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The City Municipality of Bremen
Bremen
(German: Stadtgemeinde Bremen, IPA: [ˈbʁeːmən] ( listen)) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen
Bremen
(also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany. As a commercial and industrial city with a major port on the River Weser, Bremen
Bremen
is part of the Bremen/ Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Metropolitan Region, with 2.4 million people. Bremen
Bremen
is the second most populous city in Northern Germany
Germany
and eleventh in Germany.[3] Bremen
Bremen
is a major cultural and economic hub in the northern regions of Germany. Bremen
Bremen
is home to dozens of historical galleries and museums, ranging from historical sculptures to major art museums, such as the Übersee-Museum Bremen.[4] Bremen
Bremen
has a reputation as a working-class city.[5] Bremen
Bremen
is home to a large number of multinational companies and manufacturing centers. Companies headquartered in Bremen
Bremen
include the Hachez chocolate company and Vector Foiltec.[6] Four-time German football champions Werder Bremen
Werder Bremen
are also based in the city. Bremen
Bremen
is some 60 km (37 mi) south of the mouth of the Weser on the North Sea. Bremen
Bremen
and Bremerhaven
Bremerhaven
(at the mouth of the Weser) together comprise the state of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (official German name: Freie Hansestadt Bremen).

Contents

1 History

1.1 Advent of territorial power 1.2 Bremen
Bremen
and the Reformation 1.3 Thirty Years' War

1.3.1 Swedish reaction

1.4 19th century 1.5 20th century

2 Geography

2.1 Hills of Bremen 2.2 Climate

3 Demographics 4 Politics

4.1 Last state election 4.2 Administrative structure

5 Main sights

5.1 Structures

6 Economy 7 Transport 8 Events 9 Sports 10 Education and sciences 11 Miscellanea 12 Notable people 13 International relations

13.1 Twin and sister cities 13.2 Other relations

14 See also 15 References

15.1 Bibliography 15.2 Notes

16 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Bremen

It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled History of Bremen. (Discuss) (May 2017)

Bremen, 16th century

The marshes and moraines near Bremen
Bremen
have been settled since about 12,000 BC. Burial places and settlements in Bremen-Mahndorf and Bremen-Osterholz date back to the 7th century AD. Since the Renaissance, some scientists have believed that the entry Fabiranum or Phabiranon in Ptolemy's Fourth Map of Europe,[7] written in AD 150, refers to Bremen. But Ptolemy
Ptolemy
gives geographic coordinates, and these refer to a site northeast of the mouth of the river Visurgis (Weser). In Ptolemy's time the Chauci
Chauci
lived in the area now called north-western Germany
Germany
or Lower Saxony. By the end of the 3rd century, they had merged with the Saxons. During the Saxon Wars
Saxon Wars
(772–804) the Saxons, led by Widukind, fought against the West Germanic Franks, the founders of the Carolingian Empire, and lost the war. Charlemagne, the King of the Franks, made a new law, the Lex Saxonum, which forbid the Saxons
Saxons
worshipping Odin
Odin
(the god of the Saxons); instead they had to convert to Christianity on pain of death. In 787 Willehad of Bremen
Willehad of Bremen
became the first Bishop of Bremen. In 848 the archdiocese of Hamburg
Hamburg
merged with the diocese of Bremen
Bremen
to become Hamburg-Bremen
Hamburg-Bremen
Archdiocese, with its seat in Bremen, and in the following centuries the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen
Hamburg-Bremen
were the driving force behind the Christianisation of Northern Germany. In 888, at the behest of Archbishop Rimbert, Kaiser Arnulf of Carinthia, the Carolingian King of East Francia, granted Bremen
Bremen
the rights to hold its own markets, mint its own coins and make its own customs laws. The city's first stone walls were built in 1032. Around that time trade with Norway, England and the northern Netherlands began to grow, thus increasing the importance of the city.

Germania, in the early 2nd century (Harper and Brothers, 1849)

View from the Bremen Cathedral
Bremen Cathedral
in the direction of the Stephani-Bridge

In 1186 the Bremian Prince-Archbishop Hartwig of Uthlede and his bailiff in Bremen
Bremen
confirmed – without generally waiving the prince-archbishop's overlordship over the city – the Gelnhausen Privilege, by which Frederick I Barbarossa granted the city considerable privileges. The city was recognised as a political entity with its own laws. Property within the municipal boundaries could not be subjected to feudal overlordship; this also applied to serfs who acquired property, if they lived in the city for a year and a day, after which they were to be regarded as free persons. Property was to be freely inherited without feudal claims for reversion to its original owner. This privilege laid the foundation for Bremen's later status of imperial immediacy (Free Imperial City). But in reality Bremen
Bremen
did not have complete independence from the Prince-Archbishops: there was no freedom of religion, and burghers still had to pay taxes to the Prince-Archbishops. Bremen
Bremen
played a double role: it participated in the Diets of the neighbouring Prince- Archbishopric of Bremen
Archbishopric of Bremen
as part of the Bremian Estates and paid its share of taxes, at least when it had previously consented to this levy. Since the city was the major taxpayer, its consent was generally sought.[for what?] In this way the city wielded fiscal and political power within the Prince-Archbishopric, while not allowing the Prince-Archbishopric to rule in the city against its consent. In 1260 Bremen
Bremen
joined the Hanseatic League. Advent of territorial power[edit]

14th to 18th century: territories of the Free City of Bremen
Free City of Bremen
(red) and of the Archbishopric of Bremen
Archbishopric of Bremen
(yellow); straits between lower Weser and Jadebusen

In 1350, the number of inhabitants reached 20,000. Around this time the Hansekogge (cog ship) became a unique product of Bremen. In 1362, representatives of Bremen
Bremen
rendered homage to Albert II, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen
Bremen
in Langwedel. In return, Albert confirmed the city's privileges and brokered a peace between the city and Gerhard III, Count of Hoya, who since 1358 had held some burghers of Bremen
Bremen
in captivity. The city had to bail them out. In 1365 an extra tax, levied to finance the ransom, caused an uprising among the burghers and artisans that was put down by the city council after much bloodshed. In 1366, Albert II tried to take advantage of the dispute between Bremen's city council and the guilds, whose members had expelled some city councillors from the city. When these councillors appealed to Albert II for help, many artisans and burghers regarded this as a treasonous act, fearing that this appeal to the prince would only provoke him to abolish the autonomy of the city. The fortified city maintained its own guards, not allowing soldiers of the Prince-Archbishop to enter it. The city reserved an extra very narrow gate, the so-called Bishop's Needle (Latin: Acus episcopi, first mentioned in 1274), for all clergy, including the Prince-Archbishop. The narrowness of the gate made it physically impossible for him to enter surrounded by his knights. Nevertheless, on the night of 29 May 1366, Albert's troops, helped by some burghers, invaded the city. Afterward, the city had to again render him homage: the Bremen
Bremen
Roland, symbol of the city's autonomy, was destroyed; and a new city council was appointed. In return, the new council granted Albert a credit amounting to the then-enormous sum of 20,000 Bremen
Bremen
marks. But city councillors of the previous council, who had fled to the County of Oldenburg, gained the support of the counts and recaptured the city on June 27, 1366. The members of the intermediate council were regarded as traitors and beheaded, and the city de facto regained its autonomy. Thereupon, the city of Bremen, which had for a long time held an autonomous status, acted almost completely independent of the Prince-Archbishop. Albert failed to obtain control over the city of Bremen
Bremen
a second time, since he was always short of money and lacked the support of his family, the Welfs, who were preparing for and fighting the Lüneburg War of Succession
Lüneburg War of Succession
(1370–88). By the end of the 1360s Bremen
Bremen
had provided credit to Albert II to finance his lavish lifestyle, and gained in return the fortress of Vörde along with the dues levied in its bailiwick as guarantee for the credit. In 1369 Bremen
Bremen
again lent money to Albert II against the collateral of his mint, which was from then on run by the city council, which took over his right to mint coins. In 1377 Bremen purchased from Duke Frederick I of Brunswick- Lüneburg
Lüneburg
many of the Prince-Archbishop's castles, which Albert had pledged as security for a loan to Frederick's predecessor. Thus Bremen
Bremen
gained a powerful position in the Prince-Archbishopric (ecclesiastical principality), in effect sidelining its actual ruler. The declining knightly family of Bederkesa had become deeply indebted,[8]:29 and, having already sold many of their possessions, had even pawned half their say in the Bailiwick of Bederkesa (Amt Bederkesa) to the aspiring Mandelsloh family (a noble house, or Adelsgeschlecht). They lost the rest of their claims to the city of Bremen, when in 1381 its troops prevented the three Mandelsloh brothers from lending them to Albert II as territorial power.[8]:30 The Mandelslohs and other robber barons from the Prince-Bishopric of Verden and the Prince- Archbishopric of Bremen
Archbishopric of Bremen
ravaged burghers of the city of Bremen
Bremen
as well as inhabitants throughout the Prince-Archbishopric.

