The City Municipality of BREMEN (German : Stadtgemeinde Bremen, IPA:
( listen )) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern
Germany , which
belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of
Bremen (also called just
"Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
As a commercial and industrial city with a major port on the River
Bremen is part of the
Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region ,
with 2.4 million people.
Bremen is the second most populous city in
Germany and eleventh in Germany.
Bremen is a major cultural and economic hub in the northern regions
Bremen is home to dozens of historical galleries and
museums, ranging from historical sculptures to major art museums, such
Übersee-Museum Bremen .
Bremen has a reputation as a
Bremen is home to a large number of multinational
companies and manufacturing centers. Companies headquartered in Bremen
Hachez chocolate company and
Vector Foiltec . Four-time
German football champions
Werder Bremen are also based in the city.
Bremen is some 60 km (37 mi) south of the mouth of the
Weser on the
North Sea .
Bremerhaven (at the mouth of the Weser)
together comprise the state of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen
(official German name: Freie Hansestadt Bremen).
* 1 History
* 1.1 Advent of territorial power
Bremen and the Reformation
* 1.3 Thirty Years\' War
* 1.3.1 Swedish reaction
* 1.4 19th century
* 1.5 20th century
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Hills of
* 2.2 Climate
* 3 Demographics
* 4 Politics
* 4.1 Last state election
* 4.2 Administrative structure
* 5 Main sights
* 5.1 Structures
* 6 Economy
* 7 Transport
* 8 Events
* 9 Sports
* 10 Education and sciences
* 11 Miscellanea
* 12 Notable people
* 13 International relations
* 13.1 Twin and sister cities
* 13.2 Other relations
* 14 See also
* 15 References
* 15.1 Bibliography
* 15.2 Notes
* 16 External links
Timeline of Bremen
It has been suggested that this section be split out into another
History of Bremen
History of Bremen . (Discuss ) (May 2017)
Bremen, 16th century
The marshes and moraines near
Bremen have been settled since about
12,000 BC. Burial places and settlements in Bremen-Mahndorf and
Bremen-Osterholz date back to the 7th century AD. Since the
Renaissance , some scientists have believed that the entry Fabiranum
or Phabiranon in
Ptolemy 's Fourth Map of Europe, written in AD 150,
refers to Bremen. But
Ptolemy gives geographic coordinates, and these
refer to a site northeast of the mouth of the river Visurgis (Weser).
In Ptolemy's time the
Chauci lived in the area now called
Lower Saxony . By the end of the 3rd century,
they had merged with the
Saxons . During the
Saxon Wars (772–804)
the Saxons, led by
Widukind , fought against the West Germanic Franks
, the founders of the
Carolingian Empire , and lost the war.
Charlemagne , the King of the
Franks , made a new law, the Lex
Saxonum , which forbid the
Odin (the god of the
Saxons); instead they had to convert to Christianity on pain of death.
Willehad of Bremen became the first Bishop of
Bremen . In 848
the archdiocese of
Hamburg merged with the diocese of
Bremen to become
Hamburg-Bremen Archdiocese, with its seat in Bremen, and in the
following centuries the archbishops of
Hamburg-Bremen were the driving
force behind the Christianisation of Northern Germany. In 888, at the
behest of Archbishop
Rimbert , Kaiser
Arnulf of Carinthia , the
Carolingian King of East Francia , granted
Bremen the rights to hold
its own markets, mint its own coins and make its own customs laws.
The city's first stone walls were built in 1032. Around that time
trade with Norway, England and the northern Netherlands began to grow,
thus increasing the importance of the city. Germania, in the
early 2nd century (Harper and Brothers, 1849). View from the
Bremen Cathedral in the direction of the Stephani-Bridge.
In 1186 the Bremian Prince-Archbishop
Hartwig of Uthlede and his
Bremen confirmed - without generally waiving the
prince-archbishop's overlordship over the city - the Gelnhausen
Privilege, by which Frederick I Barbarossa granted the city
considerable privileges. The city was recognised as a political entity
with its own laws. Property within the municipal boundaries could not
be subjected to feudal overlordship; this also applied to serfs who
acquired property, if they lived in the city for a year and a day,
after which they were to be regarded as free persons. Property was to
be freely inherited without feudal claims for reversion to its
original owner. This privilege laid the foundation for Bremen's later
status of imperial immediacy (Free Imperial City ).
But in reality
Bremen did not have complete independence from the
Prince-Archbishops: there was no freedom of religion , and burghers
still had to pay taxes to the Prince-Archbishops.
Bremen played a
double role: it participated in the Diets of the neighbouring
Archbishopric of Bremen
Archbishopric of Bremen as part of the Bremian Estates and paid
its share of taxes, at least when it had previously consented to this
levy. Since the city was the major taxpayer, its consent was generally
sought. In this way the city wielded fiscal and political power within
the Prince-Archbishopric, while not allowing the Prince-Archbishopric
to rule in the city against its consent. In 1260
Bremen joined the
Hanseatic League .
ADVENT OF TERRITORIAL POWER
14th to 18th century: territories of the Free City of Bremen
(red) and of the
Archbishopric of Bremen
Archbishopric of Bremen (yellow); straits between
In 1350, the number of inhabitants reached 20,000. Around this time
the Hansekogge (cog ship ) became a unique product of Bremen.
In 1362, representatives of
Bremen rendered homage to Albert II ,
Langwedel . In return, Albert confirmed
the city's privileges and brokered a peace between the city and
Gerhard III, Count of Hoya , who since 1358 had held some burghers of
Bremen in captivity. The city had to bail them out. In 1365 an extra
tax, levied to finance the ransom, caused an uprising among the
burghers and artisans that was put down by the city council after much
In 1366, Albert II tried to take advantage of the dispute between
Bremen\'s city council and the guilds , whose members had expelled
some city councillors from the city. When these councillors appealed
to Albert II for help, many artisans and burghers regarded this as a
treasonous act, fearing that this appeal to the prince would only
provoke him to abolish the autonomy of the city.
