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British Borneo
Borneo
comprised the four northern parts of the island of Borneo, which are now Brunei, Labuan, Sabah, and Sarawak.[1][2] During the British colonial rule until 1963, Sarawak, Labuan
Labuan
and Sabah
Sabah
known as: Kingdom of Sarawak
Sarawak
(1841–1946) – Crown Colony of Sarawak (1946–1963) (now Sarawak), Crown Colony of Labuan
Labuan
(1848–1946) (now Labuan) and North Borneo
Borneo
(1881–1946) – Crown Colony of North Borneo
Borneo
(1946–1963) (now Sabah).[3]

Contents

1 Catholic missions 2 British power 3 References 4 Further reading

Catholic missions[edit] In 1687 Father Ventimiglia, a Theatine, was commissioned by Pope Innocent XI to preach Christianity in Borneo. There are no memorials of this mission, which has left no traces in the island although the missionary declared that God had blessed his labours. The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples decreed on 27 August 1855 the erection of the northern part of the island of Borneo into an independent prefecture of North Borneo
Borneo
and Labuan
Labuan
and entrusted it to the Rev. Carlos Cuarteron, a Spaniard. Father Cuarteron was originally a sea-captain and had vowed, after escaping great peril, to devote himself to the evangelisation of Borneo. He landed at Labuan
Labuan
in 1857, in company with several missionaries who deserted him in 1860. Although alone in the island of Labuan, Father Cuarteron courageously continued his labours. At length, seeing that isolation made him powerless, he went to Rome in 1879 to request that the Propaganda place the mission in charge of an institute. From Rome Father Cuarteron went to Spain, where he soon died. The island of Labuan
Labuan
has an area of 30 square miles (78 km2) and contains 6,800 inhabitants; it is an important shipping station between Singapore and Hong Kong. The prefect Apostolic lives at Labuan. The stations served are Labuan
Labuan
and Kuching
Kuching
(Sarawak), the two most important towns. Outside of these two places where the missionaries live ten stations are visited: Sibu, Kanowit, Igan, Oya, Mukah, Baram, Papar, Jesselton, Putatan, and Sandakan. According to the " Missions-Atlas " of P. Streit, the statistics of the Catholic mission in the early 20th century were: 19 regular priests, 2 lay brothers, 15 sisters; 8 churches; 20 chapels; 16 catechists; 14 schools with 740 pupils; 2,600 baptisms; about 1,000 catechumens. British power[edit] The British had obtained the island of Labuan
Labuan
in 1846; they gradually extended their power over the petty rulers of the northern part of Borneo
Borneo
until, in 1888, the British protectorate of North Borneo
Borneo
was formally acknowledged. English speaking missionaries being desired in the British part of Borneo, the Propaganda (19 March 1881) confided the mission of North Borneo
Borneo
and Labuan
Labuan
to the Society for Foreign Missions of Mill Hill, from England. The first prefect Apostolic appointed under the new administration was the Rev. Thomas Jackson. The society continued in charge of the mission. During the Second World War, the British realised they were unable to defend the colony from the powerful Imperial Japanese Navy. They destroyed the airfields, and especially the oil fields there and in Brunei
Brunei
before the Japanese landed on 16 December 1941. The small British forces surrendered. In 1943, the Chinese population of about 50,000 rebelled against Japan and seized some towns. They were overwhelmed with many executed. Australia sent special operation forces, which trained and armed local militia units and aided the landing of an Australian division in June 1945. Japanese forces numbered about 31,000, and held out until October 1945, long after the Emperor had surrendered.[4]

Evolution of Malaysia.

References[edit]

^ George Lawrence Harris (1956). North Borneo, Brunei, Sarawak (British Borneo). Human Relations Area Files.  ^ W. H. (William Hood) Treacher, Sir (December 2012). British Borneo Sketches of Brunai, Sarawak, Labuan, and North Borneo. Tredition Classics. ISBN 978-3-8472-1906-4.  ^ Leigh R. Wright (1 July 1988). The Origins of British Borneo. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 181–. ISBN 978-962-209-213-6.  ^ I.C.B Dear, ed, The Oxford Companion to World War II
World War II
(1995) p 163

Further reading[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.  WorldStatesmen- Malaysia
Malaysia
historical context (see Labuan
Labuan
and Sabah sections); not worked in here

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(1841–1946) Crown Colony of Sarawak
Sarawak
(1946–1963) Crown Colony of Labuan
Labuan
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Borneo
(1882–1946) Crown Colony of North Borneo
Borneo
(1946–1963)

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