Bederkesa Castle, since 1381 a stronghold of Bremen's rural possessions within the Prince-Archbishopric, the later secularised Duchy of Bremen

In 1381 the city's troops successfully ended the brigandage and captured the Castle of Bederkesa and its bailiwick. Thus Bremen
Bremen
gained a foothold to uphold peace and order in its forecourt on the lower course of the Weser. In 1386 the city of Bremen
Bremen
became the liege lord of the noble families holding the estates of Altluneburg and Elmlohe, who had previously been vassals of the Knights of Bederkesa. The city replaced in 1404 the old wooden statue of Roland, which had been destroyed in 1366 by the Bederkesa, with a larger limestone model; this statue has managed to survive six centuries and two World Wars into the 21st. In 1411 the jointly ruling dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg, Eric IV and his sons Eric V and John IV, pawned their share in the Bederkesa bailiwick and castle to the Senate of Bremen, including all "they have in the jurisdictions in the Frisian Land of Wursten and in Lehe (Bremerhaven), which belongs to the aforementioned castle and Vogtei".[9] Their share in jurisdiction, Vogtei (bailiwick) and castle had been acquired from the plague-stricken Knights of Bederkesa.[9] In 1421, Bremen
Bremen
acquired also the remaining half of the rights of the Bederkesa knights, including their remaining share in Bederkesa Castle.[8]:30 During the 1440s, Bremen
Bremen
was often in conflict with the Dutch states. The city began offering contracts to pirates to attack its enemies, and it became a regional hub of piracy. These pirates targeted foreign shipping around the North Sea
North Sea
and captured numerous vessels. One notorious captain, known as Grote Gherd ("Big Gerry"), captured 13 ships from Flanders in a single expedition.[10][11][12] In 1648 the Prince-Archbishopric was transformed into the Duchy of Bremen, which was first ruled in personal union by the Swedish Crown. In November 1654, after the Second Bremian War, Bremen
Bremen
had to cede Bederkesa and the settlement of Lehe to the Duchy of Bremen
Duchy of Bremen
(Treaty of Stade, 1654). Bremen
Bremen
and the Reformation[edit]

Bremen
Bremen
town hall

When the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
swept through Northern Germany, St Peter's cathedral belonged to the cathedral immunity district (German: Domfreiheit; cf. also Liberty), an extraterritorial enclave of the neighbouring Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen. In 1532, the cathedral chapter which was still Catholic at that time closed St Peter's after a mob consisting of Bremen's burghers had forcefully interrupted a Catholic Mass and prompted a pastor to hold a Lutheran service. In 1547, the chapter, which had in the meantime become predominantly Lutheran, appointed the Dutch Albert Rizaeus, called Hardenberg, as the first Cathedral pastor of Protestant affiliation. Rizaeus turned out to be a partisan of the Zwinglian understanding of the Lord's Supper, which was rejected by the then Lutheran majority of burghers, the city council, and chapter. So in 1561 – after heated disputes – Rizaeus was dismissed and banned from the city and the cathedral again closed its doors. However, as a consequence of that controversy the majority of Bremen's burghers and city council adopted Calvinism
Calvinism
by the 1590s, while the chapter, which was at the same time the body of secular government in the neighbouring Prince-Archbishopric, clung to Lutheranism. This antagonism between a Calvinistic majority and a Lutheran minority, though it had a powerful position in its immunity district (mediatised as part of the city in 1803), remained dominant until in 1873 the Calvinist and Lutheran congregations of Bremen
Bremen
were reconciled and founded a united administrative umbrella Bremen
Bremen
Protestant Church, which still exists today, comprising the bulk of Bremen's burghers. At the beginning of the 17th century, Bremen
Bremen
continued to play its double role, wielding fiscal and political power within the Prince-Archbishopric, but not allowing the Prince-Archbishopric to rule in the city without its consent. Thirty Years' War[edit] Soon after the beginning of the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
Bremen
Bremen
declared its neutrality, as did most of the territories in the Lower Saxon Circle. John Frederick, Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, desperately tried to keep his Prince-Archbishopric out of the war, with the complete agreement of the Estates and the city of Bremen. When in 1623 the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, which was fighting in the Eighty Years' War for its independence against Habsburg's Spanish and imperial forces, requested its Calvinist co-religionist Bremen
Bremen
to join them, the city refused, but started to reinforce its fortifications. In 1623 the territories comprising the Lower Saxon Circle
Lower Saxon Circle
decided to recruit an army in order to maintain an armed neutrality, since troops of the Catholic League were already operating in the neighbouring Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle
Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle
and dangerously close to their region. The concomitant effects of the war, debasement of the currency and rising prices, had already caused inflation which was also felt in Bremen. In 1623 the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, diplomatically supported by King James I of England, the brother-in-law of Christian IV of Denmark, started a new anti-Habsburg campaign. Thus the troops of the Catholic League were otherwise occupied and Bremen
Bremen
seemed relieved. But soon after this the imperial troops under Albrecht von Wallenstein headed north in an attempt to destroy the fading Hanseatic League, in order to reduce the Hanseatic cities of Bremen, Hamburg
Hamburg
and the Lübeck
Lübeck
and to establish a Baltic trade monopoly, to be run by some imperial favourites including Spaniards and Poles. The idea was to win Sweden's and Denmark's support, both of which had for a long time sought the destruction of the Hanseatic League. In May 1625, Duke Christian IV of Holstein
Holstein
was elected – in the latter of his functions – by the Lower Saxon Circle's member territories commander-in-chief of the Lower Saxon troops. In the same year Christian IV joined the Anglo-Dutch military coalition. Christian IV ordered his troops to capture all the important traffic hubs in the Prince-Archbishopric and commenced the Battle of Lutter
Battle of Lutter
am Barenberge, on 27 August 1626, where he was defeated by the Leaguist troops under Johan 't Serclaes, Count of Tilly. Christian IV and his surviving troops fled to the Prince-Archbishopric and established their headquarters in Stade.

