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The BRITISH ISLES are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe
Europe
that consist of the islands of Great Britain
Great Britain
, Ireland
Ireland
and over six thousand smaller isles. Situated in the North Atlantic , the islands have a total area of approximately 315,159 km2, and a combined population of just under 70 million. Two sovereign states are located on the islands: Ireland
Ireland
(which covers roughly five-sixths of the island with the same name) and the United Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
Ireland
. The British Isles
British Isles
also include three Crown Dependencies : the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and, by tradition, the Bailiwick of Jersey
Jersey
and the Bailiwick of Guernsey
Guernsey
in the Channel Islands , although the latter are not physically a part of the archipelago .

The oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of Scotland
Scotland
, Ireland
Ireland
and North Wales
Wales
and are 2,700 million years old . During the Silurian period the north-western regions collided with the south-east, which had been part of a separate continental landmass. The topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. Ben Nevis rises to an elevation of only 1,344 metres (4,409 ft), and Lough Neagh
Lough Neagh
, which is notably larger than other lakes on the isles, covers 390 square kilometres (151 sq mi). The climate is temperate marine , with mild winters and warm summers. The North Atlantic Drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C (20 °F) above the global average for the latitude. This led to a landscape which was long dominated by temperate rainforest , although human activity has since cleared the vast majority of forest cover. The region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of Quaternary glaciation , by 12,000 BC, when Great Britain
Great Britain
was still part of a peninsula of the European continent . Ireland, which became an island by 12,000 BC, was not inhabited until after 8000 BC. Great Britain became an island by 5600 BC.

Hiberni (Ireland), Pictish (northern Britain) and Britons (southern Britain) tribes, all speaking Insular Celtic , inhabited the islands at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD. Much of Brittonic-controlled Britain was conquered by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from AD 43. The first Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century and eventually dominated the bulk of what is now England. Viking
Viking
invasions began in the 9th century, followed by more permanent settlements and political change—particularly in England. The subsequent Norman conquest of England in 1066 and the later Angevin partial conquest of Ireland
Ireland
from 1169 led to the imposition of a new Norman ruling elite across much of Britain and parts of Ireland. By the Late Middle Ages , Great Britain
Great Britain
was separated into the Kingdoms of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
, while control in Ireland
Ireland
fluxed between Gaelic kingdoms , Hiberno-Norman lords and the English-dominated Lordship of Ireland
Ireland
, soon restricted only to The Pale . The 1603 Union of the Crowns , Acts of Union 1707 and Acts of Union 1800 attempted to consolidate Britain and Ireland
Ireland
into a single political unit, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
, with the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
remaining as Crown Dependencies . The expansion of the British Empire
British Empire
and migrations following the Irish Famine and Highland Clearances resulted in the distribution of the islands' population and culture throughout the world and a rapid de-population of Ireland
Ireland
in the second half of the 19th century. Most of Ireland
Ireland
seceded from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
after the Irish War of Independence and the subsequent Anglo-Irish Treaty (1919–1922), with six counties remaining in the UK as Northern Ireland
Ireland
.

The term _British Isles_ is controversial in Ireland, where there are objections to its usage due to the association of the word _British_ with Ireland. The Government of Ireland
Ireland
does not recognise or use the term and its embassy in London
London
discourages its use. As a result, BRITAIN AND IRELAND is used as an alternative description, and ATLANTIC ARCHIPELAGO has had limited use among a minority in academia, while _British Isles_ is still commonly employed. Within them, they are also sometimes referred to as _these islands_.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 3 Flora
Flora
and fauna * 4 Demographics * 5 History

* 6 Politics

* 6.1 British–Irish Council

* 7 Culture * 8 Transport * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Main articles: Britain (place name) , British Isles naming dispute , and Terminology of the British Isles

The earliest known references to the islands as a group appeared in the writings of sea-farers from the ancient Greek colony of Massalia . The original records have been lost; however, later writings, e.g. Avienus 's _Ora maritima_, that quoted from the Massaliote Periplus (6th century BC) and from Pytheas 's _On the Ocean_ (circa 325–320 BC) have survived. In the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus has _Prettanikē nēsos_, "the British Island", and _Prettanoi_, "the Britons". Strabo
Strabo
used Βρεττανική (_Brettanike_), and Marcian of Heraclea , in his _Periplus maris exteri_, used αἱ Πρεττανικαί νῆσοι (_the Prettanic Isles_) to refer to the islands. Historians today, though not in absolute agreement, largely agree that these Greek and Latin names were probably drawn from native Celtic-language names for the archipelago. Along these lines, the inhabitants of the islands were called the Πρεττανοί (_ Priteni _ or _Pretani_). The shift from the "P" of _Pretannia_ to the "B" of _ Britannia
Britannia
_ by the Romans occurred during the time of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
.

The Greco-Egyptian scientist Claudius Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy
referred to the larger island as _great Britain_ (_μεγάλης Βρεττανίας – megális Brettanias_) and to Ireland
Ireland
as _little Britain_ (_μικρής Βρεττανίας – mikris Brettanias_) in his work _ Almagest _ (147–148 AD). In his later work, _Geography _ (c. 150 AD), he gave these islands the names _Alwion _, _Iwernia _, and _Mona_ (the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
), suggesting these may have been names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing _Almagest_. The name _Albion_ appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Great Britain
Great Britain
, after which _Britain_ became the more commonplace name for the island called Great Britain.

The earliest known use of the phrase _Brytish Iles_ in the English language is dated 1577 in a work by John Dee . Today, this name is seen by some as carrying imperialist overtones although it is still commonly used. Other names used to describe the islands include the _ Anglo-Celtic Isles_, _Atlantic archipelago_, _British-Irish Isles_, _Britain and Ireland_, _UK and Ireland_, and _ British Isles
British Isles
and Ireland_. Owing to political and national associations with the word _British_, the Government of Ireland
Ireland
does not use the term _British Isles_ and in documents drawn up jointly between the British and Irish governments, the archipelago is referred to simply as "these islands". Nonetheless, British Isles
British Isles
is still the most widely accepted term for the archipelago.

