HOME
The Info List - British Army


--- Advertisement ---



The British Army
Army
is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2017, the British Army comprises just over 80,000 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 26,500 trained reserve (part-time) personnel.[4] Since April 2013, Ministry of Defence publications have not reported the entire strength of the Regular Reserve; instead, only Regular Reserves serving under the fixed-term reserve contracts have been counted.[5] The modern British Army
Army
traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army
Army
that was created during the Restoration in 1660. The term "British Army" was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between England and Scotland.[6][7] Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear (or affirm) allegiance to Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
as their commander-in-chief,[8] the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army; hence the reason it is not called the "Royal Army".[9] Therefore, Parliament approves the Army
Army
by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years. The Army
Army
is administered by the Ministry of Defence and commanded by the Chief of the General Staff.[10] The British Army
Army
has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War
Crimean War
and the First and Second World Wars. Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers.[11][12] Since the end of the Cold War
Cold War
the British Army
Army
has deployed to a number of conflict zones, often as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation.[13]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Formation 1.2 British Empire
British Empire
(1700–1914) 1.3 World Wars (1914–1945) 1.4 Postcolonial era (1945–2000)

1.4.1 Persian Gulf War 1.4.2 Balkan conflicts 1.4.3 The Troubles

1.5 Recent history (2000–present)

1.5.1 War in Afghanistan 1.5.2 Iraq
Iraq
War 1.5.3 UK Operations/Military Aid to the Civil Authorities

2 Modern army

2.1 Personnel 2.2 Equipment

2.2.1 Infantry 2.2.2 Armour 2.2.3 Artillery 2.2.4 Protected mobility 2.2.5 Engineers, utility and signals 2.2.6 Aviation

3 Current deployments

3.1 Low-intensity operations 3.2 Permanent overseas postings

4 Structure

4.1 Operational structure

4.1.1 Special
Special
forces 4.1.2 Local units

5 Recruitment

5.1 Oath of allegiance 5.2 Training establishments

6 Flags and ensigns 7 Ranks, specialisms and insignia 8 Uniforms 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the British Army Formation[edit]

Lord General Thomas Fairfax, the first commander of the New Model Army

Lord Protector
Lord Protector
Oliver Cromwell

Until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe.[14] From the later Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France
France
and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt (1415), the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition.[15] During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations (such as the Eastern Association), often commanded by local members of parliament (both from the House of Commons and the House of Lords), while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war. So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies. This created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, and a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army
Army
(originally new-modelled Army).[16] While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was widely disliked. The New Model Army
Army
was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.[17] The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so.[18] Charles II and his Cavalier
Cavalier
supporters favoured a new army under royal control; and immediately after the Restoration began working on its establishment.[19] The first English Army
Army
regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661[20] and became a standing military force for Britain (financed by Parliament).[21][22] The Royal Scots and Irish Armies
Armies
were financed by the parliaments of Scotland and Ireland.[23] Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689
Bill of Rights 1689
and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century.[24] After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget. This became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, and 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons. A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678, when England played a role in the closing stage of the Franco-Dutch War. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance, primarily to prevent a French invasion restoring James II (Mary's father).[25] In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, and then to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was very nervous, and reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force.[26][27]

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, was one of the first generals in the British Army
Army
and fought in the War of the Spanish Succession.

By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands
Netherlands
for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment,[3] they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos, customs and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier. The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army
Army
line regiments is based on that of the English army. Although technically the Scots Royal Regiment
Regiment
of Foot was raised in 1633 and is the oldest Regiment
Regiment
of the Line,[28] Scottish and Irish regiments were only allowed to take a rank in the English army on the date of their arrival in England (or the date when they were first placed on the English establishment). In 1694, a board of general officers was convened to decide the rank of English, Irish and Scots regiments serving in the Netherlands; the regiment which became known as the Scots Greys
Scots Greys
were designated the 4th Dragoons because there were three English regiments raised prior to 1688, when the Scots Greys
Scots Greys
were first placed in the English establishment. In 1713, when a new board of general officers was convened to decide the rank of several regiments, the seniority of the Scots Greys
Scots Greys
was reassessed and based on their June 1685 entry into England. At that time there was only one English regiment of dragoons, and the Scots Greys eventually received the British Army
Army
rank of 2nd Dragoons.[29] British Empire
British Empire
(1700–1914)[edit] Main articles: British Army
Army
during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
and British Army
Army
during the Victorian Era After 1700 British continental policy was to contain expansion by competing powers such as France
France
and Spain. Although Spain
Spain
was the dominant global power during the previous two centuries and the chief threat to England's early transatlantic ambitions, its influence was now waning. The territorial ambitions of the French, however, led to the War of the Spanish Succession[30] and the Napoleonic Wars.[31] Although the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
is widely regarded as vital to the rise of the British Empire, the British Army
Army
played an important role in the formation of colonies, protectorates and dominions in the Americas, Africa, Asia, India and Australasia.[32] British soldiers captured strategically-important territories, and the army was involved in wars to secure the empire's borders and support friendly governments. Among these actions were the Seven Years' War,[33] the American Revolutionary War,[34] the Napoleonic Wars,[31] the First and Second Opium Wars,[35] the Boxer Rebellion,[36] the New Zealand Wars,[37] the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857,[38] the first and second Boer Wars,[39] the Fenian
Fenian
raids,[40] the Irish War of Independence,[41] interventions in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(intended to maintain a buffer state between British India and the Russian Empire)[42] and the Crimean War
Crimean War
(to keep the Russian Empire at a safe distance by aiding Turkey).[43] Like the English Army, the British Army
Army
fought the kingdoms of Spain, France
France
(including the Empire of France) and the Netherlands
Netherlands
for supremacy in North America and the West Indies. With native and provincial assistance, the army conquered New France
New France
in the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War[33] and suppressed a Native American uprising in Pontiac's War.[44] The British Army
Army
was defeated in the American Revolutionary War, losing the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
but retaining The Canadas and The Maritimes
The Maritimes
as British North America.[45]

The Duke of Wellington
Duke of Wellington
and Field Marshal von Blücher's triumph over Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
at the Battle of Waterloo

The British Army
Army
was heavily involved in the Napoleonic Wars, participating in a number of campaigns in Europe (including continuous deployment in the Peninsular War), the Caribbean, North Africa and North America. The war between the British and the First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
stretched around the world; at its peak in 1813, the regular army contained over 250,000 men. A coalition of Anglo-Dutch and Prussian armies under the Duke of Wellington
Duke of Wellington
and Field Marshal von Blücher finally defeated Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815.[46] The English were involved politically and militarily in Ireland since receiving the Lordship of Ireland
Lordship of Ireland
from the pope in 1171. The campaign of English republican Protector Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
involved uncompromising treatment of the Irish towns (most notably Drogheda
Drogheda
and Wexford) which supported the Royalists during the English Civil War. The English Army
Army
(and the subsequent British Army) remained in Ireland primarily to suppress Irish revolts or disorder. In addition to its conflict with Irish nationalists, it was faced with the prospect of battling Anglo-Irish and Ulster
Ulster
Scots in Ireland who were angered by unfavourable taxation of Irish produce imported into Britain. With other Irish groups, they raised a volunteer army and threatened to emulate the American colonists if their conditions were not met. Learning from their experience in America, the British government sought a political solution. The British Army
Army
fought Irish rebels—Protestant and Catholic—primarily in Ulster
Ulster
and Leinster (Wolfe Tone's United Irishmen) in the 1798 rebellion.[47]

In the 1879 Battle of Rorke's Drift, a small British force repelled an attack by overwhelming Zulu forces; eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded for its defence.

In addition to battling the armies of other European empires (and its former colonies, the United States, in the War of 1812),[48] the British Army
Army
fought the Chinese in the first and second Opium Wars[35] and the Boxer Rebellion,[36] Māori tribes in the first of the New Zealand Wars,[37] Nawab Shiraj-ud-Daula's forces and British East India Company mutineers in the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857,[39] the Boers in the first and second Boer Wars,[39] Irish Fenians in Canada
Canada
during the Fenian
Fenian
raids[40] and Irish separatists in the Anglo-Irish War.[35] The increasing demands of imperial expansion and the inadequacy and inefficiency of the underfunded British Army, Militia, Yeomanry
Yeomanry
and Volunteer Force after the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
led to the late-19th-century Cardwell and Childers Reforms, which gave the army its modern shape and redefined its regimental system.[49] The 1907 Haldane Reforms created the Territorial Force
Territorial Force
as the army's volunteer reserve component, merging and reorganising the Volunteer Force, Militia and Yeomanry.[50] World Wars (1914–1945)[edit] Main articles: British Army
Army
during World War I
World War I
and British Army
Army
during the Second World War

British World War I
World War I
Mark I tank; the guidance wheels behind the main body were later scrapped as unnecessary. Armoured vehicles of the era required considerable infantry and artillery support. (Photo by Ernest Brooks)

Infantrymen of the Middlesex Regiment
Middlesex Regiment
with horse-drawn Lewis gun
Lewis gun
carts returning from the trenches near Albert, France
France
in September 1916. In the background is a line of supply lorries.

Led by their piper, men of the 7th Battalion, Seaforth Highlanders (part of the 46th (Highland) Brigade), advance during Operation Epsom on 26 June 1944.