The fortified city maintained its own guards, not allowing soldiers
of the Prince-Archbishop to enter it. The city reserved an extra very
narrow gate, the so-called Bishop's Needle (Latin : Acus episcopi,
first mentioned in 1274), for all clergy, including the
Prince-Archbishop. The narrowness of the gate made it physically
impossible for him to enter surrounded by his knights.
Nevertheless, on the night of 29 May 1366, Albert's troops, helped by
some burghers, invaded the city. Afterward, the city had to again
render him homage: the
Bremen Roland , symbol of the city's autonomy,
was destroyed; and a new city council was appointed. In return, the
new council granted Albert a credit amounting to the then-enormous sum
But city councillors of the previous council, who had fled to the
Oldenburg , gained the support of the counts and recaptured
the city on June 27, 1366. The members of the intermediate council
were regarded as traitors and beheaded, and the city de facto regained
its autonomy. Thereupon, the city of Bremen, which had for a long time
held an autonomous status, acted almost completely independent of the
Prince-Archbishop. Albert failed to obtain control over the city of
Bremen a second time, since he was always short of money and lacked
the support of his family, the Welfs , who were preparing for and
Lüneburg War of Succession (1370–88).
By the end of the 1360s
Bremen had provided credit to Albert II to
finance his lavish lifestyle, and gained in return the fortress of
Vörde along with the dues levied in its bailiwick as guarantee for
the credit. In 1369
Bremen again lent money to Albert II against the
collateral of his mint, which was from then on run by the city
council, which took over his right to mint coins. In 1377 Bremen
purchased from Duke Frederick I of Brunswick-
Lüneburg many of the
Prince-Archbishop's castles, which Albert had pledged as security for
a loan to Frederick's predecessor. Thus
Bremen gained a powerful
position in the Prince-Archbishopric (ecclesiastical principality), in
effect sidelining its actual ruler.
The declining knightly family of Bederkesa had become deeply
indebted, and, having already sold many of their possessions, had
even pawned half their say in the Bailiwick of Bederkesa (Amt
Bederkesa) to the aspiring Mandelsloh family (a noble house, or
Adelsgeschlecht). They lost the rest of their claims to the city of
Bremen, when in 1381 its troops prevented the three Mandelsloh
brothers from lending them to Albert II as territorial power. The
Mandelslohs and other robber barons from the Prince-Bishopric of
Verden and the Prince-
Archbishopric of Bremen
Archbishopric of Bremen ravaged burghers of the
Bremen as well as inhabitants throughout the
Prince-Archbishopric. Bederkesa Castle, since 1381 a stronghold
of Bremen's rural possessions within the Prince-Archbishopric, the
Duchy of Bremen
In 1381 the city's troops successfully ended the brigandage and
captured the Castle of Bederkesa and its bailiwick. Thus
a foothold to uphold peace and order in its forecourt on the lower
course of the
Weser . In 1386 the city of
Bremen became the liege lord
of the noble families holding the estates of Altluneburg and
who had previously been vassals of the Knights of Bederkesa. The city
replaced in 1404 the old wooden statue of
Roland , which had been
destroyed in 1366 by the Bederkesa, with a larger limestone model;
this statue has managed to survive six centuries and two World Wars
into the 21st.
In 1411 the jointly ruling dukes of
Saxe-Lauenburg , Eric IV and his
sons Eric V and John IV , pawned their share in the Bederkesa
bailiwick and castle to the
Senate of Bremen , including all "they
have in the jurisdictions in the Frisian Land of Wursten and in Lehe
(Bremerhaven), which belongs to the aforementioned castle and Vogtei".
Their share in jurisdiction, Vogtei (bailiwick) and castle had been
acquired from the plague-stricken Knights of Bederkesa. In 1421,
Bremen acquired also the remaining half of the rights of the Bederkesa
knights, including their remaining share in Bederkesa Castle.
In 1648 the Prince-Archbishopric was transformed into the Duchy of
Bremen , which was first ruled in personal union by the Swedish Crown.
In November 1654, after the
Second Bremian War ,
Bremen had to cede
Bederkesa and the settlement of Lehe to the
Duchy of Bremen (Treaty of
BREMEN AND THE REFORMATION
Bremen town hall
Protestant Reformation swept through Northern
Germany , St
Peter\'s cathedral belonged to the cathedral immunity district (German
: Domfreiheit; cf. also Liberty ), an extraterritorial enclave of the
neighbouring Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen. In 1532, the cathedral
chapter which was still Catholic at that time closed St Peter's after
a mob consisting of Bremen's burghers had forcefully interrupted a
Catholic Mass and prompted a pastor to hold a Lutheran service.
In 1547, the chapter, which had in the meantime become predominantly
Lutheran, appointed the Dutch Albert Rizaeus , called Hardenberg, as
the first Cathedral pastor of Protestant affiliation. Rizaeus turned
out to be a partisan of the Zwinglian understanding of the Lord\'s
Supper , which was rejected by the then Lutheran majority of burghers,
the city council, and chapter. So in 1561 - after heated disputes -
Rizaeus was dismissed and banned from the city and the cathedral again
closed its doors.
However, as a consequence of that controversy the majority of
Bremen's burghers and city council adopted
Calvinism by the 1590s,
while the chapter, which was at the same time the body of secular
government in the neighbouring Prince-Archbishopric, clung to
Lutheranism . This antagonism between a Calvinistic majority and a
Lutheran minority, though it had a powerful position in its immunity
district (mediatised as part of the city in 1803), remained dominant
until in 1873 the Calvinist and Lutheran congregations of
reconciled and founded a united administrative umbrella Bremen
Protestant Church , which still exists today, comprising the bulk of
At the beginning of the 17th century,
Bremen continued to play its
double role, wielding fiscal and political power within the
Prince-Archbishopric, but not allowing the Prince-Archbishopric to
rule in the city without its consent.