GEOGRAPHY

See also: Geography of England , Geography of Wales , Geography of Scotland
Scotland
, Geography of Ireland
Ireland
, Geography of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Geography of the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
, and Geography of the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
The British Isles
British Isles
in relation to the north-west European continental shelf .

The British Isles
British Isles
lie at the juncture of several regions with past episodes of tectonic mountain building. These orogenic belts form a complex geology that records a huge and varied span of Earth's history. Of particular note was the Caledonian Orogeny during the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period, c. 488–444 Ma and early Silurian period, when the craton Baltica
Baltica
collided with the terrane Avalonia
Avalonia
to form the mountains and hills in northern Britain and Ireland. Baltica
Baltica
formed roughly the northwestern half of Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland. Further collisions caused the Variscan orogeny in the Devonian and Carboniferous periods, forming the hills of Munster
Munster
, southwest England, and southern Wales. Over the last 500 million years the land that forms the islands has drifted northwest from around 30°S, crossing the equator around 370 million years ago to reach its present northern latitude.

The islands have been shaped by numerous glaciations during the Quaternary Period , the most recent being the Devensian
Devensian
. As this ended, the central Irish Sea was deglaciated and the English Channel flooded, with sea levels rising to current levels some 4,000 to 5,000 years ago, leaving the British Isles
British Isles
in their current form. Whether or not there was a land bridge between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
at this time is somewhat disputed, though there was certainly a single ice sheet covering the entire sea.

The west coasts of Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland
Scotland
that directly face the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
are generally characterised by long peninsulas , and headlands and bays; the internal and eastern coasts are "smoother".

There are about 136 permanently inhabited islands in the group, the largest two being Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. Great Britain
Great Britain
is to the east and covers 83,700 sq mi (217,000 km2). Ireland
Ireland
is to the west and covers 32,590 sq mi (84,400 km2). The largest of the other islands are to be found in the Hebrides
Hebrides
, Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland
Shetland
to the north, Anglesey
Anglesey
and the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland, and the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
near the coast of France.

The islands are at relatively low altitudes, with central Ireland
Ireland
and southern Great Britain
Great Britain
particularly low-lying: the lowest point in the islands is Holme, Cambridgeshire at −2.75 m (−9.02 ft). The Scottish Highlands in the northern part of Great Britain
Great Britain
are mountainous, with Ben Nevis being the highest point on the islands at 1,343 m (4,406 ft). Other mountainous areas include Wales
Wales
and parts of Ireland, however only seven peaks in these areas reach above 1,000 m (3,281 ft). Lakes on the islands are generally not large, although Lough Neagh
Lough Neagh
in Northern Ireland
Ireland
is an exception, covering 150 square miles (390 km2). The largest freshwater body in Great Britain
Great Britain
(by area) is Loch Lomond at 27.5 square miles (71 km2), and Loch Ness , by volume whilst Loch Morar is the deepest freshwater body in the British Isles, with a maximum depth of 310 m (1,017 ft). There are a number of major rivers within the British Isles. The longest is the Shannon in Ireland
Ireland
at 224 mi (360 km). The river Severn at 220 mi (354 km) is the longest in Great Britain.

CLIMATE

The climate is mild, moist and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes . It is defined as a temperate oceanic climate , or _Cfb_ on the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system, a classification it shares with most of northwest Europe. The country receives generally cool summers and mild winters. The North Atlantic Drift ("Gulf Stream"), which flows from the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
, brings with it significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C (20 °F) above the global average for the islands' latitudes. Winters are cool and wet, with summers mild and also wet. Most Atlantic depressions pass to the north of the islands, combined with the general westerly circulation and interactions with the landmass, this imposes an east-west variation in climate.

FLORA AND FAUNA

See also: Fauna
Fauna
of Great Britain
Great Britain
, Fauna
Fauna
of Ireland
Ireland
, and Trees of Britain and Ireland
Ireland
Some female red deer in Killarney National Park , Ireland.

The islands enjoy a mild climate and varied soils , giving rise to a diverse pattern of vegetation . Animal and plant life is similar to that of the northwestern European mainland . There are however, fewer numbers of species , with Ireland
Ireland
having even less. All native flora and fauna in Ireland
Ireland
is made up of species that migrated from elsewhere in Europe, and Great Britain
Great Britain
in particular. The only window when this could have occurred was between the end of the last Ice Age (about 12,000 years ago) and when the land bridge connecting the two islands was flooded by sea (about 8,000 years ago).

As with most of Europe, prehistoric Britain and Ireland
Ireland
were covered with forest and swamp. Clearing began around 6000 BC and accelerated in medieval times. Despite this, Britain retained its primeval forests longer than most of Europe
Europe
due to a small population and later development of trade and industry, and wood shortages were not a problem until the 17th century. By the 18th century, most of Britain's forests were consumed for shipbuilding or manufacturing charcoal and the nation was forced to import lumber from Scandinavia, North America, and the Baltic. Most forest land in Ireland
Ireland
is maintained by state forestation programmes . Almost all land outside urban areas is farmland . However, relatively large areas of forest remain in east and north Scotland
Scotland
and in southeast England. Oak
Oak
, elm , ash and beech are amongst the most common trees in England. In Scotland, pine and birch are most common. Natural forests in Ireland
Ireland
are mainly oak, ash, wych elm , birch and pine. Beech
Beech
and lime , though not native to Ireland, are also common there. Farmland hosts a variety of semi-natural vegetation of grasses and flowering plants. Woods, hedgerows , mountain slopes and marshes host heather , wild grasses, gorse and bracken .

Many larger animals, such as wolf , bear and the European elk are today extinct. However, some species such as red deer are protected. Other small mammals, such as rabbits , foxes , badgers , hares , hedgehogs , and stoats , are very common and the European beaver has been reintroduced in parts of Scotland. Wild boar have also been reintroduced to parts of southern England, following escapes from boar farms and illegal releases. Many rivers contain otters and seals are common on coasts. Over 200 species of bird reside permanently and another 200 migrate. Common types are the common chaffinch , common blackbird , house sparrow and common starling ; all small birds. Large birds are declining in number, except for those kept for game such as pheasant , partridge , and red grouse . Fish are abundant in the rivers and lakes, in particular salmon , trout , perch and pike . Sea fish include dogfish , cod , sole , pollock and bass , as well as mussels , crab and oysters along the coast. There are more than 21,000 species of insects.

