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The _BRIHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD_ (Sanskrit: बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद्, Bṛhadāraṇyakopaniṣat) is one of the Principal Upanishads and one of the oldest Upanishadic scriptures of Hinduism . A key scripture to various schools of Hinduism , the _Brihadaranyaka Upanisad_ is tenth in the Muktikā
Muktikā
or "canon of 108 Upanishads".

The _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ is estimated to have been composed about 700 BCE, excluding some parts estimated to have been composed after the _ Chandogya Upanishad _. The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language text is contained within the _Shatapatha Brahmana
Brahmana
_, which is itself a part of the Shukla Yajur Veda .

The _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ is a treatise on Ātman (Soul, Self), includes passages on metaphysics , ethics and a yearning for knowledge that influenced various Indian religions
Indian religions
, ancient and medieval scholars, and attracted secondary works such as those by Madhvacharya and Adi Shankara .

CONTENTS

* 1 Chronology * 2 Etymology and structure

* 3 Content

* 3.1 First chapter * 3.2 Second chapter * 3.3 Third chapter * 3.4 Fourth chapter * 3.5 Fifth and sixth chapters

* 4 Discussion

* 4.1 Karma
Karma
theory * 4.2 Ethics * 4.3 Psychology
Psychology
* 4.4 Metaphysics * 4.5 Different interpretations

* 5 Popular mantras

* 5.1 Pavamāna Mantra

* 6 Editions * 7 Translations * 8 In literature * 9 References * 10 External links

CHRONOLOGY

The chronology of _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_, like other Upanishads, is uncertain and contested. The chronology is difficult to resolve because all opinions rest on scanty evidence, an analysis of archaism, style and repetitions across texts, driven by assumptions about likely evolution of ideas, and on presumptions about which philosophy might have influenced which other Indian philosophies. Patrick Olivelle states, "in spite of claims made by some, in reality, any dating of these documents (early Upanishads) that attempts a precision closer than a few centuries is as stable as a house of cards".

The chronology and authorship of _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_, along with _Chandogya_ and _Kaushitaki Upanishads_ , is further complicated because they are compiled anthologies of literature that must have existed as independent texts before they became part of these Upanishads.

The exact year, and even the century of the Upanishad composition is unknown. Scholars have offered different estimates ranging from 900 BCE to 600 BCE, all preceding Buddhism. _Brihadaranyaka_ is one of the oldest Upanishads, along with that of _Jaiminiya Upanishad_ and _Chandogya Upanishads_. The _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ was in all likelihood composed in the earlier part of 1st millennium BCE, around 700 BCE, give or take a century or so, according to Patrick Olivelle. It is likely that the text was a living document and some verses were edited over a period of time before the 6th century BCE.

ETYMOLOGY AND STRUCTURE

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad literally means the " Upanishad of the great forests".

The title _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ literally means "great wilderness or forest Upaniṣhad". It is credited to ancient sage Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
, but likely refined by a number of ancient Vedic scholars. The Upanishad forms the last part, that is the fourteenth _kānda_ of _Śatapatha Brāhmana_ of "Śhukla Yajurveda". The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad has six _adhyayas_ (chapters) in total. There are two major recensions for the text - the Madhyandina and the Kanva recensions. It includes three sections: _Madhu kānda_ (the 4th and 5th chapter of the fourteenth _kānda_ of Satapatha Brahmana), _Muni kānda_ (or _ Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
Kanda_, the 6th and 7th chapter of 14th _kānda_ of Satapatha Brahmana) and _Khila kānda_ (the 8th and 9th chapter of the fourteenth _kānda_ of Satapatha Brahmana).

The first and second chapters of the Upanishad's _Madhu kānda_ consists of six brahmanams each, with varying number of hymns per brahmanam. The first chapter of the Upanishad's _ Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
kānda_ consists of nine brahmanams, while the second has six brahmanams. The _Khila kānda_ of the Upanishad has fifteen brahmanams in its first chapter, and five brahmanams in the second chapter.

CONTENT

FIRST CHAPTER

The _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ starts by stating one of many Vedic theories of creation of the universe. It asserts that there was nothing before the universe started, then Prajapati
Prajapati
created from this nothing the universe as a sacrifice to himself, imbued it with _Prana_ (life force) to preserve it in the form of cosmic inert matter and individual psychic energy. The world is more than matter and energy, asserts Brihadaranyaka, it is constituted also of Atman or Brahman (Soul, Self, Consciousness, Invisible Principles and Reality) as well as Knowledge.