Great Britain has been challenged by other powers, primarily the German Empire
German Empire
and the Third Reich
Third Reich
during the 20th century. A century earlier it vied with Napoleonic France
France
for global pre-eminence, and Hannoverian Britain's natural allies were the kingdoms and principalities of northern Germany. By the middle of the 19th century, Britain and France
France
were allies in preventing Russia's appropriation of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(although the fear of French invasion led shortly afterwards to the creation of the Volunteer Force. By the first decade of the 20th century, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was allied with France
France
(by the Entente Cordiale) and Russia (which had a secret agreement with France for mutual support in a war against the Prussian-led German Empire
German Empire
and the Austro-Hungarian Empire).[51] When the First World War broke out in August 1914 the British Army sent the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), consisting mainly of regular army troops, to France
France
and Belgium.[52] The fighting bogged down into static trench warfare for the remainder of the war. In 1915 the army created the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force to invade the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
via Gallipoli, an unsuccessful attempt to capture Constantinople
Constantinople
and secure a sea route to Russia.[53] World War I
World War I
was the most devastating in British military history, with nearly 800,000 men killed and over two million wounded. Early in the war, the BEF was virtually destroyed and was replaced first by volunteers and then a conscript force. Major battles included those at the Somme and Passchendaele.[54] Advances in technology saw the advent of the tank[55] (and the creation of the Royal Tank
Tank
Regiment) and advances in aircraft design (including the creation of the Royal Flying Corps) which would be decisive in future battles.[56] Trench warfare dominated Western Front strategy for most of the war, and the use of chemical weapons (disabling and poison gases) added to the devastation.[57] The Second World War broke out in September 1939 with the Russian and German Army's invasion of Poland.[58] British assurances to the Poles led the British Empire
British Empire
to declare war on Germany. As in the First World War, a relatively-small BEF was sent to France[58] and hastily evacuated from Dunkirk as the German forces swept through the Low Countries and across France
France
in May 1940.[59] After the US entered the war and the British Army
Army
recovered from its earlier defeats, it defeated the Germans and Italians at the Second Battle of El Alamein in North Africa in 1942–1943 and helped drive them from Africa. It then fought through Italy[60] and, with the help of American, Canadian, Australian, New Zealand, Indian and Free French forces,[61] took part in the D-Day invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944; nearly half the Allied soldiers were British.[62] In the Far East, the British Army
Army
rallied against the Japanese in the Burma Campaign and regained the British Far Eastern colonial possessions.[63] Postcolonial era (1945–2000)[edit] After the Second World War the British Army
Army
was significantly reduced in size, although National Service continued until 1960.[64] This period saw decolonisation begin with the partition and independence of India and Pakistan, followed by the independence of British colonies in Africa and Asia. Although the British Army
Army
was a major participant in Korea in the early 1950s[64] and Suez in 1956,[65] during this period Britain's role in world events was reduced and the army was downsized.[66] The British Army
Army
of the Rhine, consisting of I (BR) Corps, remained in Germany
Germany
as a bulwark against Soviet invasion.[67] The Cold War
Cold War
continued, with significant technological advances in warfare, and the army saw the introduction of new weapons systems.[68] Despite the decline of the British Empire, the army was engaged in Aden,[69] Indonesia, Cyprus,[69] Kenya[69] and Malaya.[70] In 1982, the British Army
Army
and the Royal Marines
Royal Marines
helped liberate the Falkland Islands during the conflict with Argentina after that country's invasion of the British territory.[71] In the three decades following 1969, the army was heavily deployed in Northern Ireland's Operation Banner
Operation Banner
to support the Royal Ulster Constabulary (later the Police Service of Northern Ireland) in their conflict with republican paramilitary groups.[72] The locally recruited Ulster
Ulster
Defence Regiment
Regiment
was formed, becoming home-service battalions of the Royal Irish Regiment
Regiment
in 1992 before it was disbanded in 2006. Over 700 soldiers were killed during the Troubles. Following the 1994–1996 IRA ceasefires and since 1997, demilitarisation has been part of the peace process and the military presence has been reduced.[73] On 25 June 2007 the 2nd Battalion
Battalion
of the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment
Regiment
left the army complex in Bessbrook, County Armagh, ending the longest operation in British Army
Army
history.[74] Persian Gulf War[edit] Main articles: Gulf War
Gulf War
and Operation Granby

Wrecked and abandoned vehicles along the Highway of Death

The British Army
Army
contributed 50,000 troops to the coalition which fought Iraq
Iraq
in the Persian Gulf War,[75] and British forces controlled Kuwait
Kuwait
after its liberation. Forty-seven British military personnel died during the war.[76] Balkan conflicts[edit] Main article: Yugoslav Wars The army was deployed to Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1992. Initially part of the United Nations Protection Force,[77] in 1995 its command was transferred to the Implementation Force
Implementation Force
(IFOR) and then to the Stabilisation Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Stabilisation Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina
(SFOR);[78] the commitment rose to over 10,000 troops. In 1999, British forces under SFOR command were sent to Kosovo
Kosovo
and the contingent increased to 19,000 troops.[79] Between early 1993 and June 2010, 72 British military personnel died during operations in the former Yugoslavian countries of Bosnia, Kosovo
Kosovo
and Macedonia.[80] The Troubles[edit] Although there have been permanent garrisons in Northern Ireland throughout its history, the British Army
Army
was deployed as a peacekeeping force from 1969 to 2007 in Operation Banner. Initially, this was (in the wake of unionist attacks on nationalist communities in Derry[81] and Belfast)[82] to prevent further loyalist attacks on Catholic communities; it developed into support of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and its successor, the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) against the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA).[83] Under the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, there was a gradual reduction in the number of soldiers deployed.[84] In 2005, after the PIRA declared a ceasefire, the British Army
Army
dismantled posts, withdrew many troops and restored troop levels to those of a peace-time garrison.[85] Operation Banner
Operation Banner
ended at midnight on 31 July 2007 after about 38 years of continuous deployment, the longest in British Army history.[86] According to an internal document released in 2007, the British Army
Army
had failed to defeat the IRA but made it impossible for them to win by violence. Operation Helvetic replaced Operation Banner in 2007, maintaining fewer service personnel in a more-benign environment.[86][87] From 1971 to 1997, a total of 763 British military personnel were killed during the Troubles.[88] About 300 deaths during the conflict were attributed to the British Army, including paramilitary troops and civilians.[89] Recent history (2000–present)[edit] War in Afghanistan[edit] Main article: War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–2014)

Royal Anglian Regiment
Royal Anglian Regiment
in Helmand Province

In November 2001, as part of Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
with the United States, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
invaded Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to topple the Taliban
Taliban
in Operation Herrick.[90] The 3rd Division were deployed in Kabul
Kabul
to assist in the liberation of the capital and defeat Taliban forces in the mountains. In 2006 the British Army
Army
began concentrating on fighting Taliban
Taliban
forces and bringing security to Helmand Province, with around 9,500 British troops (including marines, airmen and sailors) deployed at its peak[91]—the second-largest force after that of the US.[92] In December 2012 Prime Minister David Cameron announced that the combat mission would end in 2014, and troop numbers gradually fell as the Afghan National Army
Army
took over the brunt of the fighting. Between 2001 and 26 April 2014 a total of 453 British military personnel died in Afghan operations.[93] Operation Herrick ended with the handover of Camp Bastion
Camp Bastion
on 26 October 2014,[94] but the British Army
Army
maintains a deployment in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as part of Operation Toral.[95] Iraq
Iraq
War[edit] Main articles: Iraq
Iraq
War and Operation Telic

British soldiers from the 1st Battalion, Royal Regiment
Regiment
of Fusiliers battlegroup engage Iraqi positions with an 81mm mortar south of Basra.

In 2003 the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was a major contributor to the invasion of Iraq, sending a force of over 46,000 military personnel. The British Army
Army
controlled southern Iraq, maintained a peace-keeping presence in Basra.[96] All British troops were withdrawn from Iraq
Iraq
by 30 April 2009, after the Iraqi government refused to extend their mandate.[97] One hundred seventy-nine British military personnel died in Iraqi operations.[80] The British Armed Forces
British Armed Forces
returned to Iraq
Iraq
in 2014 as part of Operation Shader
Operation Shader
to counter the Islamic State (ISIL).[98] UK Operations/Military Aid to the Civil Authorities[edit] Main articles: Operation Temperer and Military Aid to the Civil Authorities The British Army
Army
maintains a standing liability to support the civil authorities in certain circumstances, usually in either niche capabilities (e.g. explosive ordance removal) or in general support of the civil authorities when their capacity is exceeded.[99][100] In recent years this has been seen as Army
Army
personnel supporting the civil authorities in the face of the 2001 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
foot-and-mouth outbreak, the 2002 Firefighters strike, widespread flooding in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2013 and 2014 and most recently supporting the security services on Operation Temperer following the 2017 Manchester Arena bombing.[101] Modern army[edit] Personnel[edit] The British Army
Army
has been a volunteer force since national service ended during the 1960s.[64] Since the creation of the part-time, reserve Territorial Force
Territorial Force
in 1908 (renamed the Army
Army
Reserve in 2014) the full-time British Army
Army
has been known as the Regular Army. The size and structure of the army are evolving, and the Ministry of Defence publishes monthly personnel reports. In December 2016 there were 83,360 trained Regulars, 2,850 Gurkhas and 26,300 trained Army Reservists.[102] Army
Army
2020 followed the Strategic Defence and Security Review 2010 (SDSR). According to the Ministry of Defence, Army
Army
2020 will "ensure that the British Army
Army
remains the most capable Army
Army
in its class" and enable "it to better meet the security challenges of the 2020s and beyond".[103] The SDSR initially outlined a reduction of the regular British Army
Army
by 7,000, to a trained strength of 95,000, by 2015.[103] After the publication of "Future Reserves 2020", another independent review of army structure,[104] it was announced that the Regular Army would be reduced to a trained strength of 82,000 and the Army
Army
Reserve would be increased to a trained strength of about 30,000;[105] this would bring the ratio of regular to part-time personnel in line with the US and Canada
Canada
and integrate the Army
Army
Reserve into the Regular Army.[106] In addition to the regular and reserve armies, all former Regular Army personnel (known as the Regular Reserve) may be recalled for duty as needed.[107] The Regular Reserve has two categories: A and D. Category A is mandatory, with the length of time in the category dependent on time spent in Regular Army
Army
service. Category D is voluntary, and consists of personnel who are no longer required to serve in category A. Regular Reserves in both categories serve under a fixed-term reserve contract and may report for training or service overseas and at home,[107] similar to the Army
Army
Reserve.[108][107] In 2007, there were 121,800 Regular Reserves, of which 33,760 served in categories A and D.[109] Beginning in April 2013, the full Regular Reserve strength was no longer reported—only those serving in categories A and D (30,000 in 2015).[110]

The Blues and Royals
Blues and Royals
Trooping the Colour
Trooping the Colour
in 2007

The table below illustrates British Army
Army
personnel figures from 1710 to 2010. The Army
Army
Reserve (Territorial Army) was established in 1908.