Roland

In 1627 Christian IV withdrew from the Prince-Archbishopric, in order to oppose Wallenstein's invasion of his Duchy of Holstein. Tilly then invaded the Prince-Archbishopric and captured its southern part. Bremen
Bremen
shut its city gates and entrenched itself behind its improved fortifications. In 1628, Tilly turned on the city, and Bremen
Bremen
paid him a ransom of 10,000 rixdollars in order to spare it a siege. The city remained unoccupied throughout the war. The takeover by the Catholic League enabled Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, to implement the Edict of Restitution, decreed March 6, 1629, within the Prince- Archbishopric of Bremen
Archbishopric of Bremen
including the city of Bremen. In September 1629 Francis William of Wartenberg, appointed by Ferdinand II as chairman of the imperial restitution commission for the Lower Saxon Circle, in carrying out the provisions of the Edict of Restitution, ordered the Bremian Chapter, seated in Bremen, to render an account of all the capitular and prince-archiepiscopal estates (not to be confused with the Estates). The Chapter refused, arguing first that the order had not been authorised and later that due to disputes with Bremen's city council, they could not freely travel to render an account, let alone do the necessary research on the estates. The anti-Catholic attitudes of Bremen's burghers and council was to make it completely impossible to prepare the restitution of estates from the Lutheran Chapter to the Roman Catholic Church. Even Lutheran capitulars were uneasy in Calvinistic Bremen. Bremen's city council ordered that the capitular and prince-archiepiscopal estates within the boundaries of the unoccupied city were not to be restituted to the Catholic Church. The council argued that the city had long been Protestant, but the restitution commission replied that the city was de jure a part of the Prince-Archbishopric, so Protestantism
Protestantism
had illegitimately taken over Catholic-owned estates. The city council replied that under these circumstances it would rather separate from the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and join the quasi-independent Republic of the Seven Netherlands.[13] The city was neither to be conquered nor to be successfully besieged due to its new fortifications and its access to the North Sea. In October 1631 an army, newly recruited by John Frederick, started to reconquer the Prince-Archbishopric — helped by forces from Sweden and the city of Bremen. John Frederick returned to office, only to implement the supremacy of Sweden, insisting that it retain supreme command until the end of the war. With the impending enforcement of the military Major Power of Sweden
Sweden
over the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, which was under negotiation at the Treaty of Westphalia, the city of Bremen
Bremen
feared it would fall under Swedish rule too. Therefore, the city appealed for an imperial confirmation of its status of imperial immediacy from 1186 ( Gelnhausen
Gelnhausen
Privilege). In 1646 Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, granted the requested confirmation (Diploma of Linz) to the Free Imperial City. Swedish reaction[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1350 20,000 —    

1810 35,800 +0.13%

1830 43,700 +1.00%

1850 55,100 +1.17%

1880 111,900 +2.39%

1900 161,200 +1.84%

1925 295,000 +2.45%

1969 607,185 +1.65%

1995 549,357 −0.38%

1998 550,000 +0.04%

2001 540,950 −0.55%

2005 545,983 +0.23%

2006 546,900 +0.17%

2009[14] 547,685 +0.05%

2012 548,319 +0.04%

2014[15] 548,547 +0.02%

Nevertheless, Sweden, represented by its imperial fief Bremen-Verden, which comprised the secularised prince-bishoprics of Bremen
Bremen
and Verden, did not accept the imperial immediacy of the city of Bremen. Swedish Bremen-Verden
Bremen-Verden
tried to remediatise the Free Imperial City of Bremen
Bremen
(i.e., to make it switch its allegiance to Sweden). With this in view, Swedish Bremen-Verden
Bremen-Verden
twice waged war on Bremen. In 1381 the city of Bremen
Bremen
had imposed de facto rule in an area around Bederkesa and west of it as far as the lower branch of the Weser
Weser
near Bremerlehe (a part of present-day Bremerhaven). Early in 1653, Bremen-Verden's Swedish troops captured Bremerlehe by force. In February 1654 the city of Bremen
Bremen
managed to get Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, to grant it a seat and the vote in the Holy Roman Empire's Diet, thus accepting the city's status as Free Imperial City of Bremen. Ferdinand III demanded that Christina of Sweden, Duchess regnant of Bremen-Verden, compensate the city of Bremen
Bremen
for the damages caused and restitute Bremerlehe. When in March 1654 the city of Bremen started to recruit soldiers in the area of Bederkesa, in order to prepare for further arbitrary acts, Swedish Bremen-Verden
Bremen-Verden
enacted the First Bremian War (March to July 1654), arguing that it was acting in self-defence. The Free Imperial City of Bremen
Bremen
had meanwhile urged Ferdinand III to support it, who in July 1654 asked Charles X Gustav of Sweden, Christina's successor as Duke of Bremen-Verden, to cease the conflict, which resulted in the First Stade
Stade
Recess (de) (November 1654). This treaty left the main issue, the acceptance of the city of Bremen's imperial immediacy, unresolved. But the city agreed to pay tribute and levy taxes in favour of Swedish Bremen-Verden
Bremen-Verden
and to cede its possessions around Bederkesa and Bremerlehe, which was why it was later called Lehe. In December 1660 the city council of Bremen
Bremen
rendered homage as Free Imperial City of Bremen
Bremen
to Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. In 1663 the city gained a seat and a vote in the Imperial Diet, despite sharp protest from Swedish Bremen-Verden. In March 1664 the Swedish Diet came out in favour of waging war on the Free Imperial City of Bremen. Right after Leopold I, who was busy with wars against the Ottoman Empire, had enfeoffed the minor King Charles XI of Sweden
Sweden
with Bremen-Verden, while the neighbouring Brunswick and Lunenburg-Celle was occupied by succession quarrels and France not opposed, Sweden started the Second Bremian War
Second Bremian War
(1665–66) from its Bremen-Verden fief. The Swedes under Carl Gustaf Wrangel
Carl Gustaf Wrangel
laid siege to the city of Bremen. The siege brought Brandenburg-Prussia, Brunswick and Lunenburg-Celle, Denmark, Leopold I and the Netherlands onto the scene, who were all in favour of the city, with Brandenburgian, Cellean, Danish, and Dutch troops at Bremen-Verden's borders ready to invade. So on 15 November 1666 Sweden
Sweden
had to sign the Treaty of Habenhausen, obliging it to destroy the fortresses built close to Bremen
Bremen
and banning Bremen
Bremen
from sending its representative to the Diet of the Lower Saxon Circle. From then on no further Swedish attempts were made to capture the city. In 1700 Bremen
Bremen
introduced – like all Protestant territories of imperial immediacy – the Improved Calendar, as it was called by Protestants, in order not to mention the name of Pope Gregory XIII. So Sunday, 18 February of Old Style was followed by Monday, 1 March New Style. 19th century[edit]

Territory of the Free City of Bremen
Free City of Bremen
since 1800

The harbour of Vegesack
Vegesack
became part of the city of Bremen
Bremen
in 1803. In 1811, Napoleon
Napoleon
invaded Bremen
Bremen
and integrated it as the capital of the Département de Bouches-du- Weser
Weser
(Department of the Mouths of the Weser) into the French State. In 1813, the French – as they retreated – withdrew from Bremen. Johann Smidt, Bremen's representative at the Congress of Vienna, was successful in achieving the non-mediatisation of Bremen, Hamburg
Hamburg
and Lübeck, by which they were not incorporated into neighbouring monarchies, but became sovereign republics. Bremen
Bremen
joined the North German Confederation
North German Confederation
in 1867 and four years later became an autonomous component state of the new-founded German Empire
German Empire
and its successors. The first German steamship was manufactured in 1817 in the shipyard of Johann Lange. In 1827, Bremen, under Johann Smidt, its mayor at that time, purchased land from the Kingdom of Hanover, to establish the city of Bremerhaven
Bremerhaven
(Port of Bremen) as an outpost of Bremen
Bremen
because the river Weser
Weser
was silting up. The shipping company Norddeutscher Lloyd (NDL) was founded in 1857. Lloyd was a byword for commercial shipping and is now a part of Hapag-Lloyd. Beck's Brewery
Beck's Brewery
was founded in 1837 and remains in operation today as part of Anheuser-Busch
Anheuser-Busch
InBev. In 1872, the Bremen Cotton Exchange
Bremen Cotton Exchange
was founded. 20th century[edit] The Soviet Republic of Bremen
Bremen
existed from January to February 1919 in the aftermath of World War I, before it was overthrown by Gerstenberg Freikorps.