The Brahmana
Brahmana
4 in the first chapter, announces the Upanishad's non-dual, monistic metaphysical premise that Atman and Brahman are identical Oneness, with the assertion that because the universe came out of nothingness when the only principle existent was "I am he", the universe after it came into existence continues as _Aham brahma asmi_ (I am Brahman). In the last brahmana of the first chapter, the Upanishad explains that the Atman (soul) inspires by being self-evident (name identity), through empowering forms, and through action (work of a living being). The Soul, states Brihadaranyaka, is the imperishable one that is invisible and concealed pervading all reality.

SECOND CHAPTER

The _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ starts the second chapter as a conversation between Ajatashatru and _Balaki Gargya_ on theory of dreams, positing that human beings see dreams entirely unto themselves because mind draws, in itself, the powers of sensory organs, which it releases in the waking state. It then asserts that this empirical fact about dreams suggests that human mind has the power to perceive the world as it is, as well as fabricate the world as it wants to perceive it. Mind is a means, prone to flaws. The struggle man faces, asserts Brihadaranyaka in brahmana 3, is in his attempt to realize the "true reality behind perceived reality". That is Atman-Brahman, inherently and blissfully existent, yet unknowable because it has no qualities, no characteristics, it is "neti, neti" (literally, "not that, not that").

In fourth brahmana, the Upanishad presents a dialogue between a husband and wife, as Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
and Maitreyi, on nature of love and spirituality, whether and how is Atman related to deep connection and bonds between human beings. Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
states that one doesn't connect with and love forms, nor does one connect or love mind, rather one connects with the Self, the Soul of one's own and one's beloved. All love is for the sake of one's Self, and the Oneness one realizes in the Self of the beloved. He then asserts that this knowledge of the Soul, the Self, the Brahman is what makes one immortal, the connection immortal. All longing is the longing for the Soul, because Soul is the true, the immortal, the real and the infinite bliss.

The fifth brahmana of the second chapter introduces the _Madhu theory_, thus giving this section of the Upanishad the ancient name _Madhu Khanda_. The _Madhu theory_ is one of the foundational principles of Vedanta schools of Hinduism, as well as other āstika schools of Indian philosophies. _Madhu_ literally means "honey", or the composite fruit of numerous actions on the field of flowers. In the _Madhu theory_, notes Paul Deussen , the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad asserts that "Atman exists" (soul exists), that all organic beings (plants, animals, human beings and gods) are wandering souls yet One with each other and the Brahman (Cosmic Soul); it further asserts that inorganic nature (fire, air, earth, water, space) is the field where the beings act, and where their numerous actions create fruits that they separately and together experience. The Upanishad then states that everything is connected, beings affect each other, organic beings affect the inorganic nature, inorganic nature affects the organic beings, one is the "honey" (result, fruit, food) of the other, everyone and everything is mutually dependent, nourishing and nurturing each other, all because it came from one Brahman, because it is all one Brahman, because all existence is blissful oneness. This theory appears in various early and middle Upanishads, and parallels Immanuel Kant 's doctrine of "the affinity of phenomena" built on "the synthetic unity of apperception ".

The last brahmanam of the Upanishad's first section is a _Vamsa_ (generational line of teachers) with the names of 57 Vedic scholars who are credited to have taught the _Madhu Khanda_ from one generation to the next.

THIRD CHAPTER

The third chapter is a metaphysical dialogue between ten ancient sages, on the nature of Reality, Atman and Mukti . Paul Deussen calls the presentation of ancient scholar Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
in this chapter "not dissimilar to that of Socrates in the dialogues of Plato". Among other things, the chapter presents the theory of perceived empirical knowledge using the concepts of _graha and atigraha_ (sensory action and sense). It lists 8 combinations of graha and atigraha: breath and smell, speech and name (ideas), tongue and taste, eye and form, ear and sound, skin and touch, mind and desire, arms and work respectively. The sages debate the nature of death, asserts the third chapter of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, and whether any graha and atigraha prevails after one dies. They rule out six, then assert that one's ideas (name) and one's actions and work (karma) continues to affect the universe.