THIRTY YEARS\' WAR
Soon after the beginning of the Thirty Years\' War
its neutrality, as did most of the territories in the Lower Saxon
Circle . John Frederick , Lutheran Administrator of the
Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, desperately tried to keep his
Prince-Archbishopric out of the war, with the complete agreement of
the Estates and the city of Bremen. When in 1623 the Republic of the
Seven United Netherlands , which was fighting in the Eighty Years\'
War for its independence against Habsburg 's Spanish and imperial
forces, requested its Calvinist co-religionist
Bremen to join them,
the city refused, but started to reinforce its fortifications.
In 1623 the territories comprising the
Lower Saxon Circle decided to
recruit an army in order to maintain an armed neutrality , since
troops of the Catholic League were already operating in the
Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle and dangerously close to
their region. The concomitant effects of the war, debasement of the
currency and rising prices, had already caused inflation which was
also felt in Bremen.
In 1623 the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, diplomatically
supported by King
James I of England
James I of England , the brother-in-law of Christian
Denmark , started a new anti-Habsburg campaign. Thus the troops
of the Catholic League were otherwise occupied and
relieved. But soon after this the imperial troops under Albrecht von
Wallenstein headed north in an attempt to destroy the fading Hanseatic
League , in order to reduce the Hanseatic cities of Bremen, Hamburg
Lübeck and to establish a Baltic trade monopoly, to be run by
some imperial favourites including Spaniards and Poles. The idea was
Sweden 's and
Denmark 's support, both of which had for a long
time sought the destruction of the Hanseatic League.
In May 1625, Duke Christian IV of
Holstein was elected - in the
latter of his functions - by the Lower Saxon Circle's member
territories commander-in-chief of the Lower Saxon troops. In the same
year Christian IV joined the Anglo-Dutch military coalition. Christian
IV ordered his troops to capture all the important traffic hubs in the
Prince-Archbishopric and commenced the
Battle of Lutter am Barenberge,
on 27 August 1626, where he was defeated by the Leaguist troops under
Johan \'t Serclaes, Count of Tilly . Christian IV and his surviving
troops fled to the Prince-Archbishopric and established their
In 1627 Christian IV withdrew from the Prince-Archbishopric, in order
to oppose Wallenstein's invasion of his
Duchy of Holstein . Tilly then
invaded the Prince-Archbishopric and captured its southern part.
Bremen shut its city gates and entrenched itself behind its improved
fortifications. In 1628, Tilly turned on the city, and
Bremen paid him
a ransom of 10,000 rixdollars in order to spare it a siege. The city
remained unoccupied throughout the war.
The takeover by the Catholic League enabled Ferdinand II, Holy Roman
Emperor , to implement the
Edict of Restitution , decreed March 6,
1629, within the Prince-
Archbishopric of Bremen
Archbishopric of Bremen including the city of
Bremen. In September 1629 Francis William of Wartenberg , appointed by
Ferdinand II as chairman of the imperial restitution commission for
the Lower Saxon Circle, in carrying out the provisions of the Edict of
Restitution, ordered the Bremian Chapter, seated in Bremen, to render
an account of all the capitular and prince-archiepiscopal estates (not
to be confused with the Estates ). The Chapter refused, arguing first
that the order had not been authorised and later that due to disputes
with Bremen's city council, they could not freely travel to render an
account, let alone do the necessary research on the estates. The
anti-Catholic attitudes of Bremen's burghers and council was to make
it completely impossible to prepare the restitution of estates from
the Lutheran Chapter to the
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church . Even Lutheran
capitulars were uneasy in Calvinistic Bremen.
Bremen's city council ordered that the capitular and
prince-archiepiscopal estates within the boundaries of the unoccupied
city were not to be restituted to the Catholic Church. The council
argued that the city had long been Protestant, but the restitution
commission replied that the city was de jure a part of the
Protestantism had illegitimately taken over
Catholic-owned estates. The city council replied that under these
circumstances it would rather separate from the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire and
join the quasi-independent Republic of the Seven Netherlands . The
city was neither to be conquered nor to be successfully besieged due
to its new fortifications and its access to the
North Sea .
In October 1631 an army, newly recruited by John Frederick, started
to reconquer the Prince-Archbishopric — helped by forces from Sweden
and the city of Bremen. John Frederick returned to office, only to
implement the supremacy of Sweden, insisting that it retain supreme
command until the end of the war. With the impending enforcement of
the military Major Power of
Sweden over the Prince-Archbishopric of
Bremen, which was under negotiation at the Treaty of Westphalia , the
Bremen feared it would fall under Swedish rule too. Therefore,
the city appealed for an imperial confirmation of its status of
imperial immediacy from 1186 (
Gelnhausen Privilege). In 1646 Ferdinand
III, Holy Roman Emperor , granted the requested confirmation (Diploma
of Linz) to the Free Imperial City .
Nevertheless, Sweden, represented by its imperial fief Bremen-Verden
, which comprised the secularised prince-bishoprics of
Verden, did not accept the imperial immediacy of the city of Bremen.
Bremen-Verden tried to remediatise the Free Imperial City of
Bremen (i.e., to make it switch its allegiance to Sweden). With this
in view, Swedish
Bremen-Verden twice waged war on Bremen. In 1381 the
Bremen had imposed de facto rule in an area around Bederkesa
and west of it as far as the lower branch of the
Weser near Bremerlehe
(a part of present-day Bremerhaven). Early in 1653, Bremen-Verden's
Swedish troops captured Bremerlehe by force. In February 1654 the city
Bremen managed to get
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor , to grant
it a seat and the vote in the Holy Roman Empire's Diet , thus
accepting the city's status as Free Imperial City of Bremen.
Ferdinand III demanded that Christina of
Sweden , Duchess regnant of
Bremen-Verden, compensate the city of
Bremen for the damages caused
and restitute Bremerlehe. When in March 1654 the city of Bremen
started to recruit soldiers in the area of Bederkesa, in order to
prepare for further arbitrary acts, Swedish
Bremen-Verden enacted the
First Bremian War (March to July 1654), arguing that it was acting in
self-defence . The Free Imperial City of
Bremen had meanwhile urged
Ferdinand III to support it, who in July 1654 asked Charles X Gustav
Sweden , Christina's successor as Duke of Bremen-Verden, to cease
the conflict, which resulted in the First
Stade Recess (de) (November
1654). This treaty left the main issue, the acceptance of the city of
Bremen's imperial immediacy, unresolved. But the city agreed to pay
tribute and levy taxes in favour of Swedish
Bremen-Verden and to cede
its possessions around Bederkesa and Bremerlehe, which was why it was
later called Lehe.