Proclamation of the Revolutionary Republic
Revolutionary Republic
of Bremen
Bremen
(Bremer Räterepublik) in front of the town hall, 15 November 1918

Henrich Focke, Georg Wulf and Werner Naumann founded Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau AG in Bremen
Bremen
in 1923; the aircraft construction company as of 2010[update] forms part of Airbus,[citation needed] a manufacturer of civil and military aircraft. Borgward, an automobile manufacturer, was founded in 1929, and is today part of Daimler AG. The villages of Grohn, Schönebeck, Aumund, Hammersbeck, Fähr, Lobbendorf, Blumenthal, Farge and Rekum became part of the city of Bremen
Bremen
in 1939. The Bremen-Vegesack
Bremen-Vegesack
concentration camp operated during World War II. Allied bombing destroyed 60% of the built up area of Bremen
Bremen
during World War II.[16] The British 3rd Infantry Division under General Whistler captured Bremen
Bremen
in late April 1945.[17] In 1946 Bremen's mayor Wilhelm Kaisen
Wilhelm Kaisen
(SPD) travelled to the U.S. to re-establish Bremen's statehood, as Bremen
Bremen
had traditionally been a city-state, in order to prevent its incorporation into the state of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
in the British zone of occupation. In 1947 the city became an enclave, part of the American occupation zone surrounded by the British zone. In 1947, Martin Mende founded Nordmende, a manufacturer of entertainment electronics. The company existed until 1987. OHB-System, a manufacturer of medium-sized space-flight satellites, was founded in 1958. The University of Bremen, founded in 1971, is one of 11 institutions classed as an "Elite university" in Germany, and teaches approximately 23,500 people from 126 countries. Geography[edit]

Bremen's city hall, cathedral and Bürgerschaft

View from the Stephanibrücke towards the city centre and cathedral

Bremen
Bremen
lies on both sides of the River Weser, about 60 kilometres (37 miles) upstream of its estuary on the North Sea
North Sea
and its transition to the Outer Weser
Weser
by Bremerhaven. Opposite Bremen's Altstadt is the point where the "Middle Weser" becomes the "Lower Weser" and, from the area of Bremen's port, the river has been made navigable to ocean-going vessels. The region on the left bank of the Lower Weser, through which the Ochtum
Ochtum
flows, is the Weser
Weser
Marshes, the landscape on its right bank is part of the Elbe- Weser
Weser
Triangle. The Lesum, and its tributaries, the Wümme
Wümme
and Hamme, the Schönebecker Aue
Schönebecker Aue
and Blumenthaler Aue, are the downstream tributaries of the Weser. The city's municipal area is about 38 kilometres (24 miles) long and 16 kilometres (10 miles) wide. In terms of area, Bremen
Bremen
is the thirteenth largest city in Germany; and in terms of population the second largest city in northwest Germany
Germany
after Hamburg
Hamburg
and the tenth largest in the whole of Germany
Germany
(see: List of cities in Germany). Bremen
Bremen
lies about 50 kilometres (31 miles) east of the city of Oldenburg, 110 kilometres (68 miles) southwest of Hamburg, 120 kilometres (75 miles) northwest of Hanover, 100 kilometres (62 miles) north of Minden
Minden
and 105 kilometres (65 miles) northeast of Osnabrück. Part of Bremerhaven's port territory forms an exclave of the City of Bremen. Hills of Bremen[edit] The inner city lies on a Weser
Weser
dune, which reaches a natural height of 10.5 m above sea level (NN) at Bremen
Bremen
Cathedral; its highest point, though, is 14.4 m above sea level (NN) and lies to the east at the Polizeihaus, Am Wall 196. The highest natural feature in the city of Bremen
Bremen
is 32.5 m above NN and lies in Friedehorst Park
Friedehorst Park
in the northwestern borough of Burglesum.[18]:25 As a result, Bremen
Bremen
has the lowest high point of all the German states.[19] However, the man-made tip of the rubbish dump Blockland-Deponie in Bremen-Walle is higher at 49 m above NN. Climate[edit] Bremen
Bremen
has a moderate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) due to its proximity to the North Sea
North Sea
coast and temperate maritime air masses that move in with the predominantly westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean. However, periods in which continental air masses predominate may occur at any time of the year and can lead to heat waves in the summer and prolonged periods of frost in the winter. In general though, extremes are rare in Bremen
Bremen
and temperatures below −15 °C (5.0 °F) and above 35 °C (95.0 °F) occur only once every couple of years. The record high temperature was 37.6 °C (99.7 °F) on 9 August 1992, while the record low temperature was −23.6 °C (−10.5 °F) on 13 February 1940.[20] Being at some distance from the main North Sea, Bremen
Bremen
still has a somewhat wider temperature range than Bremerhaven
Bremerhaven
that is located on the mouth of Weser. Average temperatures have risen continually over the last decades, leading to a 0.6 °C (1.1 °F) rise in the mean annual temperature between 1961–90 and 1981–2010 reference periods. As in most parts of Germany, the year 2014 has been the warmest year on record averaging 11.1 °C (52.0 °F), making Bremen
Bremen
the second-warmest German state after Berlin
Berlin
in 2014.[21] While Bremen
Bremen
is located in the comparatively cloudy northwestern part of Germany, there has been a significant increase in average sunshine hours over the last decades, especially in the months of April, May and July, causing the annual mean to rise by 62 hours between the two reference periods mentioned above.[22] This trend has continued over the last 10 years, which average 1614 hours of sunshine, a good 130 hours more than in the international reference period of 1961–90.[23] Nevertheless, especially the winters remain extremely gloomy by international standards with December averaging hardly more than one hour of sunshine (out of 7 astronomically possible) per day, a feature that Bremen
Bremen
shares with most of Germany
Germany
and its neighbouring countries, though. Precipitation is distributed fairly even around the year with a small peak in summer mainly due to convective precipitation, i.e. showers and thunderstorms. Snowfall and the period of snow cover are variable; whereas in some years, hardly any snow accumulation occurs, there has recently been a series of unusually snowy winters, peaking in the record year 2010 counting 84 days with a snow cover.[24] Nevertheless, snow accumulation of more than 20 centimetres (8 in) remains exceptional, the record being 68 centimetres (26.8 in) of snow on 18 February 1979. The warmest months in Bremen
Bremen
are June, July, and August, with average high temperatures of 20.2 to 22.6 °C (68.4 to 72.7 °F). The coldest are December, January, and February, with average low temperatures of −1.1 to 0.3 °C (30.0 to 32.5 °F). Typical of its maritime location, autumn tends to remain mild well into October, while spring arrives later than in the southwestern parts of the country.

Climate data for Bremen

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.6 (58.3) 18.5 (65.3) 23.5 (74.3) 30.2 (86.4) 34.4 (93.9) 34.9 (94.8) 36.8 (98.2) 37.6 (99.7) 33.4 (92.1) 28.6 (83.5) 20.1 (68.2) 16.1 (61) 37.6 (99.7)

Average high °C (°F) 3.9 (39) 4.8 (40.6) 8.7 (47.7) 12.8 (55) 18.0 (64.4) 20.2 (68.4) 22.4 (72.3) 22.6 (72.7) 18.4 (65.1) 13.5 (56.3) 8.0 (46.4) 5.1 (41.2) 13.2 (55.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4 (34.5) 1.9 (35.4) 5.0 (41) 8.1 (46.6) 12.7 (54.9) 15.3 (59.5) 17.4 (63.3) 17.4 (63.3) 13.9 (57) 9.7 (49.5) 5.2 (41.4) 2.7 (36.9) 9.2 (48.6)

Average low °C (°F) −1.1 (30) −1.1 (30) 1.3 (34.3) 3.4 (38.1) 7.4 (45.3) 10.3 (50.5) 12.4 (54.3) 12.1 (53.8) 9.3 (48.7) 5.8 (42.4) 2.3 (36.1) 0.3 (32.5) 5.2 (41.4)

Record low °C (°F) −21.8 (−7.2) −23.6 (−10.5) −18.7 (−1.7) −7.6 (18.3) −3.5 (25.7) 0.5 (32.9) 3.0 (37.4) 3.4 (38.1) −1.2 (29.8) −7.8 (18) −14.1 (6.6) −17.5 (0.5) −23.6 (−10.5)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 55.1 (2.169) 35.6 (1.402) 51.2 (2.016) 40.8 (1.606) 54.2 (2.134) 73.4 (2.89) 65.0 (2.559) 61.2 (2.409) 60.1 (2.366) 55.4 (2.181) 57.7 (2.272) 61.6 (2.425) 671.3 (26.429)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.3 8.6 11.0 9.0 9.5 11.1 10.8 10.1 10.6 10.5 11.5 12.0 126