Few species of reptiles or amphibians are found in Great Britain
Great Britain
or Ireland. Only three snakes are native to Great Britain: the common European adder , the grass snake and the smooth snake ; none are native to Ireland. In general, Great Britain
Great Britain
has slightly more variation and native wild life, with weasels , polecats , wildcats , most shrews , moles , water voles , roe deer and common toads also being absent from Ireland. This pattern is also true for birds and insects. Notable exceptions include the Kerry slug and certain species of woodlouse native to Ireland
Ireland
but not Great Britain.

Domestic animals include the Connemara pony , Shetland
Shetland
pony , English Mastiff , Irish wolfhound and many varieties of cattle and sheep .

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: Demographics of the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
and Demography of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Population density per km² of the British Isles' regions .

The demographics of the British Isles
British Isles
today are characterised by a generally high density of population in England, which accounts for almost 80% of the total population of the islands. In elsewhere on Great Britain
Great Britain
and on Ireland, high density of population is limited to areas around, or close to, a few large cities. The largest urban area by far is the Greater London
London
Urban Area with 9 million inhabitants. Other major population centres include the Greater Manchester Urban Area (2.4 million), West Midlands conurbation (2.4 million) and West Yorkshire Urban Area (1.6 million) in England, Greater Glasgow (1.2 million) in Scotland
Scotland
and Greater Dublin
Dublin
Area (1.1 million) in Ireland.

The population of England
England
rose rapidly during the 19th and 20th centuries, whereas the populations of Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
showed little increase during the 20th century, the population of Scotland
Scotland
remaining unchanged since 1951. Ireland
Ireland
for most of its history comprised a population proportionate to its land area (about one third of the total population). However, since the Great Irish Famine , the population of Ireland
Ireland
has fallen to less than one tenth of the population of the British Isles. The famine, which caused a century-long population decline, drastically reduced the Irish population and permanently altered the demographic make-up of the British Isles. On a global scale, this disaster led to the creation of an Irish diaspora that numbers fifteen times the current population of the island.

The linguistic heritage of the British Isles
British Isles
is rich, with twelve languages from six groups across four branches of the Indo-European family . The Insular Celtic languages of the Goidelic sub-group (Irish , Manx and Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
) and the Brittonic sub-group (Cornish , Welsh and Breton , spoken in north-western France ) are the only remaining Celtic languages —the last of their continental relations becoming extinct before the 7th century. The Norman languages of Guernésiais , Jèrriais and Sarkese spoken in the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
are similar to French. A cant , called Shelta , is spoken by Irish Travellers , often as a means to conceal meaning from those outside the group. However, English, sometimes in the form of Scots , is the dominant language, with few monoglots remaining in the other languages of the region. The Norn language of Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland
Shetland
became extinct around 1880.

HISTORY

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Main article: History of the British Isles

At the end of the last ice age , what are now the British Isles
British Isles
were joined to the European mainland as a mass of land extending north west from the modern-day northern coastline of France, Belgium and the Netherlands. Ice covered almost all of what is now Scotland, most of Ireland
Ireland
and Wales, and the hills of northern England. From 14,000 to 10,000 years ago, as the ice melted, sea levels rose separating Ireland
Ireland
from Great Britain
Great Britain
and also creating the Isle of Man. About two to four millennia later, Great Britain
Great Britain
became separated from the mainland. Britain probably became repopulated with people before the ice age ended and certainly before it became separated from the mainland. It is likely that Ireland
Ireland
became settled by sea after it had already become an island.

At the time of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, about two thousand years ago, various tribes, which spoke Celtic dialects of the Insular Celtic group, were inhabiting the islands. The Romans expanded their civilisation to control southern Great Britain
Great Britain
but were impeded in advancing any further, building Hadrian\'s Wall to mark the northern frontier of their empire in 122 AD. At that time, Ireland
Ireland
was populated by a people known as Hiberni , the northern third or so of Great Britain
Great Britain
by a people known as Picts and the southern two thirds by Britons . The Alfred Jewel (9th century)

Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century AD . Initially, their arrival seems to have been at the invitation of the Britons as mercenaries to repulse incursions by the Hiberni and Picts. In time, Anglo-Saxon demands on the British became so great that they came to culturally dominate the bulk of southern Great Britain, though recent genetic evidence suggests Britons still formed the bulk of the population. This dominance creating what is now England
England
and leaving culturally British enclaves only in the north of what is now England
England
, in Cornwall
Cornwall
and what is now known as Wales. Ireland
Ireland
had been unaffected by the Romans except, significantly, for being Christianised —traditionally by the Romano-Briton, Saint Patrick . As Europe, including Britain, descended into turmoil following the collapse of Roman civilisation, an era known as the Dark Ages , Ireland
Ireland
entered a golden age and responded with missions (first to Great Britain
Great Britain
and then to the continent), the founding of monasteries and universities . These were later joined by Anglo-Saxon missions of a similar nature.

Viking
Viking
invasions began in the 9th century, followed by more permanent settlements, particularly along the east coast of Ireland, the west coast of modern-day Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man. Though the Vikings were eventually neutralised in Ireland, their influence remained in the cities of Dublin
Dublin
, Cork , Limerick
Limerick
, Waterford
Waterford
and Wexford
Wexford
. England, however, was slowly conquered around the turn of the first millennium AD, and eventually became a feudal possession of Denmark
Denmark
. The relations between the descendants of Vikings in England
England
and counterparts in Normandy
Normandy
, in northern France, lay at the heart of a series of events that led to the Norman conquest of England in 1066 . The remnants of the Duchy of Normandy
Normandy
, which conquered England, remain associated to the English Crown as the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
to this day. A century later, the marriage of the future Henry II of England to Eleanor of Aquitaine created the Angevin Empire
Angevin Empire
, partially under the French Crown . At the invitation of Diarmait Mac Murchada
Diarmait Mac Murchada
, a provincial king, and under the authority of Pope Adrian IV (the only Englishman to be elected pope), the Angevins invaded Ireland
Ireland
in 1169. Though initially intended to be kept as an independent kingdom, the failure of the Irish High King to ensure the terms of the Treaty of Windsor led Henry II, as King of England, to rule as effective monarch under the title of Lord of Ireland
Ireland
. This title was granted to his younger son, but when Henry's heir unexpectedly died, the title of King of England
King of England
and Lord of Ireland
Ireland
became entwined in one person. James VI of Scotland
Scotland
(James I of England)

