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The Arawaks were guided to Dominica
Dominica
, and other islands of the Caribbean, by the South Equatorial Current from the waters of the Orinoco River . These descendants of the early Taínos
Taínos
were overthrown by the Kalinago tribe of the Caribs.

The Caribs , who settled here in the 14th century, called the island Waitikubuli, which means 'tall is her body'. Christopher Columbus named the island after the day of the week on which he spotted it - a Sunday ('Doménica' in Italian) - which fell on 3 November 1493 on his second voyage .

Daunted by fierce resistance from the Caribs and discouraged by the absence of gold, the Spanish did not settle the island. Many of the remaining Carib people live in Dominica's Carib Territory
Carib Territory
, a 3,700-acre (15 km2) district on Dominica's east coast.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early European contacts * 2 French colony: 1715–1763 * 3 British colony: 1763–1978 * 4 Hurricane David * 5 Independence: 1978 to present day * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

EARLY EUROPEAN CONTACTS

In 1632, the French Compagnie des Îles de l\'Amérique claimed Dominica
Dominica
along with all the other 'Petite Antilles' but no settlement was attempted. Between 1642 and 1650 a French missionary Raymond Breton became the first regular European visitor to the island. In 1660 the French and English agreed that both Dominica
Dominica
and St. Vincent should not be settled, but instead left to the Caribs as neutral territory. Dominica
Dominica
was officially neutral for the next century, but the attraction of its resources remained; rival expeditions of English and French foresters were harvesting timber by the start of the 18th century.

FRENCH COLONY: 1715–1763

Spain had little to no success in colonizing Dominica
Dominica
and in 1690, the French established their first permanent settlements in Dominica. French woodcutters from Martinique and Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
begin to set up timber camps to supply the French islands with wood and gradually become permanent settlers. They brought the first enslaved people from West Africa to Dominica. In 1715, a revolt of "poor white" smallholders in the north of Martinique, known as La Gaoulé, causes an exodus of them to southern Dominica. They set up smallholdings. Meanwhile, French families and others from Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
settled in the north. In 1727, the first French commander, M. Le Grand, took charge of the island with a basic French government; Dominica
Dominica
formally became a colony of France, and the island was divided into districts or "quarters". Already installed in Martinique and Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
and cultivating sugar cane, the French gradually developed plantations in Dominica
Dominica
for coffee. They imported African slaves to fill the labor demands replacing the less cooperative indigenous Caribs.

In 1761, during the Seven Years\' War a British expedition against Dominica
Dominica
led by Lord Rollo was successful and the island was conquered along with several other Caribbean islands. After France was defeated by Britain in the Seven Years\' War , it ceded the island to the British under the Treaty of Paris (1763)
Treaty of Paris (1763)
. In 1778, during the American Revolutionary War , the French mounted a successful invasion with the active cooperation of the population. The 1783 Treaty of Paris , which ended the war, returned the island to Britain. French invasions in 1795 and 1805 ended in failure.

BRITISH COLONY: 1763–1978

As part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris that ended the Seven Years\' War , the island became a British possession. In 1778, during the American War of Independence , the French mounted a successful invasion with the active cooperation of the population, which was largely French. The 1783 Treaty of Paris, which ended the war, returned the island to Britain. French invasions in 1795 and 1805 ended in failure. The 1805 invasion burned much of Roseau
Roseau
to the ground.

In 1763, the British established a legislative assembly, representing only the white population. In 1831, reflecting a liberalization of official British racial attitudes, the Brown Privilege Bill conferred political and social rights on free nonwhites. Three Blacks were elected to the legislative assembly the following year. The abolition of slavery in 1834 enabled Dominica
Dominica
by 1838 to become the only British Caribbean colony to have a Black-controlled legislature in the 19th century. Most Black legislators were small holders or merchants who held economic and social views diametrically opposed to the interests of the small, wealthy English planter class. Reacting to a perceived threat, the planters lobbied for more direct British rule.

