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BRILL ( Euronext : BRILL) (known as E. J. BRILL, KONINKLIJKE BRILL, BRILL ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden , Netherlands . With offices in Leiden , Boston , Paderborn and Singapore . Brill today publishes 275 journals and around 1200 new books and reference works each year. In addition, Brill is a provider of primary source materials online and on microform for researchers in the humanities and social sciences.

CONTENTS

* 1 Areas of publication

* 2 History

* 2.1 Luchtmans, 1683–1848 * 2.2 E. J. Brill, 1848–1896 * 2.3 Brill goes public, 1896–1945; World War II * 2.4 Brill\'s recent history, 1945–present

* 3 Open access * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links

AREAS OF PUBLICATION

Brill publishes in the following subject areas:

* HUMANITIES:

* African Studies * American Studies * Ancient Near East and Egypt * Archaeology, Art ">_ E.J. Brill (Collection Deutsches Buch- und Schriftmuseum_)

In 1848, the business passed from the Luchtmans family to that of E. J. (Evert Jan) Brill, a former employee. In order to cover the financial obligations that he inherited, E. J. Brill decided to liquidate the entire Luchtmans book stock in a series of auctions that took place between 1848 and 1850. Brill continued to publish in the traditional core areas of the company, with occasional excursions into other fields. Thus, in 1882, the firm brought out a two-volume _Leerboek der Stoomwerktuigkunde_ ("Handbook of Steam Engineering"). More programmatically, however, in 1855 _Het Gebed des Heeren in veertien talen_ ("The Lord's Prayer in Fourteen Languages") was meant to publicize Brill's ability to typeset non-Latin alphabets, such as Hebrew, Aramaic, Samaritan, Sanskrit, Coptic, Syriac, Arabic, among several others.

BRILL GOES PUBLIC, 1896–1945; WORLD WAR II

In 1896, Brill became a public limited company, when E. J. Brill's successors, A. P. M. van Oordt and Frans de Stoppelaar, both businessmen with some academic background and interest, died. A series of directors followed, until in 1934, Theunis Folkers took over the reins. His directorship marked a period of unprecedented growth in the history of the company, due to a large extent to Folkers' cooperation with the German occupying forces during World War II. For the Germans, Brill printed foreign-language textbooks so that they could manage the territories they occupied, but also military manuals, such as "a manual which trained German officers to distinguish the insignias of the Russian army." In 1934, the company had a turnover of 132,000 guilders; by 1943, this had increased to 579,000 guilders.

BRILL\'S RECENT HISTORY, 1945–PRESENT

After the war, the Dutch denazification committee determined the presence of "enemy money" in Brill's accounts. Folkerts was arrested in September, 1946, and deprived of the right to hold a managerial post. The company itself, however, escaped the aftermath of the war relatively unscathed; after some negotiation its fines were fixed at 57,000 guilders.

Brill's path in the post-war years was again marked by ups and downs, though the company remained faithful in its commitment to scholarly publishing. The late 1980s brought an acute crisis due to over-expansion, poor management, as well as general changes in the publishing industry. Thus, in 1988–91 under new management the company underwent a major restructuring, in the course of which it closed some of its foreign offices, including Cologne. Its London branch was already closed by then. Brill, moreover, sold its printing business, which amounted "to amputat its own limb." This was considered painful, but necessary to save the company as a whole. No jobs were lost though in the process. The reorganization managed to save the company, which has since then undergone an expansion that as recently as 1990 had been inconceivable. Brill now publishes around 600 books and 100 journals each year, with a turnover of 26 million Euro.

OPEN ACCESS

Brill publishes several open access journals and is one of thirteen publishers to participate in the Knowledge Unlatched pilot; a global library consortium approach to funding open access books .

In 2013, Brill created the IFLA/Brill Open Access Award for initiatives in the area of open access monograph publishing together with the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions . Brill is a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association .

SEE ALSO

* List of Brill academic journals

NOTES

* ^ Sytze van der Veen, _Brill: 325 Years of Scholarly Publishing_ (Leiden: Brill, 2008), ISBN 978-90-04-17032-2 ) p. 11. * ^ van der Veen, 45. * ^ van der Veen, 51. * ^ van der Veen, 108. * ^ van der Veen, 103 and 109. * ^ van der Veen, 111. * ^ van der Veen, 115. * ^ van der Veen, 144. * ^ van der Veen, 153. * ^ "Brill Open". _brill.com_. * ^ "Good for publishers". _knowledgeunlatched.org_. * ^ "Brill and IFLA announce new OA prize". _researchinformation.info_.

REFERENCES

* The most up-to-date history of the company is Sytze van der Veen, _Brill: 325 Years of Scholarly Publishing_ (Leiden: Brill, 2008), ISBN 978-90-04-17032-2 * Tom Verde, "Brill's Bridge to Arabic", _Aramco World_, 66 (2015), nr. 3, pp. 30–39 online edition. * Brill Annual Report 2012

EXTERNAL

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