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Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom
United Kingdom
overseas territories that are controlled by the UK government. As such they are examples of dependencies that are under direct colonial rule. Since 2002, crown colonies have been known officially as British Overseas Territories.[1] In such territories, residents do not elect members of the British parliament. A crown colony is usually administered by a governor who directly controls the executive and is appointed by "the Crown" – a term that in practice usually means the UK government, acting on behalf of the monarch. However, the term crown colony has sometimes been used of entities that have elected governments and partial autonomy; these are also known as self-governing colonies.

Contents

1 History 2 Types 3 List 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References

History[edit] The first "royal colony" was the Colony of Virginia, after 1624, when the Crown of the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
revoked the royal charter it had granted to the Virginia Company
Virginia Company
and assumed control of the administration.[2] Executive governors are sometimes complemented by a locally-appointed and/or elected legislature with limited powers – that is, such territories lack responsible government. For example, while the House of Assembly of Bermuda
Bermuda
has existed continuously since its first session in 1620, Bermuda
Bermuda
has only had responsible government since 1968. ( Bermuda
Bermuda
become a crown colony in 1684, when the government revoked a Royal Charter given to the Somers Isles Company, successor to the Virginia Company, which had previously controlled administration, including the appointment of governors. Afterwards the English/British government appointed the Governor
Governor
of Bermuda.) Despite its later usage, the term "crown colony" was used primarily, until the mid-19th century, to refer to colonies that had been acquired through wars, such as Trinidad and Tobago.[3] After that time it was more broadly applied to any colony other than the Presidencies and provinces of British India and self-governing colonies, such as the Province of Canada, Newfoundland, British Columbia, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia, and New Zealand.[4] By the mid-19th century, the monarch was appointing colonial governors only on the advice of the Secretary of State for the Colonies.[5] The term crown colony continued to be used until 1981, when the British Nationality Act 1981 reclassified the remaining British colonies as "British Dependent Territories". By this time, the term "crown colony" referred specifically to colonies lacking substantial autonomy, which were administered by an executive governor, appointed by the UK government – such as Hong Kong, before its transfer in 1997 to the People's Republic of China.

Types[edit] There were three types of Crown colonies as of 1918, with differing degrees of autonomy: Crown colonies with representative councils such as Bermuda, Jamaica, Ceylon, British Columbia, Newfoundland and Fiji contained two legislative chambers, consisting of Crown-appointed and locally elected members. Crown colonies with nominated councils such as British Honduras, Sierra Leone, Grenada
Grenada
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
were staffed entirely by Crown appointed members, with some appointed representation from the local population. Hong Kong
Hong Kong
had a representative council following the introduction of election for the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Legislative Council in 1995. Crown colonies ruled directly by a Governor
Governor
such as Basutoland,[6] Gibraltar, Saint Helena and Singapore
Singapore
were fewest in number and had the least autonomy. List[edit] The following list includes territories belonging by settlement, conquest or annexation to the British Crown or to an independent Commonwealth nation.a

Name of colony from to Reason for change of status

Aden 1937 1967 Became part of the Federation of South Arabia.

Bahamas 1718 1973 Became an independent Commonwealth Realm.

Basutoland 1884 1964 Became British protectorate in 1964; then became independent as Lesotho
Lesotho
in 1966.

 Bermuda 1684 1981 Became British Dependent Territory
British Dependent Territory
in 1981.

British Bechuanaland 1885 1895 Became part of British Cape Colony
British Cape Colony
in 1895.

British Guiana 1831 1966 Became independent as Guyana in 1966.

British Honduras
British Honduras
(renamed Belize
Belize
in 1964) 1884 1981 Became independent (as Belize) in 1981.

Burma 1937 1948 Separated from British India in 1937 and became a Crown colony.

United Province of Canada 1841 1867 Became part of the Dominion of Canada
Dominion of Canada
in 1867.

Cape Colony 1806 1910 Became part of the Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
in 1910.

 Cayman Islands 1962 1981 Became British Dependent Territory
British Dependent Territory
in 1981.

