Mastigamoeba invertens Klebs 1892

Breviata anathema is a single-celled flagellate amoeboid eukaryote, previously studied under the name Mastigamoeba invertens.[1] The cell lacks mitochondria[2] but has remnant mitochondrial genes, and possesses an organelle believed to be a modified anaerobic mitrochondrion, similar to the mitosomes and hydrogenosomes found in other eukaryotes that live in low-oxygen environments.[3]

Early molecular data placed Breviata in the Amoebozoa, but without obvious affinity to known amoebozoan groups.[3][4] More recently, phylogenomic analysis has shown that the class Breviatea is a sister group to the Opisthokonta and Apusomonadida. Together, these three groups form the clade Obazoa (the term Obazoa is based on an acronym of Opisthokonta, Breviatea, and Apusomonadida, plus ‘zóa’ (pertaining to ‘life’ in Greek)).[5]



  1. ^ Walker, Giselle; Dacks, Joel B.; Martin Embley, T. (2006-03-01). "Ultrastructural Description of Breviata anathema, N. Gen., N. Sp., the Organism Previously Studied as "Mastigamoeba invertens"". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 53 (2): 65–78. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00087.x. ISSN 1550-7408. PMID 16579808. 
  2. ^ Edgcomb, Vp; Simpson, Ag; Zettler, La; Nerad, Ta; Patterson, Dj; Holder, Me; Sogin, Ml (Jun 2002), "Pelobionts are degenerate protists: insights from molecules and morphology" (Free full text), Molecular Biology and Evolution, 19 (6): 978–82, doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004157, ISSN 0737-4038, PMID 12032256 
  3. ^ a b A Minge, M; Silberman, Jd; Orr, Rj; Cavalier-Smith, T; Shalchian-Tabrizi, K; Burki, F; Skjæveland, A; Jakobsen, Ks (Nov 2008), "Evolutionary position of breviate amoebae and the primary eukaryote divergence", Proceedings: Biological Sciences, 276 (1657): 597–604, doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1358, PMC 2660946Freely accessible, PMID 19004754 
  4. ^ Roger, Aj; Simpson, Ag (Feb 2009), "Evolution: revisiting the root of the eukaryote tree", Current Biology, 19 (4): R165–7, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.032, PMID 19243692 
  5. ^ Brown, Matthew W.; Sharpe, Susan C.; Silberman, Jeffrey D.; Heiss, Aaron A.; Lang, B. Franz; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Roger, Andrew J. (2013-10-22). "Phylogenomics demonstrates that breviate flagellates are related to opisthokonts and apusomonads". Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 280 (1769): 20131755. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1755. ISSN 1471-2954. PMC 3768317Freely accessible. PMID 23986111. 
  6. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, Thomas (2013). "Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa". European Journal of Protistology [online]. 49 (2): 115–178. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2012.06.001. ISSN 0932-4739. PMID 23085100.