British Army
Army
strength[nb 6]

(1707–1800)

(1801–1921)

(1921– Present)

Year Regular Army

Year Regular Army

Year Regular Army Army
Army
Reserve Total

1710 70,000

1810 226,000

1921 Interwar period —

1720 20,000

1820 114,000

1930 —

1730 20,000

1830 106,000

1945b 3,120,000 Included in Regular 3,120,000

1740 55,000

1840 130,000

1950 364,000 83,000 447,000

1750 27,000

1850 151,000

1960 258,000 120,000 387,000

1760 87,000

1860 215,000

1970 176,000 80,000 256,000

1770 48,000

1870 185,000

1980 159,000 63,000 222,000

1780 79,000

1880 165,000

1990 153,000 73,000 226,000

1790 84,000

1890 210,000

2000 110,000 45,000 155,000

1800 163,000

1900 275,000

2010 113,000 29,000 142,000

1918a 3,820,000

2015 83,360 29,603 112,990

a ^ End of the First World War b ^ End of the Second World War

Equipment[edit] Main article: List of equipment of the British Army Infantry[edit] The British Army's basic infantry weapon is the L85A2 assault rifle, sometimes equipped with an L17A2 under-barrel grenade launcher or other attachments with the Picatinny rail. The rifle has several variants, including the L86A2, the Light Support Weapon (LSW) and the L22A2 carbine (issued to tank crews). These weapons are usually equipped with iron sights or an optical SUSAT, although optical sights have been purchased to supplement these.[122] Support fire is provided by the FN Minimi
FN Minimi
light machine gun and the L7 general-purpose machine gun (GPMG),[123] and indirect fire is provided by L16 81mm mortars. The L129A1 sharpshooter rifle was brought into service during the war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to meet an urgent operational requirement.[124] Sniper rifles include the L118A1 7.62 mm, L115A3
L115A3
and the AW50F, all manufactured by Accuracy International.[125] Other weapons, such as the L128A1
L128A1
(Benelli M4) combat shotgun, may be temporarily used.[126] Armour[edit] The army's main battle tank is the Challenger 2.[127][128] It is supported by the Warrior Infantry Fighting Vehicle
Warrior Infantry Fighting Vehicle
as the primary armoured personnel carrier[129] and the many variants of the Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance (Tracked) and the FV430 series, which had its engines and armour upgraded as the Bulldog.[130] Light armoured units often utilise the Supacat "Jackal" MWMIK
MWMIK
and Coyote for reconnaissance and fire support.[131] Artillery[edit] The army has three main artillery systems: the Multi Launch Rocket System (MLRS), the AS-90
AS-90
and the L118 light gun.[132] The MLRS, first used in Operation Granby, has a 85-kilometre (53 mi) range.[133] The AS-90
AS-90
is a 155 mm self-propelled armoured gun with a 24-kilometre (15 mi) range.[134] The L118 light gun
L118 light gun
is a 105 mm towed gun used in support of 16 Air Assault Brigade, 3 Commando Brigade
Brigade
of the Royal Marines
Royal Marines
and the Adaptive Force.[135] To identify artillery targets, the army operates weapon locators such as the MAMBA Radar and utilises artillery sound ranging.[136] For air defence it uses the Short-Range Air Defence (SHORAD) Rapier FSC missile system, widely deployed since the Falklands War,[137] and the Very Short-Range Air Defence (VSHORAD) Starstreak HVM (high-velocity missile) launched by a single soldier or from a vehicle-mounted launcher.[138] Protected mobility[edit] Where armour is not required or mobility and speed are favoured the British Army
Army
utilises protected patrol vehicles, such as the Panther variant of the Iveco LMV, the Foxhound, and variants of the Cougar family (such as the Ridgeback, Husky and Mastiff).[139] For day-to-day utility work the army commonly uses the Land Rover Wolf, which is based on the Land Rover Defender.[140] Engineers, utility and signals[edit] Specialist engineering vehicles include bomb-disposal robots and the modern variants of the Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers, including the Titan bridge-layer, Trojan combat-engineer vehicle, Terrier Armoured Digger and Python Minefield Breaching System.[141] Day-to-day utility work uses a series of support vehicles, including six-, nine- and fifteen-tonne trucks (often called "Bedfords", after a historic utility vehicle), heavy-equipment transporters (HET), close-support tankers, quad bikes and ambulances.[142][143] Tactical communication uses the Bowman radio system, and operational or strategic communication is controlled by the Royal Corps
Corps
of Signals.[144] Aviation[edit] The Army
Army
Air Corps
Corps
(AAC) provides direct aviation support, with the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
providing support helicopters. The primary attack helicopter is the Westland WAH-64 Apache, a licence-built, modified version of the US AH-64 Apache
AH-64 Apache
which replaced the Westland Lynx AH7 in the anti-tank role.[145] Other helicopters include the Westland Gazelle (a light surveillance aircraft),[146] the Bell 212
Bell 212
(in jungle "hot and high" environments)[147] and the AgustaWestland AW159 Wildcat, a dedicated intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance (ISTAR) helicopter.[148] The Eurocopter AS 365N Dauphin is used for special operations aviation,[149] and the Britten-Norman Islander
Britten-Norman Islander
is a light, fixed-wing aircraft used for airborne reconnaissance and command and control.[150] The army operates two unmanned aerial vehicles ('UAV's) in a surveillance role: the small Lockheed Martin Desert Hawk III and the larger Thales Watchkeeper WK450.[151][152]

Challenger II main battle tank

Warrior IFV

AS-90

Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System (GMLRS)

AgustaWestland Apache

L85A2 assault rifle

Current deployments[edit] Low-intensity operations[edit]

Location Date Details

Afghanistan 2015 Operation Toral: The army maintains a deployment of 500 personnel in support of NATO's Resolute Support Mission.[95]

Iraq 2014 Operation Shader: The army has personnel stationed in Iraq
Iraq
as part of the ongoing military intervention against ISIL, primarily to assist in the training of Iraqi security forces.[153] With other elements of the British Armed Forces, there were 275 army personnel in 2016.[154]

Cyprus 1964 Operation Tosca: There were 275 troops deployed as part of the UNFICYP in 2016.[154]

Sierra Leone 1999 International Military Assistance Training Team: The British Army
Army
were deployed to Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
for Operation Palliser
Operation Palliser
in 1999, under United Nations resolutions, to aid the government in quelling violent uprisings by militiamen. Troops remain in the region to provide military support and training to the Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
government. British troops also provided support during the 2014 West African Ebola virus epidemic.[155]

Baltic states 2017 NATO Response Force: The British Army
Army
will deploy up to 800 troops in 2017 as part of its commitment to NATO to counter perceived Russian aggression against the Baltic states.[156][157]

Permanent overseas postings[edit]

Location Date Details

Belize 1949 British Army
Army
Training and Support Unit Belize: British troops were based in Belize
Belize
from 1949 to 1994. Belize's neighbour, Guatemala, claimed the territory and there were a number of border disputes. At the request of the Belize
Belize
government, British troops remained in Belize
Belize
after independence in 1981 as a defence force.[158] Although the main training unit was meant to be mothballed after the Strategic Defence and Security Review,[159] in 2015 it continued to be in use.[160]

Bermuda 1701 Royal Bermuda
Bermuda
Regiment: British troops have been based in Bermuda since 1701,[161] and home defence is now provided by the Royal Bermuda Regiment.[162]

Brunei 1962 British Forces Brunei: One battalion of the Royal Gurkha Rifles, British Garrison, Training Team Brunei
Brunei
(TTB) and 7 Flight AAC. A Gurkha battalion has been maintained in Brunei
Brunei
since the Brunei
Brunei
Revolt in 1962 at the request of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin III. Training Team Brunei
Brunei
(TTB) is the Army's jungle-warfare school, and a small number of garrison troops support the battalion. 7 Flight AAC
7 Flight AAC
provides helicopter support to the Gurkha battalion and TTB.[163]

Canada 1972 British Army
Army
Training Unit Suffield: A training centre in Alberta prairie for the use of British Army
Army
and Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
under agreement with the government of Canada. British forces conduct regular, major armoured training exercises every year, with helicopter support provided by 29 (BATUS) Flight AAC.[164][165]

Cyprus 1960 Two resident infantry battalions, Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
and Joint Service Signals Unit at Ayios Nikolaos as part of British Forces Cyprus. The UK retains two Sovereign Base Areas
Sovereign Base Areas
on Cyprus
Cyprus
after the rest of the island's independence, which are forward bases for deployments to the Middle East. Principal facilities are Alexander Barracks at Dhekelia and Salamanca Barracks at Episkopi.[166]

Falkland Islands 1982 Part of British Forces South Atlantic Islands: The British Army contribution consists of an infantry company group and an Engineer Squadron. Previously, a platoon-sized Royal Marines
Royal Marines
Naval Party was the military presence. After the war in 1982 between Argentina and the UK, the garrison was enlarged and bolstered with a base at RAF Mount Pleasant on East Falkland.[167]

Germany 1945–2020 Part of British Forces Germany: Home of the 1st (UK) Armoured Division. British forces remained in Germany
Germany
after the end of the Second World War. The forces were reduced considerably after the end of the Cold War
Cold War
and in October 2010, Prime Minister David Cameron announced large cuts in defence; all UK troops currently in Germany will leave by 2020.[168]