Ceylon 1815 1948 Became independent as Dominion of Ceylon
Dominion of Ceylon
in 1948.

British Columbia 1866 1871 Became part of the Dominion of Canada
Dominion of Canada
in 1871.

Cyprus 1914 1960 Became independent as Cyprus
Cyprus
in 1960.

East Florida 1763 1783 Ceded to Spain. Later became part of the United States.

 Falkland Islands 1841 1981 Became a British Dependent Territory
British Dependent Territory
in 1981.

Gambia Colony and Protectorate 1888 1965 Became independent as The Gambia in 1965.

Georgia 1755 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776.

 Gibraltar 1713 1981 Became British Dependent Territory
British Dependent Territory
in 1981.

Gold Coast 1821 1957 Became independent in 1957 as Ghana.

Hong Kong 1841 1981 Became British Dependent Territory
British Dependent Territory
in 1981. Became a self-governing special administrative region when sovereignty transferred to China
China
in 1997.[7]

Jamaica 1865 1962 Became independent in 1962 as Jamaica.

Kenya 1920 1963 United with the Kenya
Kenya
Protectorate in 1963 to form the independent country of Kenya.

Labuan 1846 1890 Administered by British North Borneo Company
British North Borneo Company
from 1890–1904.

1906 1946 Incorporated in the Straits Settlements on 30 October 1906.

1946 1963 Incorporated in North Borneo
North Borneo
on 15 July 1946. Became part of Malaysia in 1963.[8]

Lower Canada 1791 1841 Became part of Province of Canada
Province of Canada
in 1841.

Malacca 1946 1957 Became part of Malaya in 1957.

Malta 1813 1964 Became independent in 1964 as the State of Malta.

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay 1692 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776 as the state of Massachusetts.

Mauritius 1903 1968 Became independent as Mauritius
Mauritius
in 1968.

Natal 1843 1910 Became part of the Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
in 1910.

Newfoundland 1583 1907 Became the Dominion of Newfoundland
Dominion of Newfoundland
in 1907, and later joined the Dominion of Canada
Dominion of Canada
in 1949.

New Hampshire 1692 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776.

New Jersey 1702 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776.

New South Wales 1788 1901 Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia
Commonwealth of Australia
in 1901.

New York 1691 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776.

New Zealand 1841 1907 Became the Dominion of New Zealand
New Zealand
in 1907.

Nigeria 1914 1960 Became independent as Nigeria
Nigeria
in 1960.

Norfolk Island 1788 1914 Placed under administration of Australia
Australia
in 1914 as a non-self governing territory. The island was self-governing between 1979 and 2015.

North Borneo 1946 1963 Became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963 as Sabah. Labuan
Labuan
separated from Sabah in 1984 to become a Federal Territory.[8]

North Carolina 1729 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776.

Penang 1946 1957 Became part of Malaya in 1957.

Quebec 1763 1791 Divided between Upper and Lower Canada
Lower Canada
and the Northwest Territory.

Queensland 1859 1901 Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia
Commonwealth of Australia
in 1901.

Saint Christopher and Nevis 1980 1981 Became British Dependent Territory
British Dependent Territory
in 1981.

Sarawak 1946 1963 Became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963.[8]

Seychelles 1903 1976 Separated from British Mauritius
Mauritius
in 1903 and became a Crown Colony and became independent in 1976.

Sierra Leone 1808 1961 Became independent as Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
in 1961.

South Australia 1834 1901 Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia
Commonwealth of Australia
in 1901.

South Carolina 1729 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776.

Southern Rhodesia 1923 1965 Declared independence in 1965 as Rhodesia, which became Zimbabwe Rhodesia, independence recognized by Britain in 1980 as Zimbabwe.