Average relative humidity (%) 87 84 80 75 71 73 75 75 81 84 87 88 80

Mean monthly sunshine hours 47 71 107 170 214 193 205 193 143 108 54 40 1,545

Source: DWD; wetterkontor.de;[25][26]

Demographics[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2017)

As of 2015[update], Bremen
Bremen
had a population of 557,464 of whom about 89,713 (16%) had foreign citizenship.[18]:39 Furthermore, 29.4% of the city population were of non-German origin/ethnicity as of 2015.[27] Number of minorities in Bremen
Bremen
by nationality as of 31 December 2015:[18]:39

Rank Nationality Population (2015)

1  Turkey 20,624

2  Syria 7,211

3  Poland 3,288

4  Bulgaria 3,225

5  Russia 3,166

6  Italy 2,973

7  Serbia 2,462

8  Afghanistan 1,955

9  Romania 1,778

10  Spain 1,690

Politics[edit] The Stadtbürgerschaft (municipal assembly) is made up of 68 of the 83 legislators of the state legislature, the Bremische Bürgerschaft, who reside in the city of Bremen. The legislature is elected by the citizens of Bremen
Bremen
every four years. Bremen
Bremen
has a reputation as a Left-wing city. This left wing atmosphere largely stems from a transition from an industrial economy to a service economy.[28] In elections for the Stadtbürgerschaft, the Social Democratic Party has dominated for decades. The Greens have also been very successful in city elections. The state of Bremen, which consists of the city, is governed by a coalition of the Social Democratic Party and The Greens. One of the two mayors (Bürgermeister) is elected President of the Senate (Präsident des Senats) and serves as head of the city and the state. The current President is Carsten Sieling Last state election[edit] Main article: Bremen
Bremen
state election, 2015

Party Votes % +/– Seats +/–

Social Democratic Party (SPD)

32.9 5.7 30 6

Christian Democratic Union (CDU)

22.4 2.0 20 0

Alliance '90/The Greens

15.1 7.4 14 7

The Left

9.5 3.9 8 3

Free Democratic Party (FDP)

6.5 4.1 6 6

Alternative for Germany
Germany
(AfD)

5.5 N/A 4 N/A

Citizens in Rage
Citizens in Rage
(BIW)

3.2 0.5 1 0

The Party

1.9 N/A 0 N/A

Pirate Party Germany
Germany
(PIRATEN)

1.5 0.4 0 0

Human Environment Animal Protection
Human Environment Animal Protection
(The Animal Protection Party)

1.2 N/A 0 N/A

National Democratic Party (NPD)

0.2 1.4 0 0

Totals

100.0% — 83 —

Provisional results; the AfD did not reach the 5% threshold in Bremerhaven
Bremerhaven
(and will hence only receive seats for votes from Bremen), the BIW did not reach the threshold in Bremen
Bremen
(and will only receive one seat in Bremerhaven, none in Bremen).[29][30] Administrative structure[edit]

Stadtbezirk (borough) Stadtteile (urban districts), Ortsteile (subdistricts, selectively) Area Population Density of population Maps

1 !Mitte (Central) 1

Mitte (Central)

Altstadt (Old city), incl. Schnoor Ostertor

Häfen (Ports)

033.741 !33.741 km² 17,392 0515 !515 / km²

Mitte

Häfen

2 !Süd (South) 2

Neustadt (New Town)

Alte Neustadt (Old New Town, near the Weser, opposite of the City) Buntentor (an old suburb, southeast of Alte Neustadt) Huckelriede, between Buntentor and Habenhausen Hohentor, west of Alte Neustadt Neuenland, the airport city with some hightech companies

Neustadt, Südervorstadt and Gartenstadt Süd between Alte Neustadt and the airport city

Obervieland

Arsten (near Weser
Weser
river, upstream) Habenhausen (near Weser, north of Arsten) Kattenesch (west of Arsten) Kattenturm (northwestern section)

Huchting, mainly west of river Ochtum Woltmershausen with Rablinghausen, between Weser
Weser
river and Neustädter Hafen Seehausen, a village near river Weser Strom, a village

066.637 !66.637 km² 123,303 1850 !1,850 / km²

Neustadt

Huchting

Seehausen

Obervieland

Woltmershausen

Strom

3 !Ost (East) 3

Östliche Vorstadt (Eastern Suburb)

Steintor (near the city) Fesenfeld (northern part of Steintor) Peterswerder (near Weserstadion) Hulsberg (north of Peterswerder)

Schwachhausen Vahr Horn-Lehe Borgfeld Oberneuland Osterholz Hemelingen

Hastedt (near Östliche Vorstadt) Sebaldsbrück (east of Hastedt) Hemelingen (south of Sebaldsbrück, near Weser
Weser
river) Mahndorf (east of Hemelingen) Arbergen (east of Mahndorf)

108.201 !108.201 km² 218,843 2023 !2,023 / km²

Östliche Vorstadt

Vahr

Borgfeld

Osterholz

Schwachhausen

Horn-Lehe

Oberneuland

Hemelingen

4 !West 4

Blockland Findorff Walle Gröpelingen

Gröpelingen Oslebshausen

056.606 !56.606 km² 89,216 1576 !1,576 / km²

Blockland

Findorff

Walle

Gröpelingen

5 !Nord (North) 5

Burglesum Vegesack Blumenthal

060.376 !60.376 km² 98,606 1633 !1,633 / km²

Burglesum

Blumenthal

Vegesack

Main sights[edit]

Many of the sights in Bremen
Bremen
are found in the Altstadt (Old Town), an oval area surrounded by the Weser
Weser
River, on the southwest, and the Wallgraben, the former moats of the medieval city walls, on the northeast. The oldest part of the Altstadt is the southeast half, starting with the Marktplatz and ending at the Schnoor
Schnoor
quarter. The Marktplatz (Market square) is dominated by the opulent façade of the Town Hall of Bremen. The building was erected between 1405 and 1410 in Gothic style, but the façade was built two centuries later (1609–12) in Renaissance
Renaissance
style. The Town Hall is the seat of the President of the Senate of Bremen. Today, it hosts a restaurant in original decor with gigantic wine barrels, the Ratskeller in Bremen, and the wine lists boasts more than 600 – exclusively German – wines. It is also home of the twelve oldest wines in the world, stored in their original barrels in the Apostel chamber. In July 2004, along with the Bremen
Bremen
Roland, the building was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Two statues stand to the west side of the Town Hall: one is the statue Bremen Roland
Bremen Roland
(1404) of the city's protector, Roland, with his view against the Cathedral and bearing Durendart, the "sword of justice" and a shield decorated with an imperial eagle. The other near the entrance to the Ratskeller is Gerhard Marcks' bronze sculpture (1953) Die Stadtmusikanten (Town Musicians), which portrays the donkey, dog, cat and rooster of the Grimm Brothers' fairy tale. Other interesting buildings in the vicinity of the Marktplatz are the Schütting, a 16th-century Flemish-inspired guild hall, Rathscafé, Raths-Apotheke, Haus der Stadtsparkasse and the Stadtwaage, the former weigh house (built in 1588), with an ornate Renaissance
Renaissance
façade, and the nearby Essighaus, once a fine Renaissance
Renaissance
town house. The façades and houses surrounding the market square were the first buildings in Bremen
Bremen
to be restored after World War II, by the citizens of Bremen themselves. St Peter's Cathedral (13th century), to the east of the Marktplatz, with sculptures of Moses
Moses
and David, Peter and Paul and Charlemagne. On Katherinenklosterhof to the northwest of the cathedral, a few remaining traces can be found of St Catherine's Monastery dating back to the 13th century. The Liebfrauenkirche (Our Lady's Church) is the oldest church of the town (11th century). Its crypt features several impressive murals from the 14th century. Off the south side of the Markplatz, the 110 m (120 yd) Böttcherstraße
Böttcherstraße
was transformed in 1923–1931 by the coffee magnate Ludwig Roselius, who commissioned local artists to convert the narrow street (in medieval times, the street of the barrel makers) into an inspired mixture of Gothic and Art Nouveau. It was considered "entartete Kunst" (degenerate art) by the Nazis. Today, the street is one of Bremen's most popular attractions, with the Glockenspiel House at No. 4 with its carillon of Meissen porcelain
Meissen porcelain
bells.[31] At the end of Böttcherstraße, by the Weser
Weser
bank, stands the Martinikirche (St Martin's Church), a Gothic brick church built in 1229, and rebuilt in 1960 after its destruction in World War II.[32] Tucked away between the Cathedral and the river is the Schnoor, a small, well-preserved area of crooked lanes, fishermen's and shipper's houses from the 17th and 18th centuries, now occupied by cafés, artisan shops and art galleries. The Convent of Saint Birgitta (Birgittenkloster) founded in 2002 is a small community of just seven nuns offering guest accommodation.[33] Schlachte, the medieval harbour of Bremen
Bremen
(the modern port is some kilometres downstream) and today a riverside boulevard with pubs and bars aligned on one side and the banks of Weser
Weser
on the other.[34] The Viertel district to the east of the old town combines rows of 19th-century Bremen
Bremen
houses (Bremer Häuser) with museums and theatres along the city's cultural mile.[35] The Nasir Moschee is the first purpose built mosque of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Bremen.[36]

