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A CROWN COLONY, also known in the 17th century as ROYAL COLONY and since 2002 known as a British Overseas Territory , was a type of colonial administration of the overseas territories of the British Empire .

Crown, or royal, colonies were ruled by a governor appointed by the monarch. By the middle of the 19th century, the sovereign appointed royal governors on the advice of the Secretary of State for the Colonies . Under the name of "royal colony", the first of what would later become known as Crown colonies was the English Colony of Virginia in the present-day United States, after the Crown , in 1624, revoked the royal charter it had granted to the Virginia Company , taking over direct administration.

Until the mid-19th century, the term "crown colony" was primarily used to refer to those colonies that had been acquired through wars, such as Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
and British Guiana , but after that time it was more broadly applied to any colony other than the Presidencies and provinces of British India and the colonies of settlement, such as The Canadas , Newfoundland , British Columbia
British Columbia
, New South Wales
New South Wales
, Queensland
Queensland
, South Australia
South Australia
, Tasmania
Tasmania
, Victoria , Western Australia , and New Zealand, later to become the Dominions .

The term continued to be used until 1981, when the British Nationality Act 1981 reclassified the remaining British colonies as "British Dependent Territories". By this time, the term "crown colony" referred specifically to those colonies ruled directly by a Governor appointed by the Monarch (as was the case in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
before the 1997 return to the People\'s Republic of China
China
), with or without the assistance of some form of council appointed by the Governor. The term was not used to apply to those colonies which were substantially autonomous, usually described as "self-governed colonies" (at that time, primarily Bermuda, which had become a crown colony, according to an older definition of the term, when the Crown revoked the Royal Charter it had given to the Somers Isles Company
Somers Isles Company
, successor to the Virginia Company , in 1684. This meant that the Crown, from then onwards, appointed the Governor of Bermuda
Governor of Bermuda
, previously appointed by the Company. Bermuda
Bermuda
had already been internally self-governed for sixty-four years, however, and by the Twentieth Century the definition of "crown colony" had narrowed to include only those territories without internal self-government. The House of Assembly of Bermuda had existed continuously since its first session in 1620, including through the Commonwealth of England
Commonwealth of England
, when for some years the Mother Country itself had no parliament. From 2002, all remaining British colonies, whether Crown Colonies or self-governed, have been known as British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Types * 2 List * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References

TYPES

There were three types of crown colony as of 1918, with differing degrees of autonomy:

Crown colonies with representative councils such as Bermuda
Bermuda
, Jamaica , Ceylon , British Columbia
British Columbia
, Newfoundland and Fiji contained two legislative chambers, consisting of Crown-appointed and locally elected members.

Crown colonies with nominated councils such as British Honduras , Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
, Grenada
Grenada
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
were staffed entirely by Crown appointed members, with some appointed representation from the local population. It should be noted that Hong Kong
Hong Kong
had a representative council following the introduction of election for the Hong Kong Legislative Council in 1995.

Crown colonies ruled directly by a Governor such as Basutoland
Basutoland
, Gibraltar
Gibraltar
, Saint Helena and Singapore
Singapore
were fewest in number and had the least autonomy.

LIST

The following list includes territories belonging by settlement, conquest or annexation to the British Crown or to an independent Commonwealth nation .a

NAME OF COLONY FROM TO REASON FOR CHANGE OF STATUS

Aden 1937 1967 Became part of the Federation of South Arabia
Federation of South Arabia
.

Bahamas
Bahamas
1718 1973 Became an independent Commonwealth Realm .

Basutoland
Basutoland
1884 1964 Became British protectorate in 1964; then became independent as Lesotho
Lesotho
in 1966.

Bermuda
Bermuda
1684 1981 Became British Dependent Territory in 1981

British Bechuanaland
British Bechuanaland
1885 1895 Became part of British Cape Colony in 1895

British Guiana 1831 1966 Became independent as Guyana in 1966.

British Honduras (renamed Belize
Belize
in 1964) 1884 1981 Became independent (as Belize
Belize
) in 1981.

Burma 1937 1948 Separated from British India in 1937 and became a crown colony.

United Province of Canada 1841 1867 Became part of the Dominion
Dominion
of Canada in 1867.

Cape Colony 1806 1910 Became part of the Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
in 1910.

Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
1962 1981 Became British Dependent Territory in 1981

Ceylon 1815 1948 Became independent as Dominion
Dominion
of Ceylon in 1948.

British Columbia
British Columbia
1866 1871 Became part of the Dominion
Dominion
of Canada in 1871.

Cyprus
Cyprus
1914 1960 Became independent as Cyprus
Cyprus
in 1960.

East Florida
East Florida
1763 1783 Ceded to Spain. Later became part of the United States.

Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
1841 1981 Became a British Dependent Territory in 1981.

Gambia Colony and Protectorate 1888 1965 Became independent as The Gambia in 1965.

Georgia 1755 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776.

Gibraltar
Gibraltar
1713 1981 Became British Dependent Territory in 1981.

Gold Coast 1821 1957 Became independent in 1957 as Ghana .

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
1841 1981 Became British Dependent Territory in 1981. Became a self-governing special administrative region when sovereignty transferred to China
China
in 1997.

Jamaica
Jamaica
1865 1962 Became independent in 1962 as Jamaica
Jamaica
.