The fourth brahmana of the third chapter asserts, "it is your soul which is inside all", all souls are one, immanent and transcendent. The fifth brahmana states that profound knowledge requires that one give up showing off one's erudition, then adopt childlike curiosity and simplicity, followed by becoming silent, meditating and observant (_muni_), thus beginning the journey towards profound knowledge, understanding the soul of things where there is freedom from frustration and sorrow. In the sixth and eighth brahmana of the third chapter in Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad is the dialogue between Gargi Vachaknavi – the female Vedic sage, and Yajñavalka, on the nature of universe.

The seventh brahmana discusses how and why the soul interconnects and has the oneness through all organic beings, all inorganic nature, all of universe. It asserts that the soul is the inner controller of beings, conflated with the interaction of nature, psyche and senses, often without the knowledge of beings. It is the soul, nevertheless, that is the true and essence, states the Upanishad. The ninth brahmana, the longest of the third chapter, introduces the "neti, neti" principle that is discussed later, along with the analogical equivalence of physical features of a man and those of a tree, with the root of a man being his soul. The last hymns of chapter 3 in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad also attest to the prevalent practice of the renouncing ascetic life by the time Brihadaranyaka Upanishad was composed in Vedic age of India, and it is these ascetic circles that are credited for major movements such as Yoga
Yoga
as well as the śramaṇa traditions later to be called Buddhism
Buddhism
, Jainism
Jainism
and heterodox Hinduism .

When one tears out the tree from its roots, the tree can grow no more, out of which root the man grows forth, when he is struck down by death? He, who is born, is not born, Who is supposed to beget him anew? (...) Brahman is bliss, Brahman is knowledge, It is the highest good of one who gives charity , and also of one who stands away (renounces) and knows it. — Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, 3:9

FOURTH CHAPTER

The fourth chapter of _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ starts as a dialogue between King Janaka and Yajnavalka. It explores various aspects of the "Soul exists" theory, its phenomenal manifestations, and its philosophical implications on soteriology . The Upanishad, in the first brahmanam of fourth chapter, states that the soul manifests in human life in six forms: _Prajna_ (consciousness), _Priyam_ (love and the will to live), _Satyam_ (reverence for truth, reality), _Ananta_ (endlessness, curiosity for the eternal), _Ananda_ (bliss, contentness), and _Sthiti_ (the state of enduring steadfastness, calm perseverance).

In the second brahmanam, the Upanishad explores the question, "what happens to soul after one dies?", and provides the root of two themes that play central role in later schools of Hinduism: one, of the concept of soul as individual souls (dualism), and second of the concept of soul being One and Eternal neither comes nor goes anywhere, because it is everywhere and everyone in Oneness (non-dualism). This chapter discusses the widely cited "neti, neti" (नेति नेति, "not this, not this") principle towards one's journey to understanding soul. The second brahmanam concludes that soul exists is self-evident, soul is blissfully free, soul is eternally invulnerable, and soul is indescribable knowledge.

The hymn 4.2.4 of _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ is one of many instances in the ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text where the characters involved in philosophical debate greet each other with Namaste (नमस्ते), a practice in the culture of India .

The third brahmanam of the fourth chapter discusses the premises of moksha (liberation, freedom, emancipation, self-realization), and provides some of the most studied hymns of Brihadaranyaka. Paul Deussen calls it, "unique in its richness and warmth of presentation", with profoundness that retains its full worth in modern times. Max Muller translates it as follows,

But when he fancies that he is, as it were, a god, or that he is, as it were, a king, or "I am this altogether," that is his highest world, This indeed is his (true) form, free from desires, free from evil, free from fear.

Now as a man, when embraced by a beloved wife, knows nothing that is without, nothing that is within, thus this person, when embraced by the _Prajna_ (conscious, aware) Self, knows nothing that is without, nothing that is within. This indeed is his (true) form, in which his wishes are fulfilled, in which the Self only is his wish, in which no other wish is left, he is free from any sorrow.