Singapore 1946 1963 Singapore
Singapore
became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963;[8] then became independent as the Republic of Singapore
Singapore
in 1965.[9]

1946 1946 Labuan
Labuan
was incorporated into North Borneo
North Borneo
on 15 July 1946, which became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963.[8]

1946 1955 Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
was transferred to Australia
Australia
in 1955.[10]

1946 1957 Christmas Island
Christmas Island
was transferred to Australia
Australia
in 1957.[11]

Straits Settlements 1786 1946 Penang became a separate Crown colony within the Malayan Union
Malayan Union
in 1946, which was re-organised as the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
in 1948 and became independent in 1957;[12] later became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963.[8]

1826 1946 Singapore
Singapore
became a separate Crown colony in 1946, after the Straits Settlements was dissolved.[13]

1826 1946 Malacca became a separate Crown colony within the Malayan Union
Malayan Union
in 1946, which re-organised as the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
in 1948 and became independent in 1957;[12] later became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963.[8]

1857 1946 Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
became part of the Colony of Singapore
Colony of Singapore
in 1946.[13]

1874 1937 Dinding (now Manjung) became part of the Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
in 1937, which later became part of the Malayan Union
Malayan Union
in 1946; the Malayan Union
Malayan Union
became the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
in 1948 and became independent in 1957;[12] later became part of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963.[8]

1888 1946 Christmas Island
Christmas Island
became part of the Colony of Singapore
Colony of Singapore
in 1946.[13]

1906 1946 Labuan
Labuan
became part of the Colony of Singapore
Colony of Singapore
in 1946.[13]

Tasmania 1803 1901 Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
from 1803 to 1856; Formerly part of New South Wales from 1803 to 1825, when made an independent colony. Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia
Commonwealth of Australia
in 1901.

Upper Canada 1791 1841 Became part of Province of Canada
Province of Canada
in 1841.

Vancouver Island 1848 1866 Merged with the Colony of British Columbia
British Columbia
in 1866.

Victoria 1851 1901 Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia
Commonwealth of Australia
in 1901.

Virginia 1624 1776 Became part of the United States of America in 1776.

Western Australia 1829 1901 Swan River Colony
Swan River Colony
from 1829 to 1832. Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia
Australia
in 1901.

West Florida 1763 1783 Ceded to Spain. Later became part of the United States.

^a Source: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Great Britain Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Chronological table of the statutes. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London part of the Office of Public Sector Information.  See also[edit]

Direct rule Crown dependency Self-governing colony Colonial Office British overseas territories British Empire Legislative council

Notes[edit]

^ " British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
Act 2002". Gov.Uk.  ^ Porter, p. 477. ^ History of Parliament: Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
– Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago. ^ Olson, p. 343. ^ Jenks, p. 70. ^ Jenks, pp. 71–4. ^ The ending of the British sovereignty and jurisdiction over Hong Kong, See: Acts of Parliament
Acts of Parliament
of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Act 1985 . ^ a b c d e f g h See: Malaysia
Malaysia
Act 1963 ^ See: the Independence
Independence
of Singapore
Singapore
Agreement 1965 and the Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Singapore
Singapore
Act 1966. ^ Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Act 1955. ^ Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Request and Consent) Act 1957 (NO. 102, 1957). ^ a b c See: Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Independence
Independence
Act 1957 ^ a b c d "The Straits Settlements is dissolved". Retrieved August 29, 2015. 

References[edit]

Jenks, Edward (1918). The Government of the British Empire. Little, Brown, and Company.  Olson, James (1996). Historical Dictionary of the British Empire. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-29366-X.  Porter, Andrew (1998). The Nineteenth Century, The Oxford History of the British Empire
British Empire
Volume III. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924678-5.  Wrong, Hume (1923). "The Old Representative System: The Change To Crown Colony Government". Government of the West Indies. England: Oxford University Press. p. 71. ISBN 1-113-74149-X. Retrieved 2010-03-30. The phrase 'Crown Colony Government' is used with various meanings. In the broadest, and perhaps most correct, sense it is applied to all the colonies in which the Crown retains the real control of the executive (i.e. to all the West Indian colonies). By both official and common usage, however, it is often narrowed as to exclude colonies with elected Assemblies, though without a responsibl

.