In 1865, after much agitation and tension, the colonial office replaced the elective assembly with one composed of one-half elected members and one-half appointed. The elected legislators were outmaneuvered on numerous occasions by planters allied with colonial administrators. In 1871, Dominica
Dominica
became part of the Leeward Island Federation . The power of the Black population progressively eroded. Crown Colony government was re-established in 1896.

Following World War I, an upsurge of political consciousness throughout the Caribbean led to the formation of the representative government association. Marshaling public frustration with the lack of a voice in the governing of Dominica, this group won one-third of the popularly elected seats of the legislative assembly in 1924 and one-half in 1936. Shortly thereafter, Dominica
Dominica
was transferred from the Leeward Island Administration and was governed as part of the Windwards until 1958, when it joined the short-lived West Indies Federation .

In 1961, a Dominica
Dominica
Labor Party government led by Edward Oliver LeBlanc was elected. After the federation dissolved, Dominica
Dominica
became an associated state of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on February 27, 1967 and formally took responsibility for its internal affairs. LeBlanc retired in 1974 and was replaced by Patrick John who became the islands' first Prime Minister .

HURRICANE DAVID

In August 1979, Hurricane David , packing winds of 150 mph (240 km/h), struck the island with devastating force. Forty-two people were killed and 75% of the islanders' homes were destroyed or severely damaged. Hurricane David was the most powerful and devastating hurricane ever recorded in Dominica
Dominica
until Hurricane Maria
Hurricane Maria
struck in 2017.

INDEPENDENCE: 1978 TO PRESENT DAY

On November 3, 1978, the Commonwealth of Dominica
Dominica
was granted independence by the United Kingdom.

Independence did little to solve problems stemming from centuries of economic underdevelopment , and in mid-1979, political discontent led to the formation of an interim government, led by Oliver Seraphin . It was replaced after the 1980 elections by a government led by the Dominica
Dominica
Freedom Party under Prime Minister Eugenia Charles , the Caribbean's first female prime minister. Within a year of her inauguration she survived two unsuccessful coups and in October 1983, as chairperson of the Organisation of East Caribbean States, endorsed the US Invasion of Grenada .

Chronic economic problems were compounded by the severe impact of hurricanes in 1979 and in 1980. By the end of the 1980s, the economy had made a healthy recovery, which weakened in the 1990s due to a decrease in banana prices.

In 1995 the government was defeated in elections by the United Workers Party of Edison James . James became prime minister, serving until the February 2000 elections, when the Dominica
Dominica
United Workers Party (DUWP) was defeated by the Dominica
Dominica
Labour Party (DLP), led by Rosie Douglas . He was a former socialist activist, and many feared that his approach to politics might be impractical. However, these were somewhat quieted when he formed a coalition with the more conservative Dominica
Dominica
Freedom Party. Douglas died suddenly after only eight months in office, on October 1, 2000, and was replaced by Pierre Charles , also of the DLP. In 2003, Nicholas Liverpool
Nicholas Liverpool
was elected and sworn in as president, succeeding Vernon Shaw . On January 6, 2004, Prime Minister Pierre Charles, who had been suffering from heart problems since 2003, died. He became the second consecutive prime minister of Dominica
Dominica
to die in office of a heart attack. The foreign minister, Osborne Riviere immediately became prime minister, but the education minister, Roosevelt Skerrit succeeded him as prime minister and became the new leader of the Dominica
Dominica
Labour Party. Elections were held on May 5, 2005, with the ruling coalition maintaining power.