Then a father is not a father, a mother not a mother, the worlds not worlds, the gods not gods, the Vedas
Vedas
not Vedas. Then a thief is not a thief, a murderer not a murderer, a Sramana not a Sramana, a Tâpasa not a Tâpasa. He is not affected by good, not affected by evil, for he has then overcome all sorrows, all sufferings. (...) Thus did Yâgñavalkya teach him. This is his highest Goal, this is his highest Success, this is his highest World, this is his highest Bliss. — Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Chapter 4, Brahmanam 3, Hymns 20-32, Translated by Max Muller

The fourth brahmanam continues to build the thematic description of Atman- Brahman (Self, Soul) and the state of self-realization as achieved. Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
declares that Knowledge is Self, Knowledge is freedom, Knowledge powers inner peace. In hymn 4.4.22, the Upanishad states, "He is that great unborn Self, who consists of Knowledge, is surrounded by the Prânas (life-force), the ether within the heart. In it there reposes the ruler of all, the lord of all, the king of all. He does not become greater by good works, nor smaller by evil works. He is the lord of all, the king of all things, the protector of all things. He is a bank and a boundary, so that these worlds may not be confounded. He who knows him , becomes a Muni. Wishing for that world, mendicants leave their homes."

Max Muller and Paul Deussen, in their respective translations, describe the Upanishad's view of "Soul, Self" and "free, liberated state of existence" as, " is imperishable, for he cannot perish; he is unattached, for he does not attach himself; unfettered, he does not suffer, he does not fail. He is beyond good and evil, and neither what he has done, nor what he has omitted to do, affects him. (...) He therefore who knows it , becomes quiet, subdued, satisfied, patient, and collected. He sees self in Self, sees all as Self. Evil does not overcome him, he overcomes all evil. Evil does not burn him, he burns all evil. Free from evil, free from spots, free from doubt, he became Atman-Brâhmana; this is the Brahma-world, O King, thus spoke Yagnavalkya."

The last brahmanam of the Upanishad's second section is another _Vamsa_ (generational line of teachers) with the names of 59 Vedic scholars who are credited to have taught the hymns of _Muni Khanda_ from one generation to the next, before its became part of Brihadaranyaka.

FIFTH AND SIXTH CHAPTERS

The fifth and sixth chapters of _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ are known as _Khila Khanda_, which literally means "supplementary section, or appendix". Each brahmanam in the supplement is small except the fourteenth. This section, suggests Paul Deussen, was likely written later to clarify and add ideas considered important in that later age.

Some brahmanams in the last section of _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_, such as the second and third brahmanam in fifth chapter, append ethical theories, while fourth brahmanam in the fifth chapter asserts that "empirical reality and truth is Brahman". In the fourth brahmanam of sixth chapter, sexual rituals between a husband and wife are described to conceive and celebrate the birth of a child.

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The Brihadaranyaka text has been an important Upanishad to the Vedanta scholars, and discusses many early concepts and theories foundational to Hinduism such as Karma, Atman and others.

KARMA THEORY

One of the earliest formulation of the Karma
Karma
doctrine occurs in the _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_. For example:

Now as a man is like this or like that, according as he acts and according as he behaves, so will he be; a man of good acts will become good, a man of bad acts, bad; he became pure by pure deeds, bad by bad deeds;

And here they say that a person consists of desires, and as is his desire, so is his will; and as is his will, so is his deed; _and whatever deed he does, that he will reap._ — Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Hymns 4.4.5-4.4.6

ETHICS

The _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ includes hymns on virtues and ethics. In verse 5.2.3, for example, it recommends three virtues: self-restraint (दमः, Damah ), charity (दानं, Daanam ), and compassion for all life (दया, Daya ).

तदेतत्त्रयँ शिक्षेद् दमं दानं दयामिति Learn three cardinal virtues – temperance, charity and compassion for all life. — Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, V.ii.3,

The first ethical precept of _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ became the foundation of Yamas in various schools of Hinduism. In Yoga
Yoga
school, for example, the yamas as listed by Patañjali in Yogasūtra 2.30 are:

* Ahiṃsā (अहिंसा): restraint from initiating violence, harm, injury to other living beings by actions, words or in one's thoughts * Satya
Satya
(सत्य): restraint from falsehood * Asteya (अस्तेय): restraint from stealing * Brahmacarya (ब्रह्मचर्य): restraint from sex if without a partner, and from cheating on one's partner * Aparigraha
Aparigraha
(अपरिग्रहः): restraint from avarice and possessiveness,

PSYCHOLOGY

The verses in the Upanishad contain theories pertaining to psychology and human motivations. Verse 1.4.17 describes the desire for progeny as the desire to be born again. The Upanishad states a behavioral theory, linking action to nature, suggesting that behavioral habits makes a man,

According as one acts, so does he become. One becomes virtuous by virtuous action, bad by bad action. — Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.4.5

Ancient and medieval Indian scholars have referred to _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ as a foundation to discuss psychological theories, the nature of psyche, and how body, mind and soul interact. For example, Adi Shankara in his commentary on the _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ explains the relation between consciousness, the mind and the body.