Gibraltar 1704 Part of British Forces Gibraltar: A British Army
Army
garrison is provided by an indigenous regiment, the Royal Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Regiment.[169]

Kenya 2010 British Army
Army
Training Unit Kenya: The army has a training centre in Kenya, under an agreement with the Kenyan government, which provides training facilities for three infantry battalions per year.[170]

Structure[edit]

Arms of the British Army

Combat Arms

Royal Armoured Corps Infantry

Guards Division Scottish, Welsh and Irish Division King's Division Queen's Division Parachute Regiment Royal Gurkha Rifles The Rifles

Special
Special
Air Service Army
Army
Air Corps Special
Special
Reconnaissance Regiment

Combat Support Arms

Royal Artillery Royal Engineers Royal Corps
Corps
of Signals Intelligence Corps

Combat Services

Royal Army
Army
Chaplains' Department Royal Logistic Corps Army
Army
Medical Services

Royal Army
Army
Medical Corps Royal Army
Army
Dental Corps Royal Army
Army
Veterinary Corps Queen Alexandra's Royal Army
Army
Nursing Corps

Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Adjutant General's Corps

Educational and Training Services Branch Army
Army
Legal Services Branch Provost Branch (Royal Military Police Military Provost Staff Military Provost Guard Service)

Small Arms School Corps Royal Army
Army
Physical Training Corps General Service Corps Corps
Corps
of Army
Army
Music

v t e

Main article: Structure of the British Army British Army
Army
structure is broadly similar to that of the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force, with a single command (based in Andover, Hampshire) known as " Army
Army
Headquarters". Under the Army
Army
2020 Command structure, the Chief of the General Staff is in charge of Army Headquarters. There are four lieutenant-general posts in Army headquarters: Deputy Chief of the General Staff, Commander Field Army, Commander Allied Rapid Reaction Corps
Allied Rapid Reaction Corps
and Commander Home Command.[171] Army
Army
Headquarters is responsible for providing forces at operational readiness for employment by the Permanent Joint Headquarters.[10] The command structure is hierarchical, with divisions and brigades controlling groups of units. Major units are regiment- or battalion-sized, and minor units are company-sized units (or platoons). All units are Regular (full-time) or Army
Army
Reserve (part-time).[10] Naming conventions of units differ for historical reasons, creating some confusion; the term "battalion" in the infantry is synonymous with a cavalry, artillery or engineer regiment, and the infantry "company" is synonymous with an engineer or cavalry squadron and an artillery battery. The table below illustrates the different names for equivalent units.[172]

Infantry Cavalry Artillery Engineers

Regiment
Regiment
(two or more battalions grouped for administration) No equivalent No equivalent No equivalent

Battalion Regiment Regiment Regiment

Company Squadron Battery Squadron

Platoon Troop Troop Troop

Adding to the confusion is the tendency of units (again for historical reasons) to misuse titles for larger administrative structures. Although the Royal Artillery
Royal Artillery
consists of 13 Regular regiments (equivalent to infantry battalions), it calls itself the Royal Regiment
Regiment
of Artillery when referring to the units as a whole. The Royal Logistic Corps and Intelligence Corps
Corps
are not corps-sized, but corps in this instance are administrative branches consisting of several battalions or regiments.[10] Operational structure[edit] See also: Administrative structure of the field forces of the British Army The field forces of the British Army
Army
after the Army
Army
2020 reforms are organised in garrison as:

Reaction forces: A modified 16 Air Assault Brigade
Brigade
and an armoured division (3rd Division) of three armoured infantry brigades (1st, 12th and 20th Armoured Infantry Brigades). In 2020, this division will reorganise and consist of two armoured infantry brigades and two strike brigades.[173][174] Adaptive forces: The 1st Division, consisting of seven infantry brigades. In 2020, the adaptive force will consist of specialised infantry battalions who will train, advise, assist, mentor and accompany operations by indigenous forces.[173][174] Force Troops Command: Nine brigades of supporting units which supplement the reaction and adaptive forces.[174]

Challenger 2, Warrior, AS90, MLRS
MLRS
and Stormer of the Yorkshire Battlegroup

For operational tasks the most common unit is the battlegroup, formed around a combat unit and supported by units (or sub-units) from other areas. An example of a battlegroup in the Reactive Force (e.g. the 1st Brigade) would be two companies of armoured infantry (e.g. from the 1st Battalion
Battalion
of the Mercian Regiment), one squadron of heavy armour (e.g. A Squadron of the Royal Tank
Tank
Regiment), a company of engineers (e.g. B Company of the 22nd Engineer Regiment), a battery of artillery (e.g. D Battery of the 1st Regiment
Regiment
of the Royal Horse Artillery) and smaller attachments from medical, logistic and intelligence units. Typically organised and commanded by a battlegroup headquarters and named after the unit which provided the most combat units, in this example it would be the 1 Mercian Battlegroup). This creates a self-sustaining mixed formation of armour, infantry, artillery, engineers and support units, typically 600 to 1,000 soldiers commanded by a lieutenant colonel.[172] The table below demonstrates how three or four battlegroups make up a brigade and three or four brigades make up a division. A division is currently the largest unit the British Army
Army
is capable of deploying independently, although it could be grouped with three or four other divisions from a multi-national coalition to form a corps.[172]

Type of unit Division Brigade Battlegroup Battalion, Regiment Company, Squadron Platoon, Troop Section Fire Team

Contains 3 brigades 3–4 battalions (battlegroups) Combined arms unit 4–6 companies 3 platoons 3 sections 2 fire teams 4 individuals

Personnel 15,000 5,000 700–1,000 720 120 30 8–10 4

Commanded by Maj-Gen Brig Lt Col Lt Col Maj Capt, Lt or 2nd Lt Cpl LCpl

Special
Special
forces[edit]

SAS cap badge

The British Army
Army
contributes two of the three special forces formations to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Special
Special
Forces directorate: the Special Air Service
Special Air Service
and Special
Special
Reconnaissance Regiments.[175] The Special Air Service
Special Air Service
consists of one regular-army and two reserve regiments.[176] The regular regiment, 22 SAS, has its headquarters and depot in Hereford
Hereford
and consists of five squadrons (A, B, D, G and Reserve) and a training wing.[177] 22 SAS is supported by two reserve regiments: 21 SAS and 23 SAS—collectively, the Special
Special
Air Service (Reserve) (SAS [R])—under the command of the 1st Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Brigade.[178] The Special Reconnaissance Regiment
Special Reconnaissance Regiment
(SRR), formed in 2005, performs close reconnaissance and special surveillance tasks.[175] The Special Forces Support Group, under the operational control of the Director of Special
Special
Forces, provides operational manoeuvring support to the United Kingdom Special
Special
Forces.[179] Local units[edit]

1939 Dominion
Dominion
and Colonial Regiments

1945 Order of Precedence of the British Army

The British Army
Army
historically included many units from what are now separate Commonwealth realms. When the English Empire
English Empire
was established in North America, Bermuda, and the West Indies
West Indies
in the early Seventeenth Century there was no standing English Army, only the Militia, and this was extended to the colonies. Colonial Militias defended colonies single-handedly at first against Indigenous peoples and European competitors. Once the standing English Army, later the British Army, came into existence, the colonial Militias fought side-by-side with it in a number of wars, including the Seven Years' War. Some of the colonial Militias rebelled during the American War of Independence. Militia fought alongside the regular British Army
Army
(and Native allies) in defending British North America
British North America
from their former countrymen during the American War of 1812. With the growth of the Empire around the world, Non-European (i.e., non-white, except for officers) units were recruited in many colonies and protectorates, but most were deemed auxiliaries and not part of the British Army. The West India Regiments were an exception, as they were fully incorporated into the British Army, but were kept outside of Europe and non-whites were denied commissions. Locally raised units in strategically-located colonies (including Bermuda, Gibraltar, Malta) and the Channel Islands were generally more fully integrated into the British Army
Army
as evident from their appearances in British Army
Army
Lists, unlike units such as King's African Rifles. The larger colonies (Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, et cet.) mostly achieved Commonwealth Dominion
Dominion
status before or after the First World War and were granted granted full legislative independence in 1931. While remaining within the British Empire, this placed their governments on a par with the British Government, and hence their military units comprised separate armies (e.g. the Australian Army), although Canada
Canada
retained the term Militia for its military forces until the Second World War. From the 1940s, these Dominions and many colonies chose full independence, usually becoming Commonwealth realms (as member states of the Commonwealth are known today).[180][181] Units raised in self-governing and Crown colonies that are part of the British Realm remain under UK control. The UK retains responsibility for the defence of the fourteen remaining British Overseas Territories, of which four have locally raised regiments:

Royal Bermuda
Bermuda
Regiment[182] Royal Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Regiment[183] Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Defence Force[184] Royal Montserrat Defence Force[185]

Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Defence Force on parade in June 2013

Detachment of the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Defence Force in ceremonial dress

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, escorted by a Bermuda
Bermuda
Militia Artillery officer, inspects a Bermuda
Bermuda
Rifles guard in 1961, four years before the units amalgamated

WO1 Herman Eve, RSM of the Royal Bermuda
Bermuda
Regiment
Regiment
in 1992

Bandsmen of the Royal Bermuda
Bermuda
Regiment

Royal Bermuda
Bermuda
Regiment
Regiment
on parade

Changing of the guard, Royal Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Regiment
Regiment
(2012)

Royal Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Regiment
Regiment
in London, April 2012

Recruitment[edit] Main article: Recruitment in the British Army

One of the most recognisable recruiting posters of the British Army; from World War I, with Lord Kitchener