In December 1660 the city council of
Bremen rendered homage as Free
Imperial City of
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor . In 1663 the
city gained a seat and a vote in the Imperial Diet, despite sharp
protest from Swedish Bremen-Verden. In March 1664 the Swedish Diet
came out in favour of waging war on the Free Imperial City of Bremen.
Right after Leopold I, who was busy with wars against the Ottoman
Empire , had enfeoffed the minor King Charles XI of
Bremen-Verden, while the neighbouring Brunswick and Lunenburg-Celle
was occupied by succession quarrels and France not opposed, Sweden
Second Bremian War (1665–66) from its Bremen-Verden
The Swedes under
Carl Gustaf Wrangel laid siege to the city of
Bremen. The siege brought
Brandenburg-Prussia , Brunswick and
Lunenburg-Celle, Denmark, Leopold I and the Netherlands onto the
scene, who were all in favour of the city, with Brandenburgian,
Cellean, Danish, and Dutch troops at Bremen-Verden's borders ready to
invade. So on 15 November 1666
Sweden had to sign the Treaty of
Habenhausen , obliging it to destroy the fortresses built close to
Bremen and banning
Bremen from sending its representative to the Diet
Lower Saxon Circle . From then on no further Swedish attempts
were made to capture the city.
Bremen introduced - like all Protestant territories of
imperial immediacy - the Improved Calendar , as it was called by
Protestants, in order not to mention the name of
Pope Gregory XIII .
So Sunday, 18 February of Old Style was followed by Monday, 1 March
New Style . Territory of
Bremen as state since 1800
The harbour of
Vegesack became part of the city of
Bremen in 1803. In
Bremen and integrated it as the capital of the
Département de Bouches-du-
Weser (Department of the Mouths of the
Weser) into the French State. In 1813, the French - as they retreated
- withdrew from Bremen.
Johann Smidt , Bremen's representative at the
Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna , was successful in achieving the non-mediatisation
Lübeck , by which they were not incorporated
into neighbouring monarchies, but became sovereign republics. Bremen
North German Confederation in 1867 and four years later
became an autonomous component state of the new-founded German Empire
and its successors.
The first German steamship was manufactured in 1817 in the shipyard
of Johann Lange. In 1827, Bremen, under Johann Smidt, its mayor at
that time, purchased land from the
Kingdom of Hanover , to establish
the city of
Bremerhaven (Port of Bremen) as an outpost of Bremen
because the river
Weser was silting up. The shipping company
Norddeutscher Lloyd (NDL) was founded in 1857. Lloyd was a byword for
commercial shipping and is now a part of
Beck\'s Brewery was founded in 1837 and remains in operation today as
Anheuser-Busch InBev . In 1872, the
Bremen Cotton Exchange was
The Soviet Republic of
Bremen existed from January to February 1919
in the aftermath of
World War I
World War I , before it was overthrown by
Gerstenberg Freikorps. Proclamation of the Revolutionary Republic
Bremen (Bremer Räterepublik) in front of the town hall, 15
Henrich Focke , Georg Wulf and
Werner Naumann founded Focke-Wulf
Flugzeugbau AG in
Bremen in 1923; the aircraft construction company as
of 2010 forms part of
Airbus , a manufacturer of civil and military
Borgward , an automobile manufacturer , was founded in 1929,
and is today part of
Daimler AG .
The villages of Grohn, Schönebeck, Aumund, Hammersbeck, Fähr,
Lobbendorf, Blumenthal, Farge and Rekum became part of the city of
Bremen in 1939. The
Bremen-Vegesack concentration camp operated during
World War II.
Following the bombing of
World War II
World War II , the British 3rd
Infantry Division under General Whistler captured
Bremen in late April
In 1946 Bremen's mayor
Wilhelm Kaisen (SPD) travelled to the U.S. to
re-establish Bremen's statehood, as
Bremen had traditionally been a
city-state , in order to prevent its incorporation into the state of
Lower Saxony in the British zone of occupation. In 1947 the city
became an enclave, part of the American occupation zone surrounded by
the British zone.
In 1947, Martin Mende founded
Nordmende , a manufacturer of
entertainment electronics. The company existed until 1987. OHB-System
, a manufacturer of medium-sized space-flight satellites , was founded
University of Bremen , founded in 1971, is one of 11 institutions
classed as an "Elite university" in Germany, and teaches approximately
23,500 people from 126 countries.
Bremen's city hall, cathedral and Bürgerschaft View from
the Stephanibrücke towards the city centre and cathedral
Bremen lies on both sides of the River
Weser , about 60 kilometres
(37 miles) upstream of its estuary on the
North Sea and its transition
to the Outer
Weser by Bremerhaven. Opposite Bremen's Altstadt is the
point where the "Middle Weser" becomes the "Lower Weser" and, from the
area of Bremen's port, the river has been made navigable to
ocean-going vessels. The region on the left bank of the Lower Weser,
through which the
Ochtum flows, is the
Weser Marshes, the landscape on
its right bank is part of the Elbe-
Weser Triangle . The
Lesum , and
its tributaries, the
Wümme and Hamme , the
Schönebecker Aue and
Blumenthaler Aue , are the downstream tributaries of the Weser.