By the Late Middle Ages , Great Britain
Great Britain
was separated into the Kingdoms of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
. Power in Ireland
Ireland
fluxed between Gaelic kingdoms , Hiberno-Norman lords and the English-dominated Lordship of Ireland
Ireland
. A similar situation existed in the Principality of Wales
Wales
, which was slowly being annexed into the Kingdom of England by a series of laws. During the course of the 15th century, the Crown of England
England
would assert a claim to the Crown of France, thereby also releasing the King of England
King of England
as from being vassal of the King of France . In 1534, King Henry VIII, at first having been a strong defender of Roman Catholicism in the face of the Reformation, separated from the Roman Church after failing to secure a divorce from the Pope. His response was to place the King of England
King of England
as "the only Supreme Head in Earth of the Church of England ", thereby removing the authority of the Pope from the affairs of the English Church. Ireland, which had been held by the King of England
King of England
as Lord of Ireland, but which strictly speaking had been a feudal possession of the Pope since the Norman invasion was declared a separate kingdom in personal union with England.

Scotland, meanwhile had remained an independent Kingdom. In 1603, that changed when the King of Scotland
Scotland
inherited the Crown of England , and consequently the Crown of Ireland
Ireland
also. The subsequent 17th century was one of political upheaval, religious division and war. English colonialism in Ireland
Ireland
of the 16th century was extended by large-scale Scottish and English colonies in Ulster
Ulster
. Religious division heightened and the king in England
England
came into conflict with parliament over his tolerance towards Catholicism. The resulting English Civil War or War of the Three Kingdoms led to a revolutionary republic in England. Ireland, largely Catholic was mainly loyal to the king. Following defeat to the parliaments army, large scale land distributions from loyalist Irish nobility to English commoners in the service of the parliamentary army created a new Ascendancy class which obliterated the remnants of Old English (Hiberno-Norman) and Gaelic Irish nobility in Ireland. The new ruling class was Protestant and English, whilst the populace was largely Catholic and Irish. This theme would influence Irish politics for centuries to come. When the monarchy was restored in England, the king found it politically impossible to restore the lands of former land-owners in Ireland. The " Glorious Revolution " of 1688 repeated similar themes: a Catholic king pushing for religious tolerance in opposition to a Protestant parliament in England. The king's army was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne and at the militarily crucial Battle of Aughrim in Ireland. Resistance held out, eventually forcing the guarantee of religious tolerance in the Treaty of Limerick
Limerick
. However, the terms were never honoured and a new monarchy was installed.

The Kingdoms of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
were unified in 1707 creating the Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
. Following an attempted republican revolution in Ireland
Ireland
in 1798 , the Kingdoms of Ireland
Ireland
and Great Britain were unified in 1801 , creating the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. The Isle of Man and the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
remaining outside of the United Kingdom but with their ultimate good governance being the responsibility of the British Crown (effectively the British government). Although, the colonies of North America that would become the United States of America were lost by the start of the 19th century, the British Empire expanded rapidly elsewhere. A century later it would cover one third of the globe. Poverty in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
remained desperate, however, and industrialisation in England
England
led to terrible condition for the working classes. Mass migrations following the Irish Famine and Highland Clearances resulted in the distribution of the islands' population and culture throughout the world and a rapid de-population of Ireland
Ireland
in the second half of the 19th century. Most of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
after the Irish War of Independence and the subsequent Anglo-Irish Treaty (1919–1922), with the six counties that formed Northern Ireland
Ireland
remaining as an autonomous region of the UK.

POLITICS

Main article: Politics in the British Isles See also: Ireland– United Kingdom
United Kingdom
relations , Politics of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Politics of the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
, Ireland- Isle of Man
Isle of Man
relations , Politics of the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
, Politics of Jersey
Jersey
, Politics of Guernsey
Guernsey
, Politics of Alderney , and Politics of Sark Subdivisions of the British Isles See also diagrammatic version

There are two sovereign states in the isles: Ireland
Ireland
and the United Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
Ireland
. Ireland, sometimes called _the Republic of Ireland_, governs five sixths of the island of Ireland, with the remainder of the island forming Northern Ireland
Ireland
. Northern Ireland
Ireland
is a part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, usually shortened to simply _the United Kingdom_, which governs the remainder of the archipelago with the exception of the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
. The Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and the two states of the Channel Islands, Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey
Guernsey
, are known as the Crown Dependencies . They exercise constitutional rights of self-government and judicial independence; responsibility for international representation rests largely upon the UK (in consultation with the respective governments); and responsibility for defence is reserved by the UK. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is made up of four constituent parts : England, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales, forming Great Britain, and Northern Ireland
Ireland
in the north-east of the island of Ireland. Of these, Scotland, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland
Ireland
have "devolved " governments, meaning that each has its own parliament or assembly and is self-governing with respect to certain areas set down by law. For judicial purposes, Scotland, Northern Ireland
Ireland
and England
England
and Wales
Wales
(the latter being one entity) form separate legal jurisdiction, with there being no single law for the UK as a whole.

Ireland, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the three Crown Dependencies are all parliamentary democracies , with their own separate parliaments. All parts of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
return members to parliament in London
London
. In addition to this, voters in Scotland, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland return members to a parliament in Edinburgh and to assemblies in Cardiff and Belfast respectively. Governance in the norm is by majority rule, however, Northern Ireland
Ireland
uses a system of power sharing whereby unionists and nationalists share executive posts proportionately and where the assent of both groups are required for the Northern Ireland
Ireland
Assembly to make certain decisions. (In the context of Northern Ireland, unionists are those who want Northern Ireland
Ireland
to remain a part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and nationalists are those who want Northern Ireland
Ireland
to join with the rest of Ireland.) The British monarch is the head of state of the United Kingdom, while in the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
the head of state is the President of Ireland .