Although the army primarily recruits within the United Kingdom, it accepts applications from Commonwealth citizens and (occasionally) those from friendly nations who meet certain criteria. In 2016, it was decided to open all roles to women in 2018; women had not been permitted to join the Combat Arms.[186] The British Army
Army
is an equal-opportunity employer (with some exceptions due to its medical standards), and does not discriminate based on race, religion or sexual orientation.[187] The minimum age is 16 (after the end of GCSEs), although soldiers under 18 may not serve in operations.[188] The maximum recruitment age was raised in January 2007 from 26 to 33 years, and the maximum age for Army
Army
Reserve soldiers is higher. A soldier would traditionally enlist for a term of 22 years, although recently there has been a shift towards 12-year terms with a 22-year option. A soldier is not normally permitted to leave until they have served for at least four years, and must give 12 months' notice.[189] Oath of allegiance[edit] All soldiers must take an oath of allegiance upon joining the Army, a process known as attestation. Those who wish to swear by God use the following words:[8]

I, [soldier's name], swear by Almighty God that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, her heirs and successors and that I will as in duty bound honestly and faithfully defend Her Majesty, her heirs and successors in person, crown and dignity against all enemies and will observe and obey all orders of Her Majesty, her heirs and successors and of the generals and officers set over me.[190]

Others replace the words "swear by Almighty God" with "solemnly, sincerely and truly declare and affirm".[8] Training establishments[edit] See also: List of British Army
Army
installations and Selection and Training in the British Army

New College buildings at Royal Military Academy Sandhurst

Royal Military Academy Sandhurst
Royal Military Academy Sandhurst
(RMAS) is the officer-training school,[191] and Royal School of Artillery
Royal School of Artillery
(RSA) trains the Royal Artillery.[192] Royal School of Military Engineering
Royal School of Military Engineering
(RSME) trains the Corps
Corps
of Royal Engineers.[193] The Army
Army
Training Regiment, Grantham provides training for Army Reserve recruits,[194] and the Army
Army
Training Regiment, Pirbright provides training for the Army
Army
Air Corps, the Royal Artillery, the Royal Corps
Corps
of Signals, the Royal Logistic Corps, the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, the Adjutant General's Corps, the Royal Army Medical Corps
Corps
and the Intelligence Corps.[195][196] The Army
Army
Training Regiment, Winchester trains the Royal Armoured Corps, the Army
Army
Air Corps, the Royal Artillery, the Royal Engineers, the Royal Corps
Corps
of Signals, the Royal Logistic Corps, the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, the Adjutant General's Corps, the Royal Army
Army
Medical Corps and the Intelligence Corps.[197] There is an Infantry Training Centre at Catterick[198] and an Infantry Battle School in Brecon.[199] Other training centres are the Army Foundation College (Harrogate)[198] and Army
Army
Training Units.[200] Flags and ensigns[edit] The army's official flag is the 3:5 ratio Union Jack, although a non-ceremonial flag flies at the Ministry of Defence building in Whitehall
Whitehall
and is often used at recruiting and military events and exhibitions.[201] It represents the army on the Cenotaph at Whitehall in London, the UK memorial to its war dead.[202] Each British Army unit has a set of flags, known as the colours—normally a Regimental Colour and a Queen's Colour (the Union Jack).

Official Army
Army
flag

Non-ceremonial army flag; "Army", in gold letters, sometimes appears below the badge.

Ensign
Ensign
for general use by the Royal Logistic Corps

Ensign
Ensign
flown by the Royal Logistic Corps from vessels commanded by commissioned officers

Ensign
Ensign
of the Corps
Corps
of Royal Engineers

Ranks, specialisms and insignia[edit] Main article: British Army
Army
officer rank insignia Main article: British Army
Army
other ranks rank insignia

Officers

NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer

United Kingdom (Edit)

No equivalent

Field Marshal[203] General Lieutenant-General Major-General Brigadier Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Officer Cadet

Abbreviation: FM Gen Lt Gen Maj Gen Brig Col Lt Col Maj Capt Lt 2Lt OCdt

203Rank in abeyance.

Enlisted

NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1

United Kingdom (Edit)

No equivalent

No insignia

Warrant officer class 1 Warrant officer class 2 Staff/Colour sergeant Sergeant Corporal Lance corporal Private (or equivalent)

Abbreviation: WO1 WO2 S/Sgt / C/Sgt Sgt

Cpl / Bdr /L/Sgt L/Cpl / L/Bdr Pte

Each regiment and corps has distinctive insignia, such as a cap badge, beret, tactical recognition flash or stable belt. Many units also call soldiers of different ranks by different names; a NATO OR-1 (private) is called a guardsman in Guards regiments, a gunner in artillery units and a sapper in engineer units. These names do not affect a soldier's pay or role.[204] Uniforms[edit] Further information: Uniforms of the British Army The British Army
Army
uniform has sixteen categories, ranging from ceremonial uniforms to combat dress to evening wear. No. 8 Dress, the day-to-day uniform, is known as "Personal Clothing System – Combat Uniform" (PCS-CU)[205] and consists of a Multi-Terrain Pattern
Multi-Terrain Pattern
(MTP) windproof smock, a lightweight jacket and trousers with ancillary items such as thermals and waterproofs.[206] The army has introduced tactical recognition flashes (TRFs); worn on the right arm of a combat uniform, the insignia denotes the wearer's regiment or corps.[207] Working headdress is typically a beret, whose colour indicates its wearer's type of regiment. Beret
Beret
colours are:[208]

Khaki—Foot Guards, Honourable Artillery Company, Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment, Royal Anglian Regiment Light grey—Royal Scots Dragoon Guards, Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps Brown—King's Royal Hussars Black—Royal Tank
Tank
Regiment Dark (rifle) green—The Rifles, Royal Gurkha Rifles Maroon—Parachute Regiment Beige— Special
Special
Air Service Sky blue— Army
Army
Air Corps Cypress green—Intelligence Corps Scarlet—Royal Military Police Green—Adjutant General's Corps Navy blue—All other units

In addition to working dress, the army has a number of parade uniforms for ceremonial and non-ceremonial occasions. The most-commonly-seen uniforms are No.1 Dress (full ceremonial, seen at formal occasions such as at the changing of the guard at Buckingham Palace) and No.2 Dress (Service Dress), a brown uniform worn for non-ceremonial parades.[206] See also[edit]

British Army
Army
portal

Army
Army
Cadet Force (ACF) British Army
Army
order of precedence British Army
Army
uniform British campaign medals British military history Future of the British Army
Army
( Army
Army
2020) Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015 List of British Army
Army
installations Ministry of Defence Modern equipment of the British Army Redcoat Royal Air Force Royal Navy Sexual orientation and military service Army
Army
Reserve (United Kingdom) United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Special
Special
Forces Tommy Atkins

Notes[edit]

^ English/Scottish parliamentary control 1689, British parliamentary control 1707.[3] ^

English Empire
English Empire
(1660–1707) Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
(1660–1707) British Empire
British Empire
(1707–20th century)

^ Figure current as of 1 August 2017. Includes approx. 4000 soldiers who have completed basic Phase 1 training, but who have not completed trade-specific Phase 2 training ^ Figure current as of 1 April 2017. ^ 1707–1800 ^ 1710–1900,[111] 1918 & 1945,[112] 1920,[113] 1930,[114] 1950,[115][116] 1960,[115][117] 1970,[118] 1980–2000,[119] 2010,[120][121] 2015[102]

References[edit]