Mind creates desire, asserts _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_, with its basis in pleasure. Eye is the cause of material wealth, because it is through sight that wealth is created states the Upanishad, while ears are spiritual wealth, because it is through listening that knowledge is shared. The Upanishad suggests in the dialogue between Yajnavalkya and Maitreyi , husband and wife, that one does not love an object for the sake of the object but for the sake of the subject, the Self (the soul of the other person).

METAPHYSICS

Verse 1.3.28 acknowledges that metaphysical statements in Upanishads are meant to guide the reader from unreality to reality. The metaphysics of _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ is non-dualism ( Advaita ). For instance, in verse 2.4.13 Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
asserts that everything in the universe is the Self. The nature of reality or Self is described as consciousness-bliss in verse 3.9.28. Neti-neti or (not this—not this) is a method of emphasizing the discovery of the right, by excluding the wrong. The verse 5.1 states that the Universe, Reality and Consciousness is infinite. पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात्पूर्णमुदच्यते । पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥ _pūrṇam adaḥ, pūrṇam idaṃ, pūrṇāt pūrṇam udacyate_ _pūrṇasya pūrṇam ādāya pūrṇam evāvaśiṣyate_. "That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite. the infinite proceeds from the infinite. (Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe), it remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone." Translation by Swami Madhavananda

"From infinite or fullness, we can get only fullness or infinite". The above verse describes the nature of the Absolute or Brahman which is infinite or full, i.e., it contains everything. Upanishadic metaphysics is further elucidated in the Madhu-vidya (honey doctrine), where the essence of every object is described to be same to the essence of every other object. The _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ looks at reality as being indescribable and its nature to be infinite and consciousness-bliss. The cosmic energy is thought to integrate in the microcosm and in the macrocosm integrate the individual to the universe.

DIFFERENT INTERPRETATIONS

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The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad has attracted secondary literature and commentaries (_bhasya _) from many scholars. In these secondary texts, the same passages have been interpreted in different ways by the various sub-schools of Vedanta such as nondualistic Advaita (monism), dualistic Dvaita (theism) and qualified nondualistic Vishistadvaita .

POPULAR MANTRAS

PAVAMāNA MANTRA

The Pavamana Mantra is from the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (1.3.28)

असतो मा सद्गमय । Asatō mā sadgamaya तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय । tamasō mā jyōtirgamaya मृत्योर्मा अमृतं गमय । mr̥tyōrmā amr̥taṁ gamaya ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥ Om śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ - _Br̥hadāraṇyakopaniṣat_ 1.3.28

Translation:

From untruth lead us to Truth. From darkness lead us to Light. From death lead us to Immortality. Om Peace, Peace, Peace.

EDITIONS

* Albrecht Weber, _The Çatapatha-Brāhmaṇa in the Mādhyandina-Çākhā, with extracts from the commentaries of Sāyaṇa, Harisvāmin and Dvivedānga_, Berlin 1849, reprint Chowkhamba Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Ser., 96, Varanasi 1964. * Willem Caland, _The Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa in the Kāṇvīya Recension_, rev. ed. by Raghu Vira, Lahore 1926, repr. Delhi (1983) * Émile Senart , _Brihad- Aranyaka Upanishad_, Belles Lettres (1967) ISBN 2-251-35301-1 * TITUS online edition (based on both Weber and Caland) * Sivananda Saraswati
Sivananda Saraswati
, _The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad: Sanskrit text, English translation, and commentary_. Published by Divine Life Society , 1985.

TRANSLATIONS

* Robert Hume, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Oxford University Press * Max Muller, The Upanishads - includes Brihadaranyaka, The Sacred Books of the East - Volume 15, Oxford University Press * Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli (1994) . _The Principal Upanishads _. New Delhi: HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 81-7223-124-5 . * Swami Madhavananda , Brihadaranyaka Upanishad * Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Translations by Johnston, Nikhilānanda, Madhavananda * The Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad (with the Commentary of Śaṅkarācārya) original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and English translation

IN LITERATURE

Poet T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot
makes use of the story "The Voice of the Thunder" and for the source of "_datta_, _dayadhvam_, and _damyata_" found in the _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_. Sections of the story appear in his poem _ The Waste Land
The Waste Land
_ under part V What The Thunder Said.