Kenya
Kenya
1920 1963 United with the Kenya
Kenya
Protectorate in 1963 to form the independent country of Kenya
Kenya

Labuan
Labuan
1846 1890 Administered by British North Borneo Company
British North Borneo Company
from 1890–1904.

1906 1946 Incorporated in the Straits Settlements
Straits Settlements
on 30 October 1906.

1946 1963 Incorporated in North Borneo
North Borneo
on 15 July 1946. Became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963

Lower Canada 1791 1841 Became part of Province of Canada in 1841.

Malacca 1946 1957 Became part of Malaya in 1957

Malta
Malta
1813 1964 Became independent in 1964 as the State of Malta
Malta
.

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay 1692 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776 as the state of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
.

Mauritius
Mauritius
1903 1968 Became independent as Mauritius
Mauritius
in 1968.

Natal 1843 1910 Became part of the Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
in 1910.

Newfoundland 1583 1907 Became the Dominion of Newfoundland in 1907, and later joined the Dominion
Dominion
of Canada in 1949.

New Hampshire 1692 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776.

New Jersey 1702 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776.

New South Wales
New South Wales
1788 1901 Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.

New York 1691 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776.

New Zealand
New Zealand
1841 1907 Became the Dominion
Dominion
of New Zealand
New Zealand
in 1907.

Nigeria
Nigeria
1914 1960 Became independent as Nigeria
Nigeria
in 1960.

Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
1788 1914 Placed under administration of Australia
Australia
in 1914 as a non-self governing territory. The island was self-governing between 1979 and 2015.

North Borneo
North Borneo
1946 1963 Became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963 as Sabah
Sabah
. Labuan
Labuan
separated from Sabah
Sabah
in 1984 to become a Federal Territory .

North Carolina 1729 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776.

Penang 1946 1957 Became part of Malaya in 1957

Quebec 1763 1791 Divided between Upper and Lower Canada and the Northwest Territory .

Queensland
Queensland
1824 1901 Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.

Saint Christopher and Nevis 1980 1981 Became British Dependent Territory in 1981

Sarawak 1946 1963 Became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963

Seychelles 1903 1976 Separated from British Mauritius
Mauritius
in 1903 and became a Crown Colony and became independent in 1976.

Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
1808 1961 Became independent as Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
in 1961.

South Australia
South Australia
1834 1901 Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.

South Carolina 1729 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776.

Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
1923 1980 Became independent in 1980 as Zimbabwe.

Singapore
Singapore
1946 1963 Singapore
Singapore
became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963; then became independent as the Republic of Singapore
Singapore
in 1965.

1946 1946 Labuan
Labuan
was incorporated into North Borneo
North Borneo
on 15 July 1946, which became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963

1946 1955 Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
was transferred to Australia
Australia
in 1955.

1946 1957 Christmas Island
Christmas Island
was transferred to Australia
Australia
in 1957.

Straits Settlements
Straits Settlements
1786 1946 Penang became a separate crown colony within the Malayan Union
Malayan Union
in 1946, which was re-organised as the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
in 1948 and became independent in 1957; later became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963

1826 1946 Singapore
Singapore
became a separate crown colony in 1946, after the Straits Settlements was dissolved.

1826 1946 Malacca became a separate crown colony within the Malayan Union
Malayan Union
in 1946, which re-organised as the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
in 1948 and became independent in 1957; later became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963

1857 1946 Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
became part of the Colony of Singapore in 1946.

1874 1937 Dinding (now Manjung ) became part of the Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
in 1937, which later became part of the Malayan Union
Malayan Union
in 1946; the Malayan Union
Malayan Union
became the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
in 1948 and became independent in 1957; later became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963.

1888 1946 Christmas Island
Christmas Island
became part of the Colony of Singapore in 1946.

1906 1946 Labuan
Labuan
became part of the Colony of Singapore in 1946.

Tasmania
Tasmania
1803 1901 Van Diemen\'s Land from 1803 to 1856; Formerly part of New South Wales from 1803 to 1825, when made an independent colony. Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.

Upper Canada
Upper Canada
1791 1841 Became part of Province of Canada in 1841.

Vancouver Island 1848 1866 Merged with the Colony of British Columbia
British Columbia
in 1866

Victoria 1851 1901 Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.

Virginia 1624 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776.

Western Australia
Western Australia
1829 1901 Swan River Colony
Swan River Colony
from 1829 to 1832. Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.

West Florida 1763 1783 Ceded to Spain. Later became part of the United States.

^A Source: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Great Britain Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Chronological table of the statutes . Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London part of the Office of Public Sector Information .

SEE ALSO

* Direct rule
Direct rule
* Crown dependency * Self-governing colony * Colonial Office
Colonial Office
* British overseas territories
British overseas territories
* British Empire
British Empire
* Legislative council

NOTES

* ^ Jenks , p. 70. * ^ Porter , p. 477. * ^ History of Parliament: Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
– Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago. * ^ Olson , p. 343. * ^ " British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
Act 2002". Gov.Uk. * ^ Jenks , pp. 71–4. * ^ The ending of the British sovereignty and jurisdiction over Hong Kong, See: Acts of Parliament
Acts of Parliament
of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
– Hong Kong Act 1985 . * ^ A B C D E F G H See: Malaysia
Malaysia
Act 1963 * ^ See: the Independence
Independence
of Singapore
Singapore
Agreement 1965 and the Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Singapore
Singapore
Act 1966. * ^ Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Act 1955. * ^ Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Request and Consent) Act 1957 (NO. 102, 1957). * ^ A B C See: Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Independence