^ Clifford Walton (1894). History of the British Standing Army. A.D. 1660 to 1700. pp. 1–2.  ^ Noel T. St. John Williams (1994). Redcoats and courtesans: the birth of the British Army
Army
(1660–1690). Brassey's. p. 16.  ^ a b Chandler, David (2003). The Oxford history of the British Army. Oxford University Press. p. xv. ISBN 978-0-19-280311-5. It is generally accepted that the regular standing army in Britain was officially created – in the sense of being fully accommodated within parliamentary control in 1689, although it is, strictly speaking, only correct to refer to the British army from the Act of Union with Scotland in 1707.  ^ "UK Armed Forces Monthly Personnel Report – Feb 2017" (PDF).  ^ gov.uk MoD - reserves and cadet strengths, table 4 page 13. See note 2. April 2014. ^ Williams, Noel T. St John (1 January 1994). Redcoats and courtesans: the birth of the British Army
Army
(1660–1690). Brassey's (UK). pp. 1–2.  ^ Walton, Clifford (1 January 1894). History of the British Standing Army. A.D. 1660 to 1700. Harrison and Sons. p. 16.  ^ a b c "Commanding Officers Guide. Manual of Service Law (JSP 830, Volume 1, Chapter 18)" (PDF).  ^ "Bill of Rights 1689". UK Parliament. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ a b c d cgsmediacomma-amc-dig-shared@mod.uk, The British Army,. "The British Army
Army
– Higher Command". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ Louis, William Roger; Low, Alaine M.; Porter, Andrew (1 January 2001). The Oxford History of the British Empire: The nineteenth century. Oxford University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-19-924678-6.  ^ Johnston, Douglas; Reisman, W. Michael (26 December 2007). The Historical Foundations of World Order: The Tower and the Arena. BRILL. p. 508. ISBN 978-90-474-2393-5.  ^ cgsmediacomma-amc-dig-shared@mod.uk, The British Army,. "The British Army
Army
– Operations and Deployments". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ David G. Chandler, ed., The Oxford history of the British army (1996) pp 24-45. ^ Trowbridge, Benjamin (11 August 2015). "A victorious army in the making: Raising King Henry V's army of 1415". National Archives. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ Rogers 1968, pp. 207–211. ^ Lord Macaulay The History of England from the accession of James the Second (C.H. Firth ed. 1913) 1:136-38 ^ "'Charles II, 1661: An Act declaring the sole Right of the Militia to be in King and for the present ordering & disposing the same.', Statutes of the Realm: volume 5: 1628-80 (1819),". pp. 308–309. Retrieved 5 March 2007.  ^ David Chandler, The Oxford History of the British Army
Army
(2003) p. 46. [1] ^ David Chandler, The Oxford History of the British Army
Army
(2003) p. 47. [2] ^ Mallinson, p.2 ^ Clayton, Anthony (2014). The British Officer: Leading the Army
Army
from 1660 to the Present. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-317-86444-8. The first standing Army
Army
for Britain, a force of some 5,000 men on the English establishment, was formed at the Restoration in 1660–61. Separate forces were maintained on the Scottish and Irish establishments.  ^ Glozier, Matthew; Onnekink, David (2007). War, religion and service: Huguenot soldiering, 1685–1713. Ashgate. p. 31. ISBN 0-7546-5444-3. After the Restoration there were separate English, Scottish (until 1707) and Irish (until 1800) military establishments, reflecting the national revenue from which a military unit was maintained. In operational and administrative matters all three combined into a single formation. From 1688, the description 'British' army is both convenient and accurate.  ^ David Chandler, The Oxford History of the British Army
Army
(2003) p. xvi–xvii ^ Miller 2000, p. 144 ^ Chandler, ed., The Oxford history of the British army (1996) pp 46-57. ^ Correlli Barnett, Britain and her army, 1509-1970: a military, political and social survey (1970) pp 90-98, 110–25. ^ "History". British Army. Retrieved 12 January 2017.  ^ Royal Scots Greys
Scots Greys
1840, pp. 56–57. ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 50 ^ a b Mallinson 2009, p. 165. ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 104. ^ a b Mallinson 2009, p. 106. ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 129 ^ a b c Mallinson 2009, p. 102 ^ a b Bates 2010, p. 25. ^ a b Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. "1. – New Zealand wars – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". www.teara.govt.nz. Retrieved 17 March 2017.  ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 210 ^ a b c Mallinson 2009, p. 257 ^ a b "The Fenian
Fenian
Raids". Doyle.com.au. 15 September 2001. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 282 ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 203. ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 195. ^ Pontiac's War
Pontiac's War
Baltimore County Public Schools ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 110. ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 177. ^ The 1798 Irish Rebellion BBC ^ "Guide to the War of 1812". Loc.gov. 30 July 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "No. 24992". The London Gazette. 1 July 1881. p. 3300.  ^ Cassidy 2006, p. 79. ^ "Agreement concerning Persia". Retrieved 23 July 2016.  ^ Ensor 1980, pp. 525–526. ^ Chisholm 1911, p. 3. ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 310. ^ "Mark I tank". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ here, RAF Details. "RAF – World War 1". www.raf.mod.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2017.  ^ Michael Duffy (22 August 2009). "Weapons of War: Poison Gas". Firstworldwar.com. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ a b Mallinson 2009, p. 335. ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 342. ^ Taylor 1976, p. 157. ^ "D-Day and the Battle of Normandy". Ddaymuseum.co.uk. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ Gilbert 2005, p. 301. ^ Taylor 1976, p. 210. ^ a b c Mallinson 2009, p. 384 ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 407 ^ "Merged regiments and new brigading – many famous units to lose separate identity". The Times. 25 July 1957. [full citation needed] ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 440 ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 442 ^ a b c Mallinson 2009, p. 401 ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 402 ^ "Falklands Surrender Document". Britains-smallwars.com. 14 June 1982. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 411. ^ Army
Army
ending its operation in NI BBC
BBC
News, 31 July 2007 ^ "Last troops pull out of Bessbrook". BBC
BBC
News Online. 25 June 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2009.  ^ "50,000 troops in Gulf illness scare". The Guardian. 11 June 2004.  ^ "Supreme sacrifice: British soldier killed in Iraq
Iraq
was unemployed TA man". Thefreelibrary.com. 28 August 2003. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 446 ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 447 ^ "Former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the Role of British Forces". politics.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2017.  ^ a b "UK Post-WW2 Operational Deaths" (PDF).  ^ Bloomfield, K Stormont in Crisis ( Belfast
Belfast
1994) p 114 ^ PRONI: Cabinet conclusions file CAB/4/1460 ^ McKernan 2005, p. 17. ^ Army
Army
dismantles NI post BBC
BBC
News, 31 July 2000 ^ Army
Army
To Dismantle Tower Block Post Skyscrapernews, 2 August 2005 ^ a b "Operation Banner: An analysis of military operations in Northern Ireland" (PDF). Ministry of Defence. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2008.  ^ " Army
Army
paper says IRA not defeated". BBC
BBC
News. 6 July 2007. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010. Retrieved 21 March 2008.  ^ Remembrance Day: Where they fell BBC
BBC
News, 13 November 2010 ^ "Tabulations (Tables) of Basic Variables". Cain.ulst.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ Mallinson 2009, p. 452. ^ "Why we are in Afghanistan". Ministry of Defence (MoD). Retrieved 7 November 2014.  ^ UK sends 500 more to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
BBC
BBC
News, 15 October 2009 ^ "British fatalities in Afghanistan". MoD. Retrieved 7 November 2014.  ^ "UK ends Afghan combat operations". BBC. 26 October 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.  ^ a b "UK to increase troops in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from 450 to 500". The Guardian. 9 July 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2017.  ^ "Timeline: UK troops in Basra". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ "British Troops Leave Iraq
Iraq
As Mandate Ends". Rferl.org. 31 July 2009. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010.  ^ "UK Operations in Syria and Iraq" (PDF). 2015.  ^ "Operations in the UK: Defence Contribution to Resilience" (PDF). Ministry of Defence. 2007. Retrieved 1 May 2017.  ^ "UK Operations". Archived from the original on 21 April 2017.  ^ Travis, Alan; MacAskill, Ewen (24 May 2017). "Critical threat level: who made the decision and what does it mean?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 28 May 2017.  ^ a b "UK Armed Forces Monthly Personnel Statistics" (PDF). December 2016.  ^ a b "UK SDSR 2010" (PDF).  ^ "Independent report: Future Reserves 2020 Study (FR20): final report" (PDF). 18 July 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2012.  ^ Emma Clark (23 January 2014). " Army
Army
cuts: Hundreds more soldiers to lose jobs". The Independent. Retrieved 12 November 2014.  ^ Future Reserves 2020 (PDF), London, UK: Ministry of Defence, July 2011, retrieved 13 May 2012  ^ a b c British Army: Regular Reserve, 27 January 2014 ^ dasa.mod – reserves and cadet strengths, table 3-page 13 – read note 2. April 2013. ^ dasa.mod – reserves and cadet strengths, table 3-page 5. April 2012. ^ gov.uk MoD – reserves and cadet strengths, table 1a-page 10. 1 April 2015. ^ Rasler, Karen (1994). The Great Powers and Global Struggle, 1490–1990. United States: University Press of Kentucky. p. 149. ISBN 0-8131-3353-X.  (Figure 8.1 Change in the Size of the British Army
Army
1650–1910) ^ Summers, Chris (23 July 2011). "The time when the British army was really stretched". BBC. BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 5 July 2016.  ^ "23 June 1920". hansard.millbanksystems.com. Hansard – House of Commons. Retrieved 5 July 2016.  ^ "Strength (Territorial Army) – 2 November 1930". hansard.millbanksystems.com. Hansard – House of Commons. Retrieved 5 July 2016.  ^ a b Brooke-Holland, Louisa; Rutherford, Tom (26 July 2012). International Affairs and Defence: Army
Army
2020. United Kingdom: House of Commons Library. p. 13.  ^ "Territorial Army
Army
(Recruitment) – 20 March 1950". hansard.millbanksystems.com. Hansard – House of Commons. Retrieved 5 July 2016.  ^ "The Territorial Army
Army
– 20 July 1960". hansard.millbanksystems.com. Hansard – House of Commons. Retrieved 5 July 2016.  ^ " Army
Army
Estimates – 12 March 1970". hansard.millbanksystems.com. Hansard – House of Commons. Retrieved 5 July 2016.  ^ Berman, Gavin (21 December 2000). House of Commons: Defence Statistics 2000 (PDF). United Kingdom: House of Commons Library. pp. 16–17. Retrieved 5 July 2016.  ^ UK ARMED FORCES QUARTERLY MANNING REPORT (PDF). United Kingdom: Ministry of Defence. 4 March 2010. p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2016.  (Table 2a – Strength of UK Armed Forces1 – full-time trained and untrained personnel) ^ UK RESERVE FORCES STRENGTHS (PDF). United Kingdom: Ministry of Defence. 22 September 2010. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2016.  (Table 1 – Strengths of All Services Reserves) ^ "The British Army
Army
SA80
SA80
individual weapon". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 February 2017.  ^ "The British Army
Army
– General purpose machine gun". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ "L129A1 sharpshooter Rifle".  ^ cgsmediacomma-amc-dig-shared@mod.uk, The British Army,. "The British Army
Army
L115A3
L115A3
Long range 'sniper' rifle". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ "Combat Shotgun – British Army
Army
Website". Army.mod.uk. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010.  ^ Challenger 2
Challenger 2
BA Systems ^ "UKDS 2013" ^ "The British Army
Army
– Warrior infantry fighting vehicle". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ "Multi-role Light Vehicle". Defense-update.com. 26 July 2006. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "The British Army
Army
– Reconnaissance vehicles". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 February 2017.  ^ cgsmediacomma-amc-dig-shared@mod.uk, The British Army,. "The British Army
Army
– Artillery and air defence". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ "Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System (GMLRS) – Think Defence". Think Defence. Retrieved 17 March 2017.  ^ "AS-90". Armedforces.co.uk. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ 105 mm Light Gun BAe Systems ^ "The British Army
Army
– 5 Regiment". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 February 2017.  ^ "Rapier missile". Armedforces-int.com. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ Starstreak II sighted Janes ^ "The British Army
Army
– Protected patrol vehicles". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ "Land Rover Defender". Landrover.com. Archived from the original on 5 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "The British Army
Army
– Engineering equipment". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 February 2017.  ^ "The British Army
Army
– All-terrain mobility platform (ATMP)". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 February 2017.  ^ "The British Army
Army
– Engineering and logistics". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ "The British Army
Army
– Royal Corps
Corps
of Signals". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 11 February 2017.  ^ "Apache". Army.mod.uk. Archived from the original on 15 March 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "The British Army
Army
– Gazelle". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2017.  ^ "Bell Huey". Vectorsite.net. Archived from the original on 5 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "The British Army
Army
– Aircraft". www.army.mod.uk. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ Ripley 2008, p. 10. ^ "Islander". Britten-norman.com. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "British Army
Army
praises performance of Watchkeeper during debut deployment". Flight global. 17 November 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2017.  ^ "The British Army
Army
– Unmanned Air Systems". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ "UK military operations in Syria and Iraq" (PDF). Retrieved 18 March 2017.  ^ a b "The UK and UN Peace Operations: A Case for Greater Engagement: Table 1". Oxford Research Group. Retrieved 7 March 2017.  ^ " Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
profile – Timeline". BBC
BBC
News. 4 January 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2017.  ^ "Britain to send hundreds more troops to Russia border as Cold War tension escalates across Europe". The Daily Telegraph. 27 October 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2017.  ^ "UK troops in Estonia
Estonia
to deter 'Russian aggression'". BBC
BBC
News. 18 March 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2017.  ^ "The British Empire, Imperialism, Colonialism, Colonies". www.britishempire.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2017.  ^ " Belize
Belize
Asks For Return of British Army". Belizean. 12 February 2013. Archived from the original on 7 April 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2013.  ^ "New Lease of Life for British Army
Army
Base in Belize". 7 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.  ^ "British Army
Army
in Bermuda
Bermuda
from 1701 to 1977". Bermuda
Bermuda
On Line. Retrieved 22 July 2015.  ^ "Royal Anglian soldiers boost Bermuda
Bermuda
Regiment". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 22 July 2015.  ^ "The British Army
Army
in Brunei". Retrieved 2 March 2013.  ^ "The British Army
Army
in Canada". Retrieved 2 March 2013.  ^ "29 (BATUS) Flight Army
Army
Air Corps". Retrieved 2 March 2013.  ^ Somme Barracks (Cyprus) Hansard, 26 March 2001 ^ Falklands Forces Have A Vital Role To Play[permanent dead link] Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
News Network, 3 May 2006 ^ Defence review: Cameron unveils armed forces cuts, BBC
BBC
News Retrieved 19 October 2010. ^ Royal Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Regiment
Regiment
trains in the UK Defence News, 13 May 2010 ^ "The British Army
Army
in Africa". Retrieved 2 March 2013.  ^ "Freedom of Information Act answer from Army
Army
Headquarters" (PDF). Army
Army
Headquarters. Retrieved 13 December 2015.  ^ a b c "British Army
Army
Formation & Structure". WhoDaresWins.com. 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ a b "The British Army
Army
Army
Army
2020 Refine". www.army.mod.uk. Archived from the original on 26 January 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ a b c "Strategic Defence and Security Review – Army:Written statement – HCWS367". UK Parliament. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ a b " Special
Special
Reconnaissance Regiment". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 26 March 2010.  ^ "UK Defence Statistics 2009" (PDF). Defence Analytical Services Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2010.  ^ Fremont-Barnes 2009, p. 62 ^ Army
Army
Briefing Note 120/14, Newly formed Force Troops Command Specialist Brigades: "It commands all of the Army's Intelligence, Surveillance and Electronic Warfare assets, and is made up of units specifically from the former 1 Military Intelligence Brigade
Brigade
and 1 Artillery Brigade, as well as 14 Signal Regiment, 21 and 23 SAS®." ^ " Special
Special
Forces Support Group". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 26 March 2010.  ^ "Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942". National Archives of Australia: Documenting a Democracy. Archived from the original on 16 July 2005. Retrieved 8 August 2005.  ^ Bowden, James; Lagassé, Philippe (6 December 2012), "Succeeding to the Canadian throne", Ottawa Citizen, archived from the original on 10 January 2013, retrieved 6 December 2012  ^ DefenceNews ArticleRoyal Anglian soldiers boost Bermuda
Bermuda
Regiment Defence News, 19 January 2011, ^ Royal Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Regiment
Regiment
trains in UK Defence News, 12 May 2011 ^ "Home – FIDF". www.fig.gov.fk. Retrieved 17 March 2017.  ^ "UK Government White Paper on Overseas Territories, June, 2012. Page 23" (PDF). Retrieved 13 September 2013.  ^ "The British Army
Army
– Women in the Army". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 11 February 2017.  ^ "The British Army
Army
– Diversity". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 11 February 2017.  ^ "The British Army
Army
– Contact us/FAQs". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ "British Army
Army
Terms of Service" (PDF). April 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2017.  ^ "British Army
Army
Oath of Allegiance". Retrieved 29 November 2010.  ^ "Sandhurst". Royal Berkshire History. Retrieved 7 March 2017.  ^ "42nd Battalion
Battalion
arrive at Larkhill Camp on the Salisbury Plain". diggerhistory.info. Retrieved 6 June 2015.  ^ "Holdfast secures £3bn MoD deal". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 March 2017.  ^ " Army
Army
Training Regiment, Grantham". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 9 July 2016.  ^ "1 ATR, Pirbright". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 9 July 2016.  ^ "2 ATR, Pirbright". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 9 July 2016.  ^ " Army
Army
Training Regiment, Winchester". Retrieved 31 March 2014.  ^ a b "Phase 1 Basic training for recruits". Retrieved 21 April 2012.  ^ "Infantry Battle School, Brecon". Paradata. Retrieved 21 April 2014.  ^ " Army
Army
Training Units". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 7 March 2017.  ^ "British Army
Army
(non-ceremonial)". britishflags.net. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010.  ^ " Whitehall
Whitehall
Cenotaph". Webcitation.org. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ Title; Honorary or posthumous rank; war time rank; ceremonial rank ^ "The British Army
Army
– Ranks". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ "The British Army
Army
– Personal clothing". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ a b "Dress Codes and Head Dress". Forces 80. Retrieved 7 March 2017.  ^ "badge, unit, tactical recognition flash, British, Royal Corps
Corps
of Signals". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 7 March 2017.  ^ " Beret
Beret
definitions". Apparel Search. Retrieved 7 March 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