More contemporary tourist attractions include:

Universum Science
Science
Center, a modern science museum The Rhododendron-Park Bremen, a major collection of rhododendrons and azaleas; also includes a botanical garden Botanika, a nature museum within the Rhododendron-Park Bremen
Rhododendron-Park Bremen
that attempts be to the same as the Universum, but for biology Beck's Brewery, tours are available to the public which include beer tasting The Kunsthalle Bremen, an art museum with paintings from the 19th and 20th century, maintained by the citizens of Bremen Focke Museum,[37] museum of art and cultural history The Übersee Museum Bremen
Übersee Museum Bremen
(Overseas (World) Museum) is a natural history and ethnographic museum near by the Central Station Bremen. The Kunstsammlungen Böttcherstraße, an art museum in expressionist architecture from Bernhard Hoetger
Bernhard Hoetger
with paintings from the 20th century from Paula Modersohn-Becker The Weserburg
Weserburg
Museum für moderne Kunst (" Weserburg
Weserburg
Modern Art Museum"), a modern art museum located in the middle of the Weser River[38]

View from the Stephani-Bridge in the direction of the Cathedral

Schlachte

Baumwollbörse (Cotton exchange)

The Parkhotel in the Bürgerpark (central park)

Musical-Theater

Central Park Wallanlagen

The city hall (Rathaus)

Swineherd and pigs sculpture in Bremen

The Weser
Weser
River in Bremen

A building on Böttcherstraße

Bremer Bank

Central Bremen
Bremen
and the Weser
Weser
from St. Petri Dom

Bremen
Bremen
Airport

The skyscraper Weser
Weser
Tower designed by Helmut Jahn

Böttcherstraße

Schnoor

Beck & Co

Bremen-Arena

Structures[edit]

The Fallturm (Drop Tower) of the University of Bremen

Mediumwave transmitter Bremen Fallturm Bremen Bremen-Walle Telecommunication Tower

The Freie Waldorfschule in Bremen-Sebaldsbrück was Germany's first school built to the Passivhaus low-energy building standard.[39] Economy[edit] According to data from the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, Bremen
Bremen
had a GDP per capita of $53,379 in 2013, higher than the average for Germany
Germany
as a whole. For comparison, in 2013, the World Bank reported Germany
Germany
had a GDP per capita of $46,268, and the EU overall had a GDP per capita of $35,408 in the same year.[40] Bremen
Bremen
is the second development centre of the region, after Hamburg. It forms part of the production network of Airbus
Airbus
SAS and this is where equipping of the wing units for all widebody Airbus
Airbus
aircraft and the manufacture of small sheet metal parts takes place. Structural assembly, including that of metal landing flaps, is another focal point. Within the framework of Airbus
Airbus
A380 production, assembly of the landing flaps (high lift systems) is carried out here. The pre-final assembly of the fuselage section (excluding the cockpit) of the A400M military transport aircraft takes place before delivery on to Spain.[41] More than 3,100 persons are employed at Bremen, the second largest Airbus
Airbus
site in Germany. As part of the Centre of Excellence – Wing/Pylon, Bremen
Bremen
is responsible for the design and manufacture of high-lift systems for the wings of Airbus
Airbus
aircraft. The entire process chain for the high-lift elements is established here, including the project office, technology engineering, flight physics, system engineering, structure development, verification tests, structural assembly, wing equipping and ultimate delivery to the final assembly line. In addition, Bremen
Bremen
manufactures sheet metal parts like clips and thrust crests for all Airbus
Airbus
aircraft as part of the Centre of Excellence – Fuselage and Cabin.[42] In Bremen
Bremen
there is a plant of EADS Astrium
EADS Astrium
and the headquarters of OHB-System, respectively the first and the third space companies of European Union. There is also a Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
factory in Bremen, building the C, CLK, SL, SLK, and GLK series of cars.[43] Beck & Co's headlining brew Beck's and St Pauli Girl beers are brewed in Bremen. In past centuries when Bremen's port was the "key to Europe", the city also had a large number of wine importers, but the number is down to a precious few. Apart from that there is another link between Bremen
Bremen
and wine: about 800 years ago, quality wines were produced here. The largest wine cellar in the world is located in Bremen
Bremen
(below the city's main square), which was once said to hold over 1 million bottles, but during WWII was raided by occupying forces. A large number of food producing or trading companies are located in Bremen
Bremen
with their German or European headquarters: Anheuser-Busch InBev (Beck's Brewery), Kellogg's, Kraft Foods
Kraft Foods
(Kraft, Jacobs Coffee, Milka Chocolate, Milram, Miràcoli), Frosta (frosted food), Nordsee (chain of sea fast food), Melitta
Melitta
Kaffee, Eduscho Kaffee, Azul Kaffee, Vitakraft (pet food for birds and fishes), Atlanta AG (Chiquita banana), chocolatier Hachez (fine chocolate and confiserie), feodora chocolatier. Bremer Woll-Kämmerei (BWK), a worldwide operating company for manufacturing wool and trading in wool and similar products, is headquartered in Bremen. Transport[edit]

Bremen
Bremen
Central Station

Map of the Bremen
Bremen
S-Bahn

Bremen
Bremen
has an international airport situated 3 km (2 mi) south of the city centre. Trams in Bremen
Trams in Bremen
and local bus services are offered by the Bremer Straßenbahn AG (translates from German as Bremen
Bremen
Tramways Corporation), often abbreviated BSAG, the public transport provider for Bremen.[44] The Bremen S-Bahn
Bremen S-Bahn
covers the Bremen/ Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Metropolitan Region, from Bremerhaven
Bremerhaven
in the north to Twistringen
Twistringen
in the south and from Oldenburg
Oldenburg
in the west, centred on Bremen
Bremen
Central Station. It has been in operation since 2010.[45] This network unified existing regional transport in Bremen
Bremen
as well as surrounding cities, including Bremerhaven, Delmenhorst, Twistringen, Nordenham, Oldenburg, and Verden an der Aller. The network lies completely within the area of the Bremen- Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
Transport Association, whose tariff structure applies. Events[edit]