SEE ALSO

* British colonization of the Americas * French colonization of the Americas * History of the Americas * History of the British West Indies * History of North America * History of the Caribbean * List of Prime Ministers of Dominica
Dominica
* Politics of Dominica
Dominica
* Spanish colonization of the Americas

REFERENCES

* ^ A B "Background note: Dominica". U.S. Department of State (July 2008). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain . * ^ P.C. Emmer & BW Highman, (1999) General History of the Caribbean: Methodology and historiography of the Caribbean, volume 6 pp 637 * ^ "Important Dates in Dominica\'s History". Lennox Honychurch Article. 1990-07-05. Archived from the original on 2013-08-30. Retrieved 2013-09-29. * ^ "A Plan of the Rosalij Compy. Estates, the Property of His Excelly. Charles O\'Harra, the Honble. Leiut. Gov. Will. Stuart, James Clarke & Rob. & Phill". World Digital Library . Retrieved 18 April 2013.

* Rouse, Irving. The Taínos
Taínos
: Rise and Decline of the People Who Greeted Columbus. New Haven ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
Historical flags of the British Empire

EUROPE

* 1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) * 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca * Since 1713 Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) * 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) * 1807–1890 Heligoland
Heligoland
* 1809–1864 Ionian Islands * 1878–1960 Cyprus
Cyprus
* 1921–1937 Irish Free State

NORTH AMERICA

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

* 1579 New Albion * 1583–1907 Newfoundland * 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia * 1607–1776 Virginia * Since 1619 Bermuda
Bermuda
* 1620–1691 Plymouth * 1623–1883 Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
* 1624–1966 *Barbados * 1625–1650 Saint Croix * 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * 1628–1883 Nevis * 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay * 1632–1776 Maryland * since 1632 Montserrat
Montserrat
* 1632–1860 Antigua
Antigua
* 1635–1644 Saybrook * 1636–1776 Connecticut * 1636–1776 Rhode Island * 1637–1662 New Haven

* 1643–1860 Bay Islands * Since 1650 Anguilla
Anguilla
* 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
* 1655–1962 *Jamaica * 1663–1712 Carolina * 1664–1776 New York * 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey * Since 1666 Virgin Islands * Since 1670 Cayman Islands * 1670–1973 *Bahamas * 1670–1870 Rupert\'s Land * 1671–1816 Leeward Islands * 1674–1702 East Jersey
East Jersey
* 1674–1702 West Jersey
West Jersey
* 1680–1776 New Hampshire * 1681–1776 Pennsylvania * 1686–1689 New England * 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

* 1701–1776 Delaware * 1712–1776 North Carolina * 1712–1776 South Carolina * 1713–1867 Nova Scotia * 1733–1776 Georgia * 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island
* 1762–1974 *Grenada * 1763–1978 Dominica * 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island * 1763–1791 Quebec * 1763–1783 East Florida * 1763–1783 West Florida * 1784–1867 New Brunswick * 1791–1841 Lower Canada * 1791–1841 Upper Canada * Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

* 1818–1846 Columbia District / Oregon Country 1 * 1833–1960 Windward Islands * 1833–1960 Leeward Islands * 1841–1867 Canada * 1849–1866 Vancouver Island * 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands * 1858–1866 British Columbia * 1859–1870 North-Western Territory * 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda * 1862–1863 Stickeen * 1866–1871 British Columbia * 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada 2 * 1871–1964 Honduras * 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis * 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago * 1907–1949 Newfoundland 3 * 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

* 1. Occupied jointly with the United States. * 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster . See Name of Canada . * 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

SOUTH AMERICA

* 1631–1641 Providence Island * 1651–1667 Willoughbyland * 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands 4 * 1831–1966 Guiana * Since 1833 Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
5 * Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 5

* 4. Now a department of Colombia . * 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War of April–June 1982.