The city's municipal area is about 38 kilometres (24 miles) long and
16 kilometres (10 miles) wide. In terms of area,
Bremen is the
thirteenth largest city in Germany; and in terms of population the
second largest city in northwest
Hamburg and the tenth
largest in the whole of
Germany (see: List of cities in
Bremen lies about 50 kilometres (31 miles) east of the city of
Oldenburg , 110 kilometres (68 miles) southwest of
Hamburg , 120
kilometres (75 miles) northwest of
Hanover , 100 kilometres (62 miles)
Minden and 105 kilometres (65 miles) northeast of Osnabrück
. Part of
Bremerhaven 's port territory forms an exclave of the City
HILLS OF BREMEN
The inner city lies on a
Weser dune, which reaches a natural height
of 10.5 m above sea level (NN) at
Bremen Cathedral ; its highest
point, though, is 5 m above sea level (NN) and lies to the east at
Polizeihaus , Am Wall 196. The highest natural feature in the city
Bremen is 32.5 m above NN and lies in
Friedehorst Park in the
northwestern borough of Burglesum. As a result,
Bremen has the lowest
high point of all the German states . However, the man-made tip of
the rubbish dump Blockland-Deponie in Bremen-Walle is higher at 49 m
Bremen has a moderate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification
Cfb) due to its proximity to the
North Sea coast and temperate
maritime air masses that move in with the predominantly westerly winds
from the Atlantic Ocean. However, periods in which continental air
masses predominate may occur at any time of the year and can lead to
heat waves in the summer and prolonged periods of frost in the winter.
In general though, extremes are rare in
Bremen and temperatures below
−15 °C (5.0 °F) and above 35 °C (95.0 °F) occur only once every
couple of years. The record high temperature was 37.6 °C (99.7 °F)
on 9 August 1992, while the record low temperature was −23.6 °C
(−10.5 °F) on 13 February 1940. Being at some distance from the
main North Sea,
Bremen still has a somewhat wider temperature range
Bremerhaven that is located on the mouth of Weser.
Average temperatures have risen continually over the last decades,
leading to a 0.6 °C (1.1 °F) rise in the mean annual temperature
between 1961–90 and 1981–2010 reference periods. As in most parts
of Germany, the year 2014 has been the warmest year on record
averaging 11.1 °C (52.0 °F), making
Bremen the second-warmest German
Berlin in 2014. While
Bremen is located in the
comparatively cloudy northwestern part of Germany, there has been a
significant increase in average sunshine hours over the last decades,
especially in the months of April, May and July, causing the annual
mean to rise by 62 hours between the two reference periods mentioned
above. This trend has continued over the last 10 years, which average
1614 hours of sunshine, a good 130 hours more than in the
international reference period of 1961–90. Nevertheless, especially
the winters remain extremely gloomy by international standards with
December averaging hardly more than one hour of sunshine (out of 7
astronomically possible) per day, a feature that
Bremen shares with
Germany and its neighbouring countries, though.
Precipitation is distributed fairly even around the year with a small
peak in summer mainly due to convective precipitation, i.e. showers
and thunderstorms. Snowfall and the period of snow cover are variable;
whereas in some years, hardly any snow accumulation occurs, there has
recently been a series of unusually snowy winters, peaking in the
record year 2010 counting 84 days with a snow cover. Nevertheless,
snow accumulation of more than 20 centimetres (8 in) remains
exceptional, the record being 68 centimetres (26.8 in) of snow on 18
The warmest months in
Bremen are June, July, and August, with average
high temperatures of 20.2 to 22.6 °C (68.4 to 72.7 °F). The coldest
are December, January, and February, with average low temperatures of
−1.1 to 0.3 °C (30.0 to 32.5 °F). Typical of its maritime
location, autumn tends to remain mild well into October, while spring
arrives later than in the southwestern parts of the country.
CLIMATE DATA FOR BREMEN
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM)
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source: DWD; wetterkontor.de;
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (June
As of 2015 ,
Bremen had a population of 557,464 of whom about 89,713
(16%) had foreign citizenship. Furthermore, 29.4% of the city
population were of non-German origin/ethnicity as of 2015.
Number of minorities in
Bremen by nationality as of 31 December 2015.
The Stadtbürgerschaft (municipal assembly) is made up of 68 of the
83 legislators of the state legislature, the Bremische Bürgerschaft,
who reside in the city of Bremen. The legislature is elected by the
Bremen every four years.
Bremen has a reputation as a Left-wing city. This left wing
atmosphere largely stems from a transition from an industrial economy
to a service economy. In elections for the Stadtbürgerschaft, the
Social Democratic Party has dominated for decades. The Greens have
also been very successful in city elections. The state of
which consists of the city, is governed by a coalition of the Social
Democratic Party and The Greens .
One of the two mayors (Bürgermeister) is elected President of the
Senate (Präsident des Senats) and serves as head of the city and the
state. The current President is
LAST STATE ELECTION
Bremen state election, 2015
Social Democratic Party (SPD)
Christian Democratic Union (CDU)
Alliance \'90/The Greens
Free Democratic Party (FDP)
Citizens in Rage (BIW)
Human Environment Animal Protection (The Animal Protection Party)
National Democratic Party (NPD)
Provisional results; the AfD did not reach the 5% threshold in
Bremerhaven (and will hence only receive seats for votes from Bremen),
the BIW did not reach the threshold in
Bremen (and will only receive
one seat in Bremerhaven, none in Bremen).
(borough) Stadtteile (urban districts),
Ortsteile (subdistricts, selectively) AREA
of popu- lation MAPS
* Mitte (Central)
* Altstadt (Old city), incl.