Ireland
Ireland
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are both part of the European Union (EU). The Crown Dependencies are not a part of the EU, but do participate in certain aspects that were negotiated as a part of the UK's accession to the EU. Neither the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
or Ireland
Ireland
are part of the Schengen area , that allow passport-free travel between EU members states. However, since the partition of Ireland
Ireland
, an informal free-travel area had existed across the region. This area required formal recognition in 1997 during the course of negotiations for the Amsterdam Treaty of the European Union, and is now known as the Common Travel Area .

Reciprocal arrangements allow British and Irish citizens full voting rights in the two states. Exceptions to this are presidential elections and constitutional referendums in the Republic of Ireland, for which there is no comparable franchise in the other states. In the United Kingdom, these pre-date European Union law, and in both jurisdictions go further than that required by European Union law. Other EU nationals may only vote in local and European Parliament elections while resident in either the UK or Ireland. In 2008, a UK Ministry of Justice report investigating how to strengthen the British sense of citizenship proposed to end this arrangement, arguing that "the right to vote is one of the hallmarks of the political status of citizens; it is not a means of expressing closeness between countries".

In addition, some civil bodies are organised throughout the islands as a whole—for example the Samaritans , which is deliberately organised without regard to national boundaries on the basis that a service which is not political or religious should not recognise sectarian or political divisions. The Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI), a charity that operates a lifeboat service, is also organised throughout the islands as a whole, covering the waters of the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands.

The Northern Ireland
Ireland
Peace Process has led to a number of unusual arrangements between the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland
Ireland
and the United Kingdom. For example, citizens of Northern Ireland
Ireland
are entitled to the choice of Irish or British citizenship or both and the Governments of Ireland
Ireland
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
consult on matters not devolved to the Northern Ireland
Ireland
Executive . The Northern Ireland Executive and the Government of Ireland
Ireland
also meet as the North/South Ministerial Council to develop policies common across the island of Ireland. These arrangements were made following the 1998 Good Friday Agreement .

BRITISH–IRISH COUNCIL

Main article: British–Irish Council

Another body established under the Good Friday Agreement, the British–Irish Council, is made up of all of the states and territories of the British Isles. The British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly (Irish : _Tionól Pharlaiminteach na Breataine agus na hÉireann_) predates the British–Irish Council and was established in 1990. Originally it comprised 25 members of the Oireachtas , the Irish parliament, and 25 members of the parliament of the United Kingdom , with the purpose of building mutual understanding between members of both legislatures. Since then the role and scope of the body has been expanded to include representatives from the Scottish Parliament , the National Assembly for Wales , the Northern Ireland Assembly , the States of Jersey
Jersey
, the States of Guernsey
Guernsey
and the High Court of Tynwald (Isle of Man).

The Council does not have executive powers, but meets biannually to discuss issues of mutual importance. Similarly, the Parliamentary Assembly has no legislative powers but investigates and collects witness evidence from the public on matters of mutual concern to its members. Reports on its findings are presented to the Governments of Ireland
Ireland
and the United Kingdom. During the February 2008 meeting of the British–Irish Council, it was agreed to set up a standing secretariat that would serve as a permanent 'civil service' for the Council. Leading on from developments in the British–Irish Council, the chair of the British–Irish Inter-Parliamentary Assembly, Niall Blaney , has suggested that the body should shadow the British–Irish Council's work.

CULTURE

See also: Culture of Ireland
Ireland
, Culture of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Sport in Ireland
Ireland
, and Sport in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
One Day Cricket International at Lord's; England
England
v Australia 10 July 2005 Pádraig Harrington teeing off at the Open Championship (golf ) in 2007 .

The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Ireland
Ireland
have separate media, although British television, newspapers and magazines are widely available in Ireland, giving people in Ireland
Ireland
a high level of familiarity with cultural matters in the United Kingdom. Irish newspapers are also available in the UK, and Irish state and private television is widely available in Northern Ireland. Certain reality TV shows have embraced the whole of the islands, for example _The X Factor _, seasons 3, 4 and 7 of which featured auditions in Dublin
Dublin
and were open to Irish voters, whilst the show previously known as _Britain's Next Top Model_ became _Britain and Ireland\'s Next Top Model _ in 2011. A few cultural events are organised for the island group as a whole. For example, the Costa Book Awards are awarded to authors resident in the UK or Ireland. The Mercury Music Prize is handed out every year to the best album from a British or Irish musician or group.

Many globally popular sports had modern rules codified in the British Isles, including golf , association football , cricket , rugby , snooker and darts , as well as many minor sports such as croquet , bowls , pitch and putt , water polo and handball . A number of sports are popular throughout the British Isles, the most prominent of which is association football . While this is organised separately in different national associations, leagues and national teams, even within the UK, it is a common passion in all parts of the islands. Rugby union is also widely enjoyed across the islands with four national teams from England
England
, Ireland
Ireland
, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
. The British and Irish Lions is a team chosen from each national team and undertakes tours of the southern hemisphere rugby playing nations every four years. Ireland
Ireland
play as a united team, represented by players from both Northern Ireland
Ireland
and the Republic. These national rugby teams play each other each year for the Triple Crown as part of the Six Nations Championship . Also, since 2001, the professional club teams of Ireland, Scotland, Wales
Wales
and Italy compete against each other in the Guinness Pro12 .

The Ryder Cup in golf was originally played between a United States team and a team representing Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. From 1979 onwards this was expanded to include the whole of Europe.

TRANSPORT

See also: Transport in Ireland
Ireland
and Transport in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
_ HSC Stena Explorer_ , a large fast ferry on the former Holyhead – Dún Laoghaire route between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland.