REFERENCES

* ^ Jonardon Ganeri (2007). _The Concealed Art of the Soul: Theories of Self and Practices of Truth in Indian Ethics and Epistemology_. Oxford University Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-19-920241-6 . * ^ Patrick Olivelle (1998). _Upaniṣads_. Oxford University Press. pp. xxxvi–xxxvii. ISBN 978-0-19-283576-5 . * ^ Eugene F. Gorski (2008). _Theology of Religions: A Sourcebook for Interreligious Study_. Paulist. pp. 103 note 15. ISBN 978-0-8091-4533-1 . , Quote: "It is therefore one of the oldest texts of the Upanishad corpus, possibly dating to as early as the ninth century BCE". * ^ Paul Deussen , The Philosophy of the Upanishads, Motilal Banarsidass (2011 Edition), ISBN 978-8120816206 , page 23 * ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814691 , pages 556-557 * ^ Olivelle, Patrick . _Upaniṣhads._ Oxford University Press, 1998, pages 3–4 * ^ Jones, Constance (2007). _Encyclopedia of Hinduism_. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 93. ISBN 0816073368 . * ^ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad with Adi Shankara\'s commentary Swami Madhavananada (Translator) * ^ Brihadaranyaka Upanisad with the commentary of Madhvacharya, Translated by Rai Bahadur Sriśa Chandra Vasu (1933), OCLC
OCLC
222634127 * ^ _A_ _B_ Stephen Phillips (2009), Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231144858 , Chapter 1 * ^ _A_ _B_ Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanishads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195124354 , page 12-13 * ^ Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanishads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195124354 , page 11-12 * ^ _A_ _B_ Olivelle, Patrick (1998), Upaniṣads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-282292-6 , pages 10-17 * ^ Fujii, M. 1997, “On the Formation and Transmission of the Jaiminīya-Upaniṣad-Brāhmaṇa”, Inside the Texts, Beyond the Texts: New Approaches to the Study of the Vedas, ed. M. Witzel, Harvard Oriental Series , Opera Minora, 2], Cambridge, 89–102 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , pages 389-397 * ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. _India through the ages_. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 80. * ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , pages 399-544 * ^ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Chapter 1, Translator: S Madhavananda, pages 5-29 * ^ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Chapter 1, Translator: S Madhavananda, pages 92-118 * ^ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Chapter 2 Section IV, Translator: S Madhavananda, pages 347-377 * ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , pages 425-445 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , pages 437-443 * ^ _A_ _B_ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Chapter 2 Section IV, Translator: S Madhavananda, pages 377-404 * ^ Alan Jacobs (1999), The Principal Upanishads: The Essential Philosophical Foundation of Hinduism, Watkins, ISBN 978-1905857081 * ^ Max Muller, Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad The Sacred Books of the East , Volume 15, Oxford University Press * ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , pages 443-445 * ^ _A_ _B_ Max Muller, Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 15, Oxford University Press * ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , pages 448-449 * ^ _A_ _B_ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , pages 450-457 * ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , pages 457-465 * ^ _A_ _B_ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , pages 466-475 * ^ Kausitaki Upanishad Robert Hume (Translator), Oxford University Press, pages 125-127 * ^ Geoffrey Samuel (2008), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521695343 , page 8, Quote: such (yogic) practices developed in the same ascetic circles as the early śramaṇa movements (Buddhists, Jainas and Ajivikas), probably in around the sixth or fifth BCE. * ^ the entire poem equates root to be the _atman_, soul of a human being * ^ Soul, Self of an individual human being that is One with every human being, everything in Universe, the cosmic soul * ^ The poem is long, relevant extract in Sanskrit: अन्यतस् अञ्जसा प्रेत्य सम्भवस् यद् समूलम् उद्वृहेयुर् अवृहेयुर् वृक्षम्न पुनराभवेत्। मर्त्यस् स्विन् मृत्युना वृक्णस्कस्मान्मूलात्प्ररोहति ॥ ६ ॥ जात एव न जायते को न्वेनं जनयेत्पुनः विज्ञानमानन्दं ब्रह्म रातिर्दातुः परायणम्ति ष्ठमानस्य तद्विद इति ॥ ७ ॥