* Häfen (Ports)
033.741 !33.741 km²
* Neustadt (New Town)
* Alte Neustadt (Old New Town, near the Weser, opposite of the City)
* Buntentor (an old suburb, southeast of Alte Neustadt)
* Huckelriede, between Buntentor and Habenhausen
* Hohentor, west of Alte Neustadt
* Neuenland, the airport city with some hightech companies
Neustadt, Südervorstadt and Gartenstadt Süd between Alte Neustadt
and the airport city
* Arsten (near
Weser river, upstream)
* Habenhausen (near Weser, north of Arsten)
* Kattenesch (west of Arsten)
* Kattenturm (northwestern section)
* Huchting , mainly west of river
* Woltmershausen with Rablinghausen, between
Weser river and
* Seehausen , a village near river Weser
* Strom , a village
066.637 !66.637 km²
* Östliche Vorstadt (Eastern Suburb)
* Steintor (near the city)
* Fesenfeld (northern part of Steintor)
* Peterswerder (near
* Hulsberg (north of Peterswerder)
* Hastedt (near Östliche Vorstadt)
* Sebaldsbrück (east of Hastedt)
Hemelingen (south of Sebaldsbrück, near
* Mahndorf (east of Hemelingen)
* Arbergen (east of Mahndorf)
108.201 !108.201 km²
056.606 !56.606 km²
060.376 !60.376 km²
* Many of the sights in
Bremen are found in the Altstadt (Old Town),
an oval area surrounded by the
Weser River, on the southwest, and the
Wallgraben, the former moats of the medieval city walls, on the
northeast. The oldest part of the Altstadt is the southeast half,
starting with the Marktplatz and ending at the
* The Marktplatz (Market square) is dominated by the opulent façade
Town Hall of Bremen . The building was erected between 1405 and
1410 in Gothic style , but the façade was built two centuries later
Renaissance style . The Town Hall is the seat of the
President of the
Senate of Bremen . Today, it hosts a restaurant in
original decor with gigantic wine barrels , the Ratskeller in
and the wine lists boasts more than 600 - exclusively German - wines.
It is also home of the twelve oldest wines in the world, stored in
their original barrels in the Apostel chamber. In July 2004, along
Bremen Roland , the building was added to the list of UNESCO
World Heritage Sites .
* Two statues stand to the west side of the Town Hall: one is the
Bremen Roland (1404) of the city's protector,
Roland , with his
view against the Cathedral and bearing Durendart, the "sword of
justice" and a shield decorated with an imperial eagle . The other
near the entrance to the Ratskeller is
Gerhard Marcks ' bronze
sculpture (1953) Die Stadtmusikanten (Town Musicians ), which portrays
the donkey, dog, cat and rooster of the Grimm Brothers\' fairy tale.
* Other interesting buildings in the vicinity of the Marktplatz are
the Schütting , a 16th-century Flemish-inspired guild hall,
Rathscafé , Raths-Apotheke , Haus der Stadtsparkasse and the
Stadtwaage , the former weigh house (built in 1588), with an ornate
Renaissance façade, and the nearby
Essighaus , once a fine
Renaissance town house. The façades and houses surrounding the market
square were the first buildings in
Bremen to be restored after World
War II , by the citizens of
* St Peter's Cathedral (13th century), to the east of the
Marktplatz, with sculptures of
David , Peter and Paul and
* On Katherinenklosterhof to the northwest of the cathedral, a few
remaining traces can be found of St Catherine\'s Monastery dating back
to the 13th century.
* The Liebfrauenkirche (Our Lady's Church) is the oldest church of
the town (11th century). Its crypt features several impressive murals
from the 14th century.
* Off the south side of the Markplatz, the 110 m (120 yd)
Böttcherstraße was transformed in 1923–1931 by the coffee magnate
Ludwig Roselius , who commissioned local artists to convert the narrow
street (in medieval times, the street of the barrel makers) into an
inspired mixture of Gothic and
Art Nouveau . It was considered
"entartete Kunst" (degenerate art ) by the Nazis. Today, the street is
one of Bremen's most popular attractions, with the Glockenspiel House
at No. 4 with its carillon of
Meissen porcelain bells.
* At the end of Böttcherstraße, by the
Weser bank, stands the
Martinikirche (St Martin's Church), a Gothic brick church built in
1229, and rebuilt in 1960 after its destruction in World War II.
* Tucked away between the Cathedral and the river is the
Schnoor , a
small, well-preserved area of crooked lanes, fishermen's and shipper's
houses from the 17th and 18th centuries, now occupied by cafés,
artisan shops and art galleries . The Convent of Saint Birgitta
(Birgittenkloster) founded in 2002 is a small community of just seven
nuns offering guest accommodation.
Schlachte , the medieval harbour of
Bremen (the modern port is
some kilometres downstream) and today a riverside boulevard with pubs
and bars aligned on one side and the banks of
Weser on the other.
* The Viertel district to the east of the old town combines rows of
Bremen Houses (Bremer Häuser) with museums and theatres
along the city's cultural mile.
* The Nasir Moschee is the first purpose built mosque of the
Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Bremen.
More contemporary tourist attractions include:
Universum Science Center
Universum Science Center , a modern science museum
Rhododendron-Park Bremen , a major collection of rhododendrons
and azaleas , which also includes a botanical garden
* Botanika, a nature museum within the
Rhododendron-Park Bremen that
attempts be to the same as the Universum, but for biology
* Beck's Brewery, tours are available to the public which include
Kunsthalle Bremen , an art museum with paintings from the 19th
and 20th century, maintained by the citizens of Bremen
* Focke Museum, People of Bremen's Museum for Art and Cultural
Übersee Museum Bremen (Overseas (World) Museum) is a Natural
Ethnographic museum near by the Central Station
* The Kunstsammlungen Böttcherstraße, an art museum in
expressionist architecture from
Bernhard Hoetger with paintings from
the 20th century from
Paula Modersohn-Becker .
Weserburg Museum für moderne Kunst ("
Weserburg Modern Art
Museum"), a modern art museum located in the middle of the Weser
View from the Stephani-Bridge in the direction of the Cathedral
Baumwollbörse (Cotton exchange)
The Parkhotel in the Bürgerpark (central park)
Central Park Wallanlagen
The city hall (Rathaus)
Swineherd and pigs sculpture in
Weser River in
A building on
Bremen and the
Weser from St. Petri Dom
Weser Tower designed by
The Fallturm (Drop Tower) of the
University of Bremen
Mediumwave transmitter Bremen
* Bremen-Walle Telecommunication Tower
The Freie Waldorfschule in Bremen-Sebaldsbrück was Germany's first
school built to the Passivhaus low-energy building standard.