London
London
Heathrow Airport
Airport
is Europe's busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic and the Dublin- London
London
route was once the busiest air route in Europe, and it remains the busiest route out of Heathrow. The English Channel and the southern North Sea
North Sea
are the busiest seaways in the world. The Channel Tunnel , opened in 1994, links Great Britain to France and is the second-longest rail tunnel in the world.

The idea of building a tunnel under the Irish Sea has been raised since 1895, when it was first investigated. Several potential Irish Sea tunnel projects have been proposed, most recently the _Tusker Tunnel_ between the ports of Rosslare and Fishguard
Fishguard
proposed by The Institute of Engineers of Ireland
Ireland
in 2004. A rail tunnel was proposed in 1997 on a different route, between Dublin
Dublin
and Holyhead , by British engineering firm Symonds. Either tunnel, at 50 mi (80 km), would be by far the longest in the world, and would cost an estimated £15 billion or €20 billion. A proposal in 2007, estimated the cost of building a bridge from County Antrim
County Antrim
in Northern Ireland
Ireland
to Galloway
Galloway
in Scotland
Scotland
at £3.5bn (€5bn).

SEE ALSO

* British Islands * Extreme points of the British Isles * List of islands in the British Isles * British Isles fixed sea link connections

REFERENCES

* ^ "the British Isles". _téarma.ie – Dictionary of Irish Terms_. Foras na Gaeilge and Dublin
Dublin
City University . Retrieved 18 Nov 2016. the British Isles
British Isles
_s_ _pl_ (Tíreolaíocht · Geography; Polaitíocht · Politics; Stair · History; Logainmneacha » Ceantar/Réigiún · Placenames » Area/Region) Na hOileáin bhriontanacha * ^ _University of Glasgow Department of Celtic_ * ^ _Office of The President of Tynwald_ (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-02-24 * ^ "Règlement (1953) (Amendement) Sur L’importation et L’exportation D’animaux". States of Jersey. Retrieved 2 February 2012.