Every year since 1036, in the last two weeks of October, Bremen
Bremen
has hosted the Freimarkt
Freimarkt
("Free market"), one of the world's oldest and in Germany
Germany
one of today's biggest continuously celebrated fairground festivals. Bremen
Bremen
is host to one of the four big annual Techno
Techno
parades, the Vision Parade. Bremen
Bremen
is also host of the "Bremer 6 Tage Rennen" a bicycle race at the Bremen
Bremen
Arena. Every year the city plays host to young musicians from across the world, playing in the International Youth Symphony Orchestra of Bremen (IYSOB). On March 12, 1999, the rock band Kiss played a live show in Bremen. Before the show, they were told by the fire marshall not to use any fireworks. They did not use any fireworks until the very end, when they set off all of the fireworks at once. Because of this, they are now banned from playing in Bremen. Bremen
Bremen
was host to the 2006 RoboCup competition. Bremen
Bremen
was host to the 32nd Deutscher Evangelischer Kirchentag, 20–24 May 2009. Bremen
Bremen
hosted the 50th International Mathematical Olympiad
International Mathematical Olympiad
(IMO) from 10–22 July 2009.[46]

Sports[edit]

Weser-Stadion
Weser-Stadion
is the home ground of SV Werder Bremen

Bremen
Bremen
is home to the football team SV Werder Bremen, who won the German Football Championship for the fourth time and the German Football Cup for the fifth time in 2004, making them only the fourth team in German football history to win the double; the club won the German Football Cup for the sixth time in 2009. Only Bayern Munich
Munich
has won more titles. In the final match of the 2009–10 season, Werder Bremen
Bremen
lost to Bayern Munich. The home stadium of SV Werder Bremen
Werder Bremen
is the Weserstadion, a pure football stadium, almost completely surrounded by solar cells. It is one of the biggest buildings in Europe delivering alternative energy. Education and sciences[edit] With 18000 students,[47] the University of Bremen
University of Bremen
is the largest university in Bremen, and is also home to the international Goethe-Institut
Goethe-Institut
and the Fallturm Bremen. Additionally, Bremen
Bremen
has a University of the Arts and the Bremen
Bremen
University of Applied Sciences. In 2001, the private Jacobs University Bremen
Jacobs University Bremen
was founded. All major German research foundations maintain institutes in Bremen, with a focus on marine sciences: The Max Planck Society
Max Planck Society
with the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, and the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community with the Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (zmt).[48] The Bremerhaven-based Alfred-Wegener-Institute of the Helmholtz Association
Helmholtz Association
closely cooperates with the aforementioned institutes, especially within the MARUM[49] a center for marine environmental sciences, affiliated to the University of Bremen. Furthermore, The Fraunhofer Society
Fraunhofer Society
is present in Bremen
Bremen
with centers for applied material research (IFAM[50]) and medical image computing (MEVIS[51]). Miscellanea[edit]

In December 1949, Bremen
Bremen
hosted the lecture cycle Einblick in das, was ist by the philosopher Martin Heidegger, in which Heidegger introduced his concept of a "fourfold" of earth and sky, gods and mortals. This was also Heidegger's first public-speaking engagement following his removal from his Freiburg professorship by the Denazification authorities. Bremen
Bremen
is connected with a fairy tale by the Brothers Grimm, the Town Musicians of Bremen, although they never actually reach Bremen
Bremen
in the tale. The 1922 film Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens was set mostly in Bremen.

Notable people[edit] Main articles: List of people from Bremen
List of people from Bremen
and List of mayors of Bremen International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Twin and sister cities[edit] Bremen
Bremen
is twinned with:[52]

Gdańsk, Poland, since 1976[52][53] Riga, Latvia, since 1985[52][54] Dalian, People's Republic of China, since 1985[52] Rostock, Germany, since 1987[52]1 Haifa, Israel, since 1988[52] İzmir, Turkey, since 1995[52] Lukavac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 1996[52] Durban, South Africa, since 2011[52][55] Maracaibo, Venezuela

^1 Then German Democratic Republic Other relations[edit] "Informal" relationships:

Pune, India[52][56][57][58] Dudley, United Kingdom[52][59] Windhoek, Namibia[52] Tamra, Israel

See also[edit]

Germany
Germany
portal

List of mayors of Bremen

References[edit] Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Bremen

Tristam Carrington-Windo, Katrin M. Kohl (1998). A Dictionary of Contemporary Germany. Routledge (UK). p. page 64. ISBN 1-57958-114-5. [dead link]

Claus Christian (2007): A photographic excursion through Bremen, Bremen-North, Bremerhaven, Fischerhude and Worpswede, ISBN 978-3-00-015451-5

Dannenberg, Hans-Eckhard; Schulze, Heinz-Joachim (1995). Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser
Weser
vol. 1 Vor- und Frühgeschichte. Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen
Bremen
und Verden. ISBN 978-3-9801919-7-5.  Dannenberg, Hans-Eckhard; Schulze, Heinz-Joachim (1995). Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser
Weser
vol. 2 Mittelalter (einschl. Kunstgeschichte). Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen
Bremen
und Verden. ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2.  Dannenberg, Hans-Eckhard; Schulze, Heinz-Joachim (2008). Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser
Weser
vol. 3 Neuzeit. Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen
Bremen
und Verden. ISBN 978-3-9801919-9-9.  Herbert Schwarzwälder (1995), Geschichte der Freien Hansestadt Bremen. Vol. I – V. Bremen: Edition Temmen, ISBN 3-86108-283-7

Notes[edit]