; Source: Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Documents, For second archive, see Wikisource * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , pages 475-507 * ^ Brihadaranyaka 4.2.4 S Madhavananda (Translator), pages 590-592 * ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , page 482 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Max Muller, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 15, Oxford University Press * ^ Max Muller, Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 15, Oxford University Press * ^ Max Muller, Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 15, Oxford University Press * ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , page 507 * ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , page 509-510 * ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , page 534-544 * ^ _A_ _B_ Tull, Herman W. The Vedic Origins of Karma: Cosmos as Man in Ancient Indian Myth and Ritual. SUNY Series in Hindu
Hindu
Studies. P. 28 * ^ Hans Torwesten (1994). _Vedanta: Heart of Hinduism_. Grove. pp. 55–57. ISBN 978-0-8021-3262-8 . * ^ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.4.5-6 Berkley Center for Religion Peace & World Affairs, Georgetown University (2012) * ^ Brihadaranyaka James Black, Original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
& Muller Oxford English Translations, University of Wisconsin, United States (2011) * ^ S Wesley Ariarajah (1986), Hindu
Hindu
Spirituality, The Ecumenical Review, 38(1), pages 75-81 * ^ Harold Coward (2003), Ethics and Nature in the World’s Religions, in Environment across Cultures, Wissenschaftsethik und Technikfolgenbeurteilung, Volume 19, ISBN 978-3642073243 , pp 91-109 * ^ _A_ _B_ PV Kane, Samanya Dharma, History of Dharmasastra, Vol. 2, Part 1, page 5 * ^ Chatterjea, Tara. _Knowledge and Freedom in Indian Philosophy_. Oxford: Lexington Books. p. 148. * ^ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad * ^ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Translator: S Madhavananda, page 816, For discussion: pages 814-821 * ^ Āgāśe, K. S. (1904). _Pātañjalayogasūtrāṇi_. Puṇe: Ānandāśrama. p. 102. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ James Lochtefeld, "Yama (2)", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N–Z, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 9780823931798 , page 777 * ^ Kaneda, T. (2008). Shanti, peacefulness of mind. C. Eppert & H. Wang (Eds.), Cross cultural studies in curriculum: Eastern thought, educational insights, ISBN 978-0805856736 , Taylor & Francis, pages 171-192 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Arti Dhand (2002), The dharma of ethics, the ethics of dharma: Quizzing the ideals of Hinduism, Journal of Religious Ethics, 30(3), pages 347-372 * ^ Brahmacharyam Pativratyam cha - Celibacy and Fidelity Archived June 30, 2013, at the Wayback Machine . Himalayan Academy, Gutenberg Archives (2006) * ^ Aron & Aron (1996), Love and expansion of the self: The state of the model, Personal Relationships, 3(1), pages 45-58 * ^ Masek and Lewandowski (2013), The self expansion model of motivation and cognition, in The Oxford Handbook of Close Relationships (Editors: Simpson and Campbell), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195398694 , page 111 * ^ Four facts of Hinduism * ^ KR Rao (2005), Perception, cognition and consciousness in classical Hindu
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psychology. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12(3), pages 3-30 * ^ RH Trowbridge (2011), Waiting for Sophia: 30 years of conceptualizing wisdom in empirical psychology. Research in Human Development, 8(2), pages 149-164 * ^ Swami Madhavananda. _The Brhadaranyaka Upanisad with commentary of Sankaracarya_. * ^ _The Brhadaranyaka Upanisad with commentary of Sankaracarya_. Advaita Ashrama. The Peace Chant * ^ Wendy Doniger (1988). _Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism_. Manchester University Press. pp. 39–44. ISBN 978-0-7190-1866-4 . * ^ Madhva (1999). _The Principal Upaniṣads: Chandogya-Brihadaranyaka_. Dvaita Vedanta Studies and Research Foundation. pp. i–iv. * ^ Ancient vedic prayer World Prayers Society (2012) * ^ Derrett, J. Duncan M. (2009). "An Indian metaphor in St John's Gospel". _Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society_. 9 (2): 271–86. JSTOR 25183679 . doi :10.1017/S1356186300011056 . * ^ Bloom, Harold (2006). _T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land_. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 58.

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