According to data from the Organization of Economic Cooperation and
Bremen had a GDP per capita of $53,379 in 2013, higher
than the average for
Germany as a whole. For comparison, in 2013, the
World Bank reported
Germany had a GDP per capita of $46,268, and the
EU overall had a GDP per capita of $35,408 in the same year.
Bremen is the second development centre of the region, after Hamburg
. It forms part of the production network of
Airbus SAS and this is
where equipping of the wing units for all widebody
Airbus aircraft and
the manufacture of small sheet metal parts takes place. Structural
assembly, including that of metal landing flaps, is another focal
point. Within the framework of
Airbus A380 production, assembly of the
landing flaps (high lift systems) is carried out here. The pre-final
assembly of the fuselage section (excluding the cockpit) of the A400M
military transport aircraft takes place before delivery on to Spain.
More than 3,100 persons are employed at Bremen, the second largest
Airbus site in Germany. As part of the Centre of Excellence –
Bremen is responsible for the design and manufacture of
high-lift systems for the wings of
Airbus aircraft. The entire process
chain for the high-lift elements is established here, including the
project office, technology engineering, flight physics, system
engineering, structure development, verification tests, structural
assembly, wing equipping and ultimate delivery to the final assembly
line. In addition,
Bremen manufactures sheet metal parts like clips
and thrust crests for all
Airbus aircraft as part of the Centre of
Excellence – Fuselage and Cabin.
Bremen there is a plant of
EADS Astrium and the headquarters of
OHB-System , respectively the first and the third space companies of
There is also a
Mercedes-Benz factory in Bremen, building the C , CLK
, SL , SLK , and GLK series of cars.
Bremen Central Station Map of the
Bremen has an international airport situated 3 km (2 mi) south of the
Trams in Bremen
Trams in Bremen and local bus services are offered by the Bremer
Straßenbahn AG (translates from German as
Corporation), often abbreviated BSAG, the public transport provider
Bremen S-Bahn covers the
Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region ,
Bremerhaven in the north to
Twistringen in the south and from
Oldenburg in the west, centred on
Bremen Central Station . It has been
in operation since 2010. This network unified existing regional
Bremen as well as surrounding cities, including
Oldenburg , and
Verden an der Aller . The network lies completely within the area of
Lower Saxony Transport Association , whose tariff structure
* Every year since 1036, in the last two weeks of October, Bremen
has hosted the
Freimarkt ("Free market"), one of the world's oldest
Germany one of today's biggest continuously celebrated
Bremen is host to one of the four big annual
Techno parades, the
Vision Parade .
Bremen is also host of the "Bremer 6 Tage Rennen" a bicycle race
* Every year the city plays host to young musicians from across the
world, playing in the International Youth Symphony Orchestra of Bremen
* On March 12, 1999, the rock band Kiss played a live show in
Bremen. Before the show, they were told by the fire marshall not to
use any fireworks. They did not use any fireworks until the very end,
when they set off all of the fireworks at once. Because of this, they
are now banned from playing in Bremen.
Bremen was host to the 2006 RoboCup competition.
Bremen was host to the 32nd
Deutscher Evangelischer Kirchentag ,
20–24 May 2009.
Bremen hosted the 50th
International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO)
from 10–22 July 2009.
Weserstadion (Football (soccer) stadium)
Bremen is home to the football team SV
Werder Bremen , who won the
German Football Championship for the fourth time and the German
Football Cup for the fifth time in 2004, making them only the fourth
team in German football history to win the double; the club won the
German Football Cup for the sixth time in 2009. Only Bayern
won more titles. In the final match of the 2009–10 season, Werder
Bremen lost to Bayern Munich. The home stadium of SV
Werder Bremen is
Weserstadion , a pure football stadium, almost completely
surrounded by solar cells. It is one of the biggest buildings in
Europe delivering alternative energy.
EDUCATION AND SCIENCES
With 18000 students, the
University of Bremen is the largest
university in Bremen, and is also home to the international
Goethe-Institut and the
Fallturm Bremen . Additionally,
Bremen has a
University of the Arts and the
Bremen University of Applied Sciences .
In 2001, the private
Jacobs University Bremen was founded. All major
German research foundations maintain institutes in Bremen, with a
focus set on marine sciences: The
Max Planck Society with the Max
Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology , and the Gottfried Wilhelm
Leibniz Scientific Community with the Center for Tropical Marine
Ecology (zmt). The Bremerhaven-based Alfred-Wegener-Institute of the
Helmholtz Association closely cooperates with the aforementioned
institutes, especially within the MARUM, a center for marine
environmental sciences, affiliated to the University of Bremen.
Fraunhofer Society is present in
Bremen with centers
for applied material research IFAM and medical image computing MEVIS.
* In December 1949,
Bremen hosted the lecture cycle Einblick in das,
was ist by the philosopher
Martin Heidegger , in which Heidegger
introduced his concept of a "fourfold" of earth and sky, gods and
mortals. This was also Heidegger's first public-speaking engagement
following his removal from his Freiburg professorship by the
Bremen is connected with a fairy tale by the
Brothers Grimm , the
Town Musicians of Bremen , although they never actually reach Bremen
in the tale.
* The 1922 film
Nosferatu , eine Symphonie des Grauens was set
mostly in Bremen.
List of people from Bremen and List of mayors of
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
TWIN AND SISTER CITIES
Bremen is twinned with:
Gdańsk , Poland, since 1976
Riga , Latvia, since 1985
Dalian , People's Republic of China, since 1985
Rostock , Germany, since 1987 1
Haifa , Israel, since 1988
İzmir , Turkey, since 1995
Lukavac , Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 1996
Durban , South Africa, since 2011
Maracaibo , Venezuela
^1 Then German Democratic Republic
List of mayors of Bremen
See also: Bibliography of the history of
* Tristam Carrington-Windo, Katrin M. Kohl (1998). A Dictionary of
Contemporary Germany. Routledge (UK). p. page 64. ISBN 1-57958-114-5 .
* Claus Christian (2007): A photographic excursion through Bremen,
Bremen-North, Bremerhaven, Fischerhude and Worpswede, ISBN
* Dannenberg, Hans-Eckhard; Schulze, Heinz-Joachim (1995).
Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und
Weser vol. 1 Vor- und
Frühgeschichte. Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer
Bremen und Verden. ISBN 978-3-9801919-7-5 .
* Dannenberg, Hans-Eckhard; Schulze, Heinz-Joachim (1995).
Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und
Weser vol. 2 Mittelalter
(einschl. Kunstgeschichte). Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem.
Bremen und Verden. ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2 .
* Dannenberg, Hans-Eckhard; Schulze, Heinz-Joachim (2008).
Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und
Weser vol. 3 Neuzeit. Stade:
Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer
Bremen und Verden. ISBN
* Herbert Schwarzwälder (1995), Geschichte der Freien Hansestadt
Bremen. Vol. I – V. Bremen: Edition Temmen, ISBN 3-86108-283-7
* ^ "Bevölkerungsstand und Bevölkerungsbewegung am 31.12.2015"
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vehicle registration in Bremerhaven.
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Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2010, p. 29. ISBN 978-3-8391-9479-9 .
* ^ A B Otto Edert, Neuenwalde: Reformen im ländlichen Raum,
Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2010, p. 30. ISBN 978-3-8391-9479-9 .
* ^ A B In the
Middle Low German original: "wes zee hebben an
gherichte in Vreslande . . . unde an Lee, dat to deme vorscrevenen
slote unde voghedie höret", here after Bernd Ulrich Hucker, "Die
landgemeindliche Entwicklung in Landwürden, Kirchspiel Lehe und
Kirchspiel Midlum im Mittelalter" (first presented in 1972 as a
lecture at a conference of the historical work study association of
the northern Lower Saxon Landschaftsverbände held at
Oldenburg), in: Oldenburger Jahrbuch, vol. 72 (1972), pp. 1—22, here
* ^ Dutch independence was finally confirmed by the Treaty of
Westphalia in 1648.
* ^ "
Bremen (Germany)". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
* ^ "
Bremen (Germany): Counties & Cities – Population Statistics
in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
* ^ Sir John Smythe Bolo Whistler: The Life of General Sir Lashmer
Whistler Frederick Muller Ltd 1967
* ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch" (PDF; 4,0 MB). Statistisches
Landesamt. 2009-12-00. p. 2. Retrieved 2010-09-27. Check date values
in: date= (help )
* ^ 100 schräge Fakten über diese Stadt. In: Zitty 16/2012, p.
* ^ "Wetterrekorde Deutschland – Wetterdienst.de".
www.wetterdienst.de (in German). Deutsches Wetterdienst. Retrieved
* ^ "Wetter und Klima – Deutscher Wetterdienst". www.dwd.de (in
German). Deutscher Wetterdienst.
* ^ "Wetter und Klima – Deutscher Wetterdienst". www.dwd.de (in
German). Deutscher Wetterdienst.
* ^ "sklima". www.dwd.de (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst.
* ^ "Wetteronline Wetterrückblick
www.wetteronline.de (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved
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* ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch", (pdf). Retrieved 4 July 2017.
* ^ "Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund I", (German). Retrieved
4 July 2017.
* ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt Bremen.
* ^ Buse, Dieter K. (2005-01-01). The Regions of Germany: A
Reference Guide to History and Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group.
ISBN 978-0-313-32400-0 .
* ^ "Bürgerschafts- und Beirätewahlen 2015, Vorläufiges
Endergebnis" (in German).
Statistisches Landesamt Bremen (Statistical
Office of the State of Bremen). Retrieved 18 May 2015.
* ^ "Bürgerschaftswahl am 10. Mai 2015 in Bremen".
* ^ "Böttcherstraße: Welcome".
Böttcherstraße GmbH. Retrieved
27 January 2014.
* ^ "St. Martin\'s Church". Bremen-tourism.de. Retrieved 14 January
* ^ "Birgittenkloster" (in German). Katholischer Gemeindeverband in
Bremen. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 7
* ^ "
Schlachte Embankment". bremen-tourism.de. Retrieved 5 January
* ^ "Das Viertel" (in German). dasviertel.de. Archived from the
original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
* ^ "Nasir Moschee in Stuhr-Brinkum". Retrieved June 10, 2014.
* ^ "Weserburg: Weserburg". weserburg.de.
* ^ Passivhaus schools (in German), 'Passivhaus Institute.
* ^ "GDP per capita (current US$) – Data". worldbank.org.
* ^ "EADS in Germany". Eads.com.
* ^ "
Airbus in Germany". Airbus.com. Archived from the original on
* ^ "
Bremen Plant". www.daimler.com. Archived from
the original on April 14, 2010.
* ^ "BSAG Public transportation in Bremen" (in German). bsag.de.
* ^ Bericht zur Eröffnung der S-Bahn bei Radio
December 14, 2010, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "Message of Greeting". Imo2009.de. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
* ^ "Zahlen und Fakten zur Universität (german)". University of
Bremen. 2011-10-16. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L "Referat 32 – Städtepartnerschaften
/ Internationale Beziehungen" (official website/publication) (in
German). Andrea Frohmader, Internationale Beziehungen / stellvertr.
Abteilungsleiterin Senatskanzlei, Rathaus, Bremen. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2015-10-21.
* ^ "
Gdańsk Official Website: \'Miasta partnerskie\'" (in Polish
and English). Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. 2009. Archived from the
original on 2013-07-23. Retrieved 2009-07-11.
* ^ "Twin cities of Riga".
Riga City Council . Archived from the
original on December 4, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
* ^ "Sister Cities Home Page". Archived from the original on August
10, 2011. eThekwini Online: The Official Site of the City of Durban
* ^ "Sister in progress". Times of
Pune Times. 30 August
* ^ "Profile: Mrs. Vandana H. Chavan (Ex Mayor of Pune)". Pune
Diary. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
* ^ "Pune, twin cities to get pollution lab". Times of
Pune Times. 4 September 2001.
* ^ "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 2 Dec 1996".
parliament.uk. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
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