* ^ _A_ _B_ Country/Territory Index, Island Directory, United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved 9 August 2015. Island Facts, Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Government. Retrieved 9 August 2015. According to the UNEP, the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
have a land area of 194 km², the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
has a land area of 70,282 km², and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has a land area of 244,111 km². According to the Isle of Man Government, the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
has a land area of 572 km². Therefore, the overall land area of the British Isles
British Isles
is 315,159 km² * ^ https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Download/Standard/Population/. Missing or empty title= (help ) * ^ _A_ _B_ "British Isles", _ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
_ * ^ The diplomatic and constitutional name of the Irish state is simply _Ireland_. For disambiguation purposes, _Republic of Ireland_ is often used although technically not the name of the state but, according to the _ Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
Act 1948_, the state "may be described" as such. * ^ Oxford English Dictionary: "British Isles: a geographical term for the islands comprising Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
with all their offshore islands including the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and the Channel Islands." * ^ Alan, Lew; Colin, Hall; Dallen, Timothy (2008). _World Geography of Travel and Tourism: A Regional Approach_. Oxford: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7506-7978-7 . The British Isles
British Isles
comprise more than 6,000 islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe, including the countries of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain (England, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales) and Northern Ireland, and the Republic of Ireland. The group also includes the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
crown dependencies of the Isle of Man, and by tradition, the Channel Islands (the Bailiwicks of Guernsey
Guernsey
and Jersey), even though these islands are strictly speaking an archipelago immediately off the coast of Normandy (France) rather than part of the British Isles. * ^ Woodcock, Nigel H.; Rob Strachan (2012). _Geological History of Britain and Ireland_. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-1-1182-7403-3 . * ^ http://www.tara.tcd.ie/bitstream/2262/40560/1/Edwards%26Brooks_INJ08_TARA.pdf * ^ "Celtic Culture: Aberdeen breviary-celticism". * ^ British Have Changed Little Since Ice Age, Gene Study SaysJames Owen for National Geographic News, 19 July 2005 * ^ Social work in the British Isles
British Isles
by Malcolm Payne, Steven Shardlow When we think about social work in the British Isles, a contentious term if ever there was one, what do we expect to see? * ^ _A_ _B_ Davies, Alistair; Sinfield, Alan (2000), _British Culture of the Postwar: An Introduction to Literature and Society, 1945–1999_, Routledge, p. 9, ISBN 0-415-12811-0 , Some of the Irish dislike the 'British' in 'British Isles', while a minority of the Welsh and Scottish are not keen on 'Great Britain'. ... In response to these difficulties, 'Britain and Ireland' is becoming preferred official usage if not in the vernacular, although there is a growing trend amongst some critics to refer to Britain and Ireland
Ireland
as 'the archipelago'. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Written Answers – Official Terms" Archived 6 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine ., Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
, Volume 606, 28 September 2005. In his response, the Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs stated that "The British Isles
British Isles
is not an officially recognised term in any legal or inter-governmental sense. It is without any official status. The Government, including the Department of Foreign Affairs, does not use this term. Our officials in the Embassy of Ireland, London, continue to monitor the media in Britain for any abuse of the official terms as set out in the Constitution of Ireland and in legislation. These include the name of the State, the President, Taoiseach and others." * ^ Sharrock, David (3 October 2006), "New atlas lets Ireland
Ireland
slip shackles of Britain", _The Times_, UK, retrieved 7 July 2010, A spokesman for the Irish Embassy in London
London
said: “The British Isles has a dated ring to it, as if we are still part of the Empire. We are independent, we are not part of Britain, not even in geographical terms. We would discourage its usage .” * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Hazlett, Ian (2003). _The Reformation in Britain and Ireland: an introduction_. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-567-08280-0 . At the outset, it should be stated that while the expression 'The British Isles' is evidently still commonly employed, its intermittent use throughout this work is only in the geographic sense, in so far as that is acceptable. Since the early twentieth century, that nomenclature has been regarded by some as increasingly less usable. It has been perceived as cloaking the idea of a 'greater England', or an extended south-eastern English imperium, under a common Crown since 1603 onwards. ... Nowadays, however, 'Britain and Ireland' is the more favoured expression, though there are problems with that too. ... There is no consensus on the matter, inevitably. It is unlikely that the ultimate in non-partisanship that has recently appeared the (East) 'Atlantic Archipelago' will have any appeal beyond captious scholars. * ^ "Guardian Style Guide", _Guardian_, London, 19 December 2008, A geographical term taken to mean Great Britain, Ireland
Ireland
and some or all of the adjacent islands such as Orkney, Shetland
Shetland
and the Isle of Man. The phrase is best avoided, given its (understandable) unpopularity in the Irish Republic. The plate in the National Geographic Atlas of the World once titled British Isles
British Isles
now reads Britain and Ireland. * ^ Norquay, Glenda; Smyth, Gerry (2002), _Across the margins: cultural identity and change in the Atlantic archipelago_, Manchester University Press, p. 4, ISBN 0-7190-5749-3 , The term we favour here—Atlantic Archipelago—may prove to be of no greater use in the long run, but at this stage it does at least have the merit of questioning the ideology underpinning more established nomenclature. * ^ Schwyzer, Philip; Mealor, Simon (2004), _Archipelagic identities: literature and identity in the Atlantic Archipelago_, Ashgate Publishing, p. 10, ISBN 0-7546-3584-8 , In some ways 'Atlantic Archipelago' is intended to do the work of including without excluding, and while it seems to have taken root in terms of academic conferences and publishing, I don't see it catching on in popular discourse or official political circles, at least not in a hurry. * ^ Kumar, Krishan (2003), _The Making of English National Identity_, Cambridge University Press, p. 6, ISBN 0-521-77736-4 , Some scholars, seeking to avoid the political and ethnic connotations of 'the British Isles', have proposed the 'Atlantic Archipelago' or even 'the East Atlantic Archipelago' (see, e.g. Pocock 1975a: 606; 1995: 292n; Tompson, 1986) Not surprisingly this does not seem to have caught on with the general public, though it has found increasing favour with scholars promoting the new 'British History'. * ^ David Armitage; Michael Braddick (2002), _The British Atlantic world, 1500–1800_, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 284, ISBN 0-333-96340-7 , British and Irish historians increasingly use 'Atlantic archipelago' as a less metro-centric term for what is popularly known as the British Isles. * ^ Foster , p. 1. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Allen , p. 172–174. * ^ Harley , p. 150. * ^ Diodorus Siculus' _Bibliotheca Historica_ Book V. Chapter XXI. Section 1 Greek text at the Perseus Project . * ^ Diodorus Siculus' _Bibliotheca Historica_ Book V. Chapter XXI. Section 2 Greek text at the Perseus Project . * ^ Strabo's _Geography_ Book I. Chapter IV. Section 2 Greek text and English translation at the Perseus Project . * ^ Strabo's _Geography_ Book IV. Chapter II. Section 1 Greek text and English translation at the Perseus Project . * ^ Strabo's _Geography_ Book IV. Chapter IV. Section 1 Greek text and English translation at the Perseus Project . * ^ Marcianus Heracleensis ; Müller, Karl Otfried ; et al. (1855). "Periplus Maris Exteri, Liber Prior, Prooemium". In Firmin Didot, Ambrosio. _Geographi Graeci Minores_. 1. Paris. pp. 516–517. Greek text and Latin Translation thereof archived at the Open Library Project. DjVu * ^ Davies , p. 47. * ^ Snyder , p. 68. * ^ _A_ _B_ Snyder , p. 12. * ^ Claudius Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy
(1898). "Ἕκθεσις τῶν κατὰ παράλληλον ἰδιωμάτων: κβ',κε'". In Heiberg, J.L. _Claudii Ptolemaei Opera quae exstant omnia_ (PDF). vol.1 Syntaxis Mathematica. Leipzig: in aedibus B. G. Teubneri. pp. 112–113. * ^ Claudius Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy
(1843). "Book II, Prooemium and chapter β', paragraph 12". In Nobbe, Carolus Fridericus Augustus. _Claudii Ptolemaei Geographia_ (PDF). vol.1. Leipzig: sumptibus et typis Caroli Tauchnitii. pp. 59, 67. * ^ Freeman, Philip (2001). _ Ireland
Ireland
and the classical world_. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. p. 65. ISBN 0-292-72518-3 . * ^ John Dee, 1577. 1577 J. _Arte Navigation_, p. 65 "The syncere Intent, and faythfull Aduise, of Georgius Gemistus Pletho, was, I could..frame and shape very much of Gemistus those his two Greek Orations..for our Brytish Iles, and in better and more allowable manner." From the OED, s.v. "British Isles" * ^ D. A. Coleman (1982), _Demography of immigrants and minority groups in the United Kingdom: proceedings of the eighteenth annual symposium of the Eugenics Society, London
London
1981_, Volume 1981, Academic Press, p. 213, ISBN 0-12-179780-5 , The geographical term _British Isles_ is not generally acceptable in Ireland, the term _these islands_ being widely used instead. I prefer _the Anglo-Celtic Isles_, or _the North-West European Archipelago_. * ^ _Irish historical studies: Joint Journal of the Irish Historical Society and the Ulster
Ulster
Society for Irish Historical Studies_, Hodges, Figgis & Co., 1990, p. 98, There is mug to be said for considering the archipelago as a whole, for a history of the British or Anglo-Celtic isles or 'these islands'.