AFRICA

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

* Since 1658 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
14 * 1792–1961 Sierra Leone * 1795–1803 Cape Colony
Cape Colony

* Since 1815 Ascension Island
Ascension Island
14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha 14 * 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope * 1807–1808 Madeira * 1810–1968 Mauritius
Mauritius
* 1816–1965 The Gambia * 1856–1910 Natal * 1862–1906 Lagos * 1868–1966 Basutoland * 1874–1957 Gold Coast * 1882–1922 Egypt

* 1884–1900 Niger Coast * 1884–1966 Bechuanaland * 1884–1960 Somaliland * 1887–1897 Zululand * 1890–1962 Uganda * 1890–1963 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
* 1891–1964 Nyasaland * 1891–1907 Central Africa * 1893–1968 Swaziland * 1895–1920 East Africa * 1899–1956 Sudan

* 1900–1914 Northern Nigeria * 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria * 1900–1910 Orange River * 1900–1910 Transvaal * 1903–1976 Seychelles * 1910–1931 South Africa * 1914–1960 Nigeria * 1915–1931 South-West Africa * 1919–1961 Cameroons 6 * 1920–1963 Kenya * 1922–1961 Tanganyika 6 * 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia 7 * 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

* 6. League of Nations mandate . * 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia
Rhodesia
) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement . After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

ASIA

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

* 1685–1824 Bencoolen * 1702–1705 Pulo Condore * 1757–1947 Bengal * 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite * 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang
Padang
* 1786–1946 Penang * 1795–1948 Ceylon * 1796–1965 Maldives

* 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton * 1819–1826 Malaya * 1824–1948 Burma * 1826–1946 Straits Settlements * 1839–1967 Aden * 1839–1842 Afghanistan * 1841–1997 Hong Kong * 1841–1946 Sarawak * 1848–1946 Labuan * 1858–1947 India * 1874–1963 Borneo

* 1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) * 1882–1963 North Borneo * 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States
Unfederated Malay States
* 1888–1984 Brunei * 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman * 1892–1971 Trucial States * 1895–1946 Federated Malay States * 1898–1930 Weihai * 1878–1960 Cyprus
Cyprus

* 1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) * 1918–1961 Kuwait * 1920–1932 Mesopotamia 8 * 1921–1946 Transjordan 8 * 1923–1948 Palestine 8 * 1945–1946 South Vietnam * 1946–1963 North Borneo * 1946–1963 Sarawak * 1946–1963 Singapore * 1946–1948 Malayan Union * 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya * Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia (before as part of Cyprus
Cyprus
) * Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory (before as part of Mauritius
Mauritius
and the Seychelles )

8 League of Nations mandate . Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

OCEANIA

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

* 1788–1901 New South Wales * 1803–1901 Van Diemen\'s Land /Tasmania * 1807–1863 Auckland Islands 9 * 1824–1980 New Hebrides
New Hebrides
* 1824–1901 Queensland * 1829–1901 Swan River /Western Australia * 1836–1901 South Australia * since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

* 1841–1907 New Zealand * 1851–1901 Victoria * 1874–1970 Fiji 10 * 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories * 1884–1949 Papua * 1888–1901 Rarotonga /Cook Islands 9 * 1889–1948 Union Islands
Union Islands
9 * 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands 11 * 1893–1978 Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
12

* 1900–1970 Tonga * 1900–1974 Niue 9 * 1901–1942 *Australia * 1907–1953 *New Zealand * 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru * 1919–1949 New Guinea * 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea 13

* 9. Now part of the * Realm of New Zealand . * 10. Suspended member. * 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and * Tuvalu
Tuvalu
. * 12. Now the * Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
. * 13. Now * Papua New Guinea .

ANTARCTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC

* Since 1658 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
14 * Since 1815 Ascension Island
Ascension Island
14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha 14 * Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory 15 * 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia ) * 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand )

* 14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha ; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha (1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. * 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

* v * t * e

History of North America

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda * Bahamas * Barbados * Belize * Canada * Costa Rica * Cuba * Dominica * Dominican Republic * El Salvador * Grenada * Guatemala * Haiti * Honduras * Jamaica * Mexico * Nicaragua * Panama * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Trinidad and Tobago * United States

Dependencies and other territories

* Anguilla
Anguilla
* Aruba * Bermuda
Bermuda
* Bonaire * British Virgin Islands * Cayman Islands * Curaçao * Greenland *