^ "Bevölkerungsstand und Bevölkerungsbewegung am 31.12.2015" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt Bremen (in German). July 2016.  ^ The carsign HB with 1 letter and 4 digits is reserved for vehicle registration in Bremerhaven. ^ "Germany: States and Major Cities – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2015-08-28.  ^ "Museums and Galleries – bremen.de". www.bremen.de. Retrieved 2015-08-28.  ^ " Bremen
Bremen
city report". Retrieved 2015-08-28. [dead link] ^ " Bremen
Bremen
– Made in Bremen". www.bremen.de. Retrieved 2015-08-28.  ^ "DRAFT DRAFT DRAFT • LacusCurtius • Ptolemy's Geography — Book II, Chapter 10 • DRAFT DRAFT DRAFT". uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ a b c Otto Edert, Neuenwalde: Reformen im ländlichen Raum, Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2010. ISBN 978-3-8391-9479-9. ^ a b In the Middle Low German
Middle Low German
original: "wes zee hebben an gherichte in Vreslande . . . unde an Lee, dat to deme vorscrevenen slote unde voghedie höret", here after Bernd Ulrich Hucker, "Die landgemeindliche Entwicklung in Landwürden, Kirchspiel Lehe und Kirchspiel Midlum im Mittelalter" (first presented in 1972 as a lecture at a conference of the historical work study association of the northern Lower Saxon Landschaftsverbände held at Oldenburg
Oldenburg
in Oldenburg), in: Oldenburger Jahrbuch, vol. 72 (1972), pp. 1—22, here p. 13. ^ " Bremen
Bremen
Piracy and Scottish Periphery: The North Sea
North Sea
World in the 1440s » De Re Militari". deremilitari.org. Retrieved 2017-11-11.  ^ Pye, Michael (2015-04-15). The Edge of the World: A Cultural History of the North Sea
North Sea
and the Transformation of Europe. Pegasus Books. ISBN 9781605987538.  ^ Nicolle, David
David
(2014-04-20). Forces of the Hanseatic League: 13th–15th Centuries. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781782007807.  ^ Dutch independence was finally confirmed by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. ^ " Bremen
Bremen
(Germany)". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ " Bremen
Bremen
(Germany): Counties & Cities – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ [1] ^ Sir John Smythe Bolo Whistler: The Life of General Sir Lashmer Whistler Frederick Muller Ltd 1967 ^ a b c "Statistisches Jahrbuch 2016" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt Bremen. Retrieved 2017-07-04.  ^ 100 schräge Fakten über diese Stadt. In: Zitty 16/2012, p. 15. ^ "Wetterrekorde" (in German). Wetterdienst.de. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ "Wetter und Klima im Überblick" (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst.  ^ "Wetter und Klima im Überblick" (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst.  ^ "Datenbankabfrage ausgewählter DWD Stationen Deutschlands" (in German). SKlima. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ "Wetter im Rückblick" (in German). wetteronline. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ [2] ^ [3] ^ "Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund I", (German). Retrieved 4 July 2017. ^ Buse, Dieter K. (2005-01-01). The Regions of Germany: A Reference Guide to History and Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32400-0.  ^ "Bürgerschafts- und Beirätewahlen 2015, Vorläufiges Endergebnis" [2015 elections for Bürgerschaft and Beiräte (state, city, and local legislature), preliminary results] (in German). Statistisches Landesamt Bremen
Bremen
(Statistical Office of the State of Bremen). Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ "Bürgerschaftswahl am 10. Mai 2015 in Bremen".  ^ "Böttcherstraße: Welcome". Böttcherstraße
Böttcherstraße
GmbH. Retrieved 27 January 2014.  ^ "St. Martin's Church". Bremen-tourism.de. Retrieved 14 January 2014.  ^ "Birgittenkloster" (in German). Katholischer Gemeindeverband in Bremen. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014.  ^ " Schlachte
Schlachte
Embankment". bremen-tourism.de. Retrieved 5 January 2014.  ^ "Das Viertel" (in German). dasviertel.de. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2014.  ^ "Nasir Moschee in Stuhr-Brinkum". Retrieved June 10, 2014.  ^ Focke Museum ^ "Weserburg: Weserburg". weserburg.de.  ^ Wolfgang Feist (2007-05-27). "Passivhaus-Schulgebäude" [Passive house school building] (in German). Passive House Institute. Archived from the original on 2007-08-27. Retrieved 2007-05-30.  ^ "GDP per capita (current US$) – Data". worldbank.org.  ^ "EADS in Germany". Eads.com. [dead link] ^ " Airbus
Airbus
in Germany". Airbus.com. Archived from the original on 2010-01-16.  ^ " Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Bremen
Bremen
Plant". www.daimler.com. Archived from the original on April 14, 2010.  ^ "BSAG Public transportation in Bremen" (in German). bsag.de.  ^ "Regio-S-Bahn in Bremen
Bremen
gestartet" [Regio-S-Bahn in Bremen
Bremen
started] (in German). Radio Bremen. 12 December 2010. Archived from the original on December 14, 2010.  ^ "Message of Greeting". Imo2009.de. Retrieved 2009-06-18.  ^ "Zahlen und Fakten zur Universität" (in German). University of Bremen. Archived from the original on 2011-10-20. Retrieved 2011-10-16.  ^ Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (zmt) ^ MARUM ^ IFAM ^ MEVIS ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Referat 32 – Städtepartnerschaften / Internationale Beziehungen" (official website/publication) (in German). Andrea Frohmader, Internationale Beziehungen / stellvertr. Abteilungsleiterin Senatskanzlei, Rathaus, Bremen. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2015-10-21.  ^ " Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'" (in Polish and English). Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-07-23. Retrieved 2009-07-11.  ^ "Twin cities of Riga". Riga
Riga
City Council. Archived from the original on December 4, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-27.  ^ "Sister Cities Home Page". Archived from the original on August 10, 2011.  eThekwini Online: The Official Site of the City of Durban ^ "Sister in progress". Times of India – Pune
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Times. 30 August 2001.  ^ "Profile: Mrs. Vandana H. Chavan (Ex Mayor of Pune)". Pune
Pune
Diary. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  ^ "Pune, twin cities to get pollution lab". Times of India – Pune
Pune
Times. 4 September 2001.  ^ "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 2 Dec 1996". parliament.uk. Retrieved 12 October 2011. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutBremenat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official city website Official visitors information (various languages) Bremen
Bremen
City Panoramas – Panoramic Views and virtual Tours Official site of the city center Official site of the Schnoor
Schnoor
quarter Official site of the shopping quarter Das Viertel Official site of the Weser
Weser
promenade Schlachte Official site of the shopping avenue Sögestraße Official site of the shopping mall Lloyd Passage Official site of the shopping quarter Ansgari Quartier Remnant from World War II
World War II
in Bremen

Places adjacent to Bremen

Bremerhaven, Cuxhaven Hamburg

Oldenburg

Bremen

Lüneburg

Osnabrück Bielefeld Hanover

v t e

Capitals of states of the Federal Republic of Germany

Capitals of area states

Dresden
Dresden
(Saxony) Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
(North Rhine-Westphalia) Erfurt
Erfurt
(Thuringia) Hanover
Hanover
(Lower Saxony) Kiel
Kiel
(Schleswig-Holstein) Magdeburg
Magdeburg
(Saxony-Anhalt) Mainz
Mainz
(Rhineland-Palatinate) Munich
Munich
(Bavaria) Potsdam
Potsdam
(Brandenburg) Saarbrücken
Saarbrücken
(Saarland) Schwerin
Schwerin
(Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Stuttgart
Stuttgart
(Baden-Württemberg) Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
(Hesse)

City-states1

Berlin City of Bremen
Bremen
(State of Bremen) Hamburg

Capitals of former states

Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau
(South Baden, 1949–1952) Stuttgart
Stuttgart
(Württemberg-Baden, 1949–1952) Tübingen
Tübingen
(Württemberg-Hohenzollern, 1949–1952)

1 Unlike the mono-city states Berlin
Berlin
and Hamburg, the State of Bremen consists of two cities, thus state and capital are not identical.

v t e

Urban districts in the state of Bremen
Bremen
in Germany
Germany

Bremen Bremerhaven

v t e

Cities in Germany
Germany
by population

1,000,000+

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich

500,000+

Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart

200,000+

Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal

100,000+

Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by Quarter

Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.

Wendish

Lübeck

Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar

Saxon

Brunswick Magdeburg

Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt
Frankfurt
an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen

Baltic

Danzig (Gdańsk)

Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń)

Westphalian

Cologne
Cologne
1 Dortmund
Dortmund
1

Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest

Kontore

Principal

Bryggen
Bryggen
(Bergen) Hanzekantoor

Bruges Antwerp2 

Steelyard
Steelyard
(London) Peterhof (Novgorod)

Subsidiary

Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov

Other cities

Bristol Boston Damme Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle

1 Cologne
Cologne
and Dortmund
Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times. 2 Antwerp
Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin
Zwin
channel.

v t e

Free imperial cities of the Holy Roman Empire

By 1792

Aachen Aalen Augsburg Biberach Bopfingen BremenH Buchau Buchhorn CologneH Dinkelsbühl DortmundH Eßlingen Frankfurt Friedberg Gengenbach Giengen GoslarH HamburgH Heilbronn Isny Kaufbeuren Kempten Kessenich Leutkirch Lindau LübeckH Memmingen Mühlhausen MülhausenD, S Nordhausen Nördlingen Nuremberg Offenburg Pfullendorf Ravensburg Regensburg Reutlingen Rothenburg RottweilS Schwäbisch Gmünd Schwäbisch Hall Schweinfurt Speyer Überlingen Ulm Wangen Weil Weißenburg in Bayern Wetzlar Wimpfen Windsheim Worms Zell

Free Imperial Cities as of 1648

Lost imperial immediacy or no longer part of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
by 1792

BaselS BernS Besançon Brakel Cambrai Diessenhofen Donauwörth Duisburg Düren Gelnhausen HagenauD Herford KaysersbergD KolmarD Konstanz LandauD Lemgo LucerneS Mainz Metz MunsterD ObernaiD Pfeddersheim Rheinfelden RosheimD St. GallenS Sarrebourg SchaffhausenS Schmalkalden SchlettstadtD SoestH SolothurnS Straßburg Toul TurckheimD Verden Verdun Warburg Weißenburg in ElsaßD ZürichS

D Member of the Décapole H Member of the Hanseatic League S Member or associate of the Swiss Confederacy

v t e

Lower Saxon Circle
Lower Saxon Circle
(1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire

Ecclesiastical

Bremen1 Halberstadt1 Hildesheim Lübeck Magdeburg1 Ratzeburg2 Schwerin1

Secular

Bremen3 Brunswick and Lunenburg

Blankenburg4 Calenberg5 Celle5 Grubenhagen6 Hanover7 Wolfenbüttel

Holstein

Glückstadt Gottorp8 Pinneberg