* ^ John Oakland, 2003, British Civilization: A Student\'s Dictionary, Routledge: London
London

BRITISH-IRISH ISLES, THE (geography) see British Isles
British Isles

BRITISH ISLES, THE (geography) A geographical (not political or consitutional) term for Engliand, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland (including the Republic of Ireland), together with all offshore islands. A more accurate (and politically acceptable) term today is the British-Irish Isles. * ^ "Blackwellreference.com". Blackwellreference.com. Retrieved 7 November 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _World and its Peoples: Ireland
Ireland
and United Kingdom_, London: Marshall Cavendish, 2010, p. 8, The nomenclature of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
and the status of the different parts of the archipelago are often confused by people in other parts of the world. The name British Isles
British Isles
is commonly used by geographers for the archipelago; in the Republic of Ireland, however, this name is considered to be exclusionary. In the Republic of Ireland, the name British-Irish Isles is occasionally used. However, the term British-Irish Isles is not recognized by international geographers. In all documents jointly drawn up by the British and Irish governments, the archipelago is simply referred to as "these islands". The name British Isles
British Isles
remains the only generally accepted terms for the archipelago off the northwestern coast of mainland Europe. * ^ Goudie, Andrew S.; D. Brunsden (1994). _The Environment of the British Isles, an Atlas_. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 2. * ^ Ibid., p. 5. * ^ _A_ _B_ "100 Largest Islands of the World". * ^ BBC News
BBC News
(29 November 2002). "UK\'s lowest spot is getting lower". England: BBC. p. 1. Retrieved 4 July 2010. * ^ " Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
online:Ben Nevis". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2010. * ^ Gazetteer for Scotland
Scotland
Morar, Loch * ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". _Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci_. 11: 1633–1644. ISSN 1027-5606 . doi :10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007 . _(direct: Final Revised Paper)_ * ^ "Marine Climatology". Met Éireann. Retrieved 30 January 2008. * ^ Mayes, Julian; Dennis Wheeler (1997). _Regional Climates of the British Isles_. London: Routledge. p. 13. * ^ Ibid., pp. 13–14. * ^ "Guide to British Snakes". Wildlife Britain wildlifebritain.com. Retrieved 17 August 2010. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2013. * ^ Mid-2010 population estimates – Settlements in order of size Archived 22 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine . General Register Office for Scotland * ^ WB Lockwood (1975), _ Languages
Languages
of the British Isles
British Isles
Past and Present_, British Columbia: Ladysmith, ISBN 0-233-96666-8 , An introduction to the rich linguistic heritage of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. * ^ Waddel, John; Conroy, Jane (1999), Spriggs, Matthew, ed., "Celts and Other: Maritime Contact and Linguistic Change", _Archaeology and Language_, London: Routledge, 35, p. 127, ISBN 0-415-11786-0 , Continental Celtic includes Gaulish, Lepontic, Hispano-Celtic (or Celtiberian) and Galatian. All were extinct by the seventh century AD. * ^ Varner, Gary (2008), _Charles G. Leland: The Man & the Myth_, Morrisville, North Carolina: Lulu Press, p. 41, ISBN 978-1-4357-4394-6 , Shelta does in fact exist as a secret language as is used to conceal meaning from outsiders, used primarily in Gypsy business or negotiations or when speaking around the police. * ^ J. M. Y. Simpson, R. E. Asher (1994), _The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics_, Volume 5, Oxford: Pergamon Press, p. 2505, ISBN 978-0-08-035943-4 , Thus, apart from the very young, there are virtually no monoglot speakers of Irish, Scots Gaelic, or Welsh. * ^ Hindley, Reg (1990), _The Death of the Irish Language: A Qualified Obituary_, Oxon: Taylor & Francis, p. 221, ISBN 0-415-04339-5 , Three indigenous language have died in the British Isles since around 1780: Cornish (traditionally in 1777), Norn (the Norse language of Shetland: c. 1880), Manx (1974). * ^ _A_ _B_ "Jersey\'s relationship with the UK and EU". Gov.je. Retrieved 7 November 2010. * ^ "States of Guernsey: Constitution". Gov.gg. Retrieved 7 November 2010. * ^ "Relationship with European Union – Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Government – Chief Secretarys Office". Gov.im. Archived from the original on 25 September 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010. * ^ Goldsmith, 2008, Citizenship: Our Common Bond, Ministry of Justice: London
London
Archived 27 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ RNLI.org.uk, The RNLI is a charity that provides a 24-hour lifesaving service around the UK and Republic of Ireland. * ^ , February 2008 * ^ Martina Purdy, 28 February 2008, Unionists urged to drop boycott, BBC: London * ^ "Ireland". Museum.tv. Retrieved 17 October 2008. * ^ Seán McCárthaigh, Dublin– London
London
busiest air traffic route within EU Irish Examiner, 31 March 2003 * ^ Hardisty, Jack (1990), _The British Seas: an Introduction to the Oceanography and Resources of the North-west European Continental Shelf_, London: Routledge, p. 5, ISBN 0-415-03586-4 , Not only are the English Channel and the Southern North Sea, in particular, the busiest shipping clearways in the world, but the seas are also sources of the European community's industrial wealth (fisheries, petroleum, aggregates, and power) and sinks for the disposal of refuse from its intensely urbanized and industrialized coats. * ^ "Tunnel under the Sea", The Washington Post , 2 May 1897 (Archive link) * ^ _Tunnel \'vision\' under Irish Sea_, BBC, 23 December 2004 * ^ BBC News, From Twinbrook to the Trevi Fountain, 21 August 2007

FURTHER READING

* Allen, Stephen (2007). _Lords of Battle: The World of the Celtic Warrior_. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-948-7 . * Collingwood, Robin George (1998). _Roman Britain and the English Settlements_. Biblo & Tannen Publishers. ISBN 0-8196-1160-3 . * Davies, Norman (2000). _ The Isles a History _. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-69283-7 . * Ferguson, Niall (2004). _Empire_. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02329-0 . Retrieved 22 July 2009. * Foster (editor), Robert Fitzroy; Donnchadh O Corrain (1 November 2001). _The Oxford History of Ireland_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280202-X . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Harley, John Brian; David Woodward (1987). _The History of Cartography: Cartography in prehistoric, ancient, and medieval Europe and the Mediterranean_. Humana Press. ISBN 0-226-31633-5 . * Maddison, Angus (2001). _The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective_. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. ISBN 92-64-18654-9 . Retrieved 22 July 2009. * Markale, Jean (1994). _King of the Celts_. Bear & Company. ISBN 0-89281-452-7 . * Snyder, Christopher (2003). _The Britons_. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-22260-X . * A History of Britain : At the Edge of the World, 3500 B.C. – 1603 A.D. by Simon Schama
Simon Schama
, BBC/Miramax, 2000 ISBN 978-0-7868-6675-5 * A History of Britain—The Complete Collection on DVD by Simon Schama , BBC 2002 * Shortened History of England<