
Kheda
Satyagraha Rowlatt Committee Rowlatt Bills Jallianwala Bagh
Jallianwala Bagh
massacre Noakhali riots Non-Cooperation Movement Christmas Day Plot Coolie-Begar Movement Chauri Chaura incident, 1922 Kakori conspiracy Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre Flag Satyagraha Bardoli 1928 Protests Nehru Report Fourteen Points of Jinnah Purna Swaraj Salt March Dharasana Satyagraha Vedaranyam March Chittagong armoury raid Gandhi–Irwin Pact Round table conferences Act of 1935 Aundh Experiment Indische Legion Cripps' mission Quit India Bombay
Bombay
Mutiny Coup d'état of Yanaon Provisional Government of India Independence Day

Organisations

All India
India
Kisan Sabha All- India
India
Muslim League Anushilan Samiti Arya Samaj Azad Hind Berlin Committee Ghadar Party Hindustan Socialist Republican Association Indian National Congress India
India
House Indian Home Rule movement Indian Independence League Indian National Army Jugantar Khaksar Tehrik Khudai Khidmatgar Swaraj
Swaraj
Party more

Social reformers

A. Vaidyanatha Iyer Ayya Vaikundar Ayyankali B. R. Ambedkar Baba Amte Bal Gangadhar Tilak Dayananda Saraswati Dhondo Keshav Karve G. Subramania Iyer Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty Gopal Ganesh Agarkar Gopal Hari Deshmukh Gopaldas Ambaidas Desai Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar J. B. Kripalani Jyotirao Phule Kandukuri Veeresalingam Mahadev Govind Ranade Mahatma Gandhi Muthulakshmi Reddi Narayana Guru Niralamba Swami Pandita Ramabai Periyar E. V. Ramasamy Ram Mohan Roy Rettamalai Srinivasan Sahajanand Saraswati Savitribai Phule Shahu Sister Nivedita Sri Aurobindo Syed Ahmad Khan Vakkom Moulavi Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Vinoba Bhave Vitthal Ramji Shinde Vivekananda

Independence activists

Abul Kalam Azad Accamma Cherian Achyut Patwardhan A. K. Fazlul Huq Alluri Sitarama Raju Annapurna Maharana Annie Besant Ashfaqulla Khan Babu Kunwar Singh Bagha Jatin Bahadur Shah II Bakht Khan Bal Gangadhar Tilak Basawon Singh Begum Hazrat Mahal Bhagat Singh Bharathidasan Bhavabhushan Mitra Bhikaiji Cama Bhupendra Kumar Datta Bidhan Chandra Roy Bipin Chandra Pal C. Rajagopalachari Chandra Shekhar Azad Chetram Jatav Chittaranjan Das Dadabhai Naoroji Dayananda Saraswati Dhan Singh Dukkipati Nageswara Rao Gopal Krishna Gokhale Govind Ballabh Pant Har Dayal Hemu Kalani Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi Jatindra Mohan Sengupta Jatindra Nath Das Jawaharlal Nehru K. Kamaraj Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Khudiram Bose Shri Krishna Singh Lala Lajpat Rai M. Bhaktavatsalam M. N. Roy Mahadaji Shinde Mahatma Gandhi Mangal Pandey Mir Qasim Mithuben Petit‎ Muhammad Ali Jauhar Muhammad Ali Jinnah Muhammad Mian Mansoor Ansari Nagnath Naikwadi Nana Fadnavis Nana Sahib P. Kakkan Prafulla Chaki Pritilata Waddedar Pritilata Waddedar Purushottam Das Tandon R. Venkataraman Rahul Sankrityayan Rajendra Prasad Ram Prasad Bismil Rani Lakshmibai Rash Behari Bose Sahajanand Saraswati Sangolli Rayanna Sarojini Naidu Satyapal Dang Shuja-ud-Daula Shyamji Krishna Varma Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi Siraj ud-Daulah Subhas Chandra Bose Subramania Bharati Subramaniya Siva Surya Sen Syama Prasad Mukherjee Tara Rani Srivastava Tarak Nath Das Tatya Tope Tiruppur Kumaran Ubaidullah Sindhi V O Chidamabaram V. K. Krishna Menon Vallabhbhai Patel Vanchinathan Veeran Sundaralingam Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Virendranath Chattopadhyaya Yashwantrao Holkar Yogendra Shukla more

British leaders

Wavell Canning Cornwallis Irwin Chelmsford Curzon Ripon Minto Dalhousie Bentinck Mountbatten Wellesley Lytton Clive Outram Cripps Linlithgow Hastings

Independence

Cabinet Mission Annexation of French colonies in India Constitution Republic of India Indian annexation of Goa Indian Independence Act Partition of India Political integration Simla Conference

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta
Malta
(Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta
Malta
(Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6.  League of Nations
League of Nations
mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan
Bhutan
(protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation
Federation
of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

League of Nations
League of Nations
mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

v t e

Former monarchies

List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 20th and 21st centuries List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 19th century

Africa

Ethiopia Libya Tunisia Egypt Madagascar South Africa Burundi Central Africa Zanzibar Ghana Nigeria Sierra Leone Tanganyika Uganda Kenya Rhodesia The Gambia Mauritius Wituland

Asia

China Korea Vietnam Georgia India Manchukuo Iran Iraq Syria Yemen Afghanistan Turkey Pakistan Sri Lanka Tibet Nepal Mongolia

Europe

Germany

Bavaria Prussia Saxony Württemberg

Austria-Hungary Russia France Portugal Italy Two Sicilies Hungary Bulgaria Romania Yugoslavia Serbia Montenegro Greece Albania Lithuania Hanover Iceland Tuscany Polish-Lithuania Malta Papal States Finland

Oceania

Bora Bora Fiji Hawaii Rarotonga Tahiti

Americas

Brazil Mexico Haiti Trinidad and Tobago

.