Bates, Gill (2010). Rising Star: China's New Security Diplomacy. Brookings Institution Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-8157-0453-9.  BBC
BBC
staff (6 January 2007). "Recruitment Age for Army
Army
Raised". BBC News. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010.  Beevor, Antony (1990). Inside the British Army. London: Chatto & Windus. ISBN 0-7011-3466-6.  Buchanan, Michael (27 November 2008). "Irish swell ranks of UK military". BBC.  Burnside, Iain (19 May 2010). "Songs for squaddies: the war musical Lads in Their Hundreds". The Guardian.  Cassidy, Robert M (2006). Counterinsurgency and the global war on terror: military culture and irregular war. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-98990-9.   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Constantinople". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 3.  Chandler, David; Beckett, Ian, eds. (2003). The Oxford History of the British Army. Oxford Paperbacks.  Connolly, Sean J. (1998). The Oxford Companion to Irish history. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 505. ISBN 978-0-19-211695-6.  Ensor, (Sir) Robert (1980) [1936]. England: 1870–1914. (The Oxford History of England). XIV (Revised ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-821705-6.  Fremont-Barnes, Gregory (2009). Who Dares Wins – The SAS and the Iranian Embassy Siege 1980. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84603-395-0.  French, David. Army, Empire, and Cold War: The British Army
Army
and Military Policy, 1945–1971 (2012) DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548231.001.0001 Gilbert, Martin (2005). Churchill and America. Simon & Schuster. p. 301. ISBN 0-7432-9122-0.  Heyman, Charles (2009). The Armed Forces of the United Kingdom 2010–2011. Pen & Sword. ISBN 978-1-84884-084-3.  Holmes, Richard (2002). Redcoat: The British soldier in the Age of Horse and Musket. HarperCollins. pp. 48,55–57,59–65,177–8. ISBN 978-0-00-653152-4.  Holmes, Richard (2011). Soldiers: Army
Army
Lives and Loyalties from Redcoat to Dusty Warriors. HarperCollins.  Mallinson, Allan (2009). The Making of the British Army. Bantam Press. ISBN 978-0-593-05108-5.  McGarrigle, Heather (6 December 2010). "British army sees more Irish recruits". Belfast
Belfast
Telegraph.  McKernan, Michael (2005). Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
in 1897–2004 Yearbook 2005. Stationery Office. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-9546284-2-0.  Miller, John (2000). James II. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08728-4.  Norton-Taylor, Richard (5 April 2008). "Commonwealth recruitment caps & current commonwealth troop levels". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010.  OED staff (June 2013). "Rupert, n.". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press.  OED staff (June 2013). "Taffy, n.2". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press.  Ripley, Tim (10 December 2008). "UK Army
Army
Air Corps
Corps
received Dauphins". Jane's Defence Weekly. 45 (50): 10.  Rogers, Colonel H.C.B. (1968). Battles and Generals of the Civil Wars. Seeley Service & Company.  Royal Scots Greys
Scots Greys
(1840). Historical record of the Royal regiment of Scots dragoons: now the Second, or Royal North British dragoons, commonly called the Scots greys, to 1839. p. 56–57.  Sharrock, David (10 September 2008). "Irish recruits sign up for British Army
Army
in cross-border revolution". London: The Times.  SMH Military correspondent (26 October 1939). "British Army Expansion". The Sydney Morning Herald. p. 5. Retrieved 18 June 2010.  Taylor, AJP (1976). The Second World War an illustrated history. Penguin books. ISBN 0-14-004135-4.  Taylor, Claire; Brooke-Holland, Louisa (28 February 2012). "Armed Forces Redundancies" (PDF). House of Commons. Retrieved 13 May 2012.  Warwick, Nigel W. M. (2014). In every place: The RAF Armoured Cars in the Middle East 1921–1953. Rushden, Northamptonshire, England: Forces & Corporate Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-9574725-2-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to British Army.

British Army
Army
Website

v t e

British Army

General

Ministry of Defence Army
Army
Headquarters Army
Army
Board Chief of the General Staff Deputy Chief of the General Staff Army
Army
Sergeant
Sergeant
Major Joint Helicopter Command Structure Order of Precedence Installations Equipment (Rifles) Recruitment Training Ranks

officer rank insignia other ranks other ranks rank insignia

Medals Uniforms National Army
Army
Museum History Timeline Army
Army
2020 Army
Army
Reserve United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Special
Special
Forces

Regiments

Household Cavalry

Life Guards Blues and Royals Household Cavalry
Household Cavalry
Regiment Household Cavalry
Household Cavalry
Mounted Regiment

Royal Armoured Corps

1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards Royal Scots Dragoon Guards Royal Dragoon Guards Queen's Royal Hussars Royal Lancers King's Royal Hussars Light Dragoons Royal Tank
Tank
Regiment Royal Yeomanry Royal Wessex Yeomanry Queen's Own Yeomanry Scottish and North Irish Yeomanry

Infantry

Foot Guards

Grenadier Guards Coldstream Guards Scots Guards Irish Guards Welsh Guards London Regiment

Line Infantry

Royal Regiment
Regiment
of Scotland Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment Duke of Lancaster's Regiment Royal Regiment
Regiment
of Fusiliers Royal Anglian Regiment Yorkshire Regiment Mercian Regiment Royal Welsh Royal Irish Regiment

Rifles

Royal Gurkha Rifles The Rifles

Airborne

Parachute Regiment

Overseas Regiments

Royal Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Regiment Royal Bermuda
Bermuda
Regiment Royal Montserrat Defence Force Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Defence Force

Other Combat Arms

Special
Special
Air Service Special
Special
Reconnaissance Regiment Army
Army
Air Corps

Combat Support Arms

Royal Artillery Royal Engineers Royal Corps
Corps
of Signals Intelligence Corps

Combat Services

Royal Army
Army
Chaplains' Department Royal Logistic Corps Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Small Arms School Corps Royal Army
Army
Physical Training Corps General Service Corps Corps
Corps
of Army
Army
Music

Army
Army
Medical Services

Royal Army
Army
Medical Corps Royal Army
Army
Dental Corps Royal Army
Army
Veterinary Corps Queen Alexandra's Royal Army
Army
Nursing Corps

Adjutant General's Corps

Staff and Personnel Support Educational and Training Services Branch Army
Army
Legal Services Branch Royal Military Police Military Provost Staff Military Provost Guard Service

Category Portal

v t e

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Ministry of Defence

Headquarters: Main Building, Palace of Whitehall

Armed Forces

Naval Service

Royal Navy Royal Marines

Army Royal Air Force

Defence Council

Political

Secretary of State for Defence Minister of State for the Armed Forces Minister for Defence Procurement Minister of State (House of Lords) Parliamentary Under Secretary of State and Minister for Defence Personnel and Veterans

Military

Chief of the Defence Staff Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff Chief of the Naval Staff and First Sea Lord Chief of the General Staff Chief of the Air Staff Commander Joint Forces Command

Civil Service

Permanent Under Secretary of State for Defence Chief Scientific Adviser Chief of Defence Materiel (not in the Defence Council) Chief of Defence People Director-General Finance Director-General Head Office and Commissioning Services Director-General Nuclear Director-General Security Policy Lead Non-Executive Board Member Non-Executive Defence Board Member and Chair of the People Committee Non-Executive Defence Board Member and Chair of the Defence Audit Committee Non-Executive Defence Board Member and Chair of the Defence Equipment and Support Board

Service boards

Admiralty Board (Navy Board) Army
Army
Board Air Force Board

Service commands

Joint Forces Command Headquarters Air Command Army
Army
Headquarters Navy Command

Support organisations

Defence Business Services Defence Equipment and Support Defence Infrastructure Organisation Defence Intelligence

Executive agencies

Defence Electronics and Components Agency Defence Science and Technology Laboratory United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Hydrographic Office Ministry of Defence Police

Non-departmental public bodies

National Army
Army
Museum National Museum of the Royal Navy Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
Museum

Category

v t e

Divisions of the British Army

Active

1st (United Kingdom) Division 3rd Division (United Kingdom)

Second World War (list)

Airborne

1st Airborne 6th Airborne

Armoured

Guards 1st 2nd 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 42nd 79th

Infantry

Guards 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th (Highland) 12th (Eastern) 15th (Scottish) 18th 23rd (Northumbrian) 36th 38th (Welsh) 42nd (East Lancashire) 43rd (Wessex) 44th (Home Counties) 45th 46th 47th (London) 48th (South Midland) 49th (West Riding) 50th (Northumbrian) 51st (Highland) 52nd (Lowland) 53rd (Welsh) 54th (East Anglian) 55th (West Lancashire) 56th (London) 59th (Staffordshire) 61st 66th 70th 76th 77th 78th 80th

Anti-Invasion

Devon and Cornwall Dorset Durham and North Riding Essex Hampshire Lincolnshire Norfolk Northumberland West Sussex Yorkshire

Anti-Aircraft

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th

Deception

See British deception formations in World War II

Colonial

1st Burma 1st (African) 2nd (African) 11th (African) 11th (East Africa) 12th (SDF) 81st (West Africa) 82nd (West Africa) British Army
Army
in India

Other

1st Cavalry Beauman Division Royal Marines Y Division

First World War (list)

Regular Army

Guards 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 27th 28th 29th

New Army

1st New Army

9th (Scottish) 10th (Irish) 11th (Northern) 12th (Eastern) 13th (Western) 14th (Light)

2nd New Army

15th (Scottish) 16th (Irish) 17th (Northern) 18th (Eastern) 19th (Western) 20th (Light)

3rd New Army

21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th

4th New Army

30th 31st 32nd 33rd 34th 35th

5th New Army

36th (Ulster) 37th 38th (Welsh) 39th 40th 41st

Territorial Force

1st Line

42nd (East Lancashire) 43rd (Wessex) 44th (Home Counties) 46th (North Midland) 47th (1/2nd London) 48th (South Midland) 49th (West Riding) 50th (Northumbrian) 51st (Highland) 52nd (Lowland) 53rd (Welsh) 54th (East Anglian) 55th (West Lancashire) 56th (1/1st London)

2nd Line

45th (2nd Wessex) 57th (2nd West Lancashire) 58th (2/1st London) 59th (2nd North Midland) 60th (2/2nd London) 61st (2nd South Midland) 62nd (2nd West Riding) 63rd (2nd Northumbrian) 64th (2nd Highland) 65th (2nd Lowland) 66th (2nd East Lancashire) 67th (2nd Home Counties) 68th (2nd Welsh) 69th (2nd East Anglian)

Other

63rd (Royal Naval) 71st 72nd 73rd 74th (Yeomanry) 75th

Cavalry

Cavalry

1st 2nd 3rd

Mounted

1st 2nd 2/2nd (later 3rd) 4th Yeomanry

v t e

NATO Land Forces

Land forces

Albanian Land Force Albanian Military Police

Belgian Land Component Belgian Medical Component

Bulgarian Land Forces Canadian Army Croatian Army

Czech Land Forces Czech Castle Guard

Royal Danish Army Danish Army
Army
Home Guard

Estonian Land Forces Estonian Defence League

French Army French National Gendarmerie French National Guard

German Army German Joint Support Service German Joint Medical Service

Hellenic Army Hungarian Ground Forces Iceland
Iceland
Crisis Response Unit

Italian Army Italian Carabinieri

Latvian Land Forces Latvian National Guard

Lithuanian Land Force Lithuanian Special
Special
Operations Force

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Army Montenegrin Ground Army

Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Army Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Marechaussee

Norwegian Army Norwegian Home Guard

Polish Land Forces Polish Special
Special
Forces Polish Territorial Defence Force

Portuguese Army Romanian Land Forces Ground Forces of the Slovak Republic Slovenian Ground Force

Spanish Army Spanish Royal Guard Common Corps
Corps
of the Spanish Armed Forces Military Emergencies Unit

Turkish Land Forces Turkish Gendarmerie General Command

British Army United States
United States
Army

Maritime land forces

Military Police Company of the Bulgarian Naval Forces Command Croatian Naval Security Company Estonian Naval Base Defense Company French Fusiliers Marins German Naval Force Protection Battalion Italian Navy San Marco Marine Brigade Netherlands
Netherlands
Marine Corps Portuguese Marine Corps Romanian Naval Forces 307th Marine Battalion Spanish Navy Marines Turkish Naval Amphibious Marine Brigade British Royal Marines United States
United States
Marine Corps

Air force land forces

Belgian Air Component Force Protection Squadron Military Police Company of the Bulgarian Air Forces Command Czech Air Force
Czech Air Force
Security Squadrons Estonian Air Force
Estonian Air Force
Base Defense Operations Center French Fusiliers Commandos de l'Air German Air Force Regiment Latvian Air Force Security Platoon Lituanian Air Force Air Defence Battalion Montenegrin Air Force
Montenegrin Air Force
Air Base Security Platoon Royal Norwegian Air Force Base Defense Squadron Portuguese Polícia Aérea British Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
Regiment United States
United States
Air Force Security Forces

v t e

Armies
Armies
(land forces) in Europe

Sovereign states

European Union

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Republic of Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Other

Albania Andorra Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Georgia Iceland Kazakhstan Liechtenstein Republic of Macedonia Moldova Monaco Montenegro Norway Russia San Marino Serbia Switzerland Turkey Ukraine

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Kosovo Nagorno-Karabakh Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 124946906 LCCN: n79063282 ISNI: 0000 0001 2215 3794 GND: 1004366-4 SELIBR: 380496 SUDOC: 114627134 BNF: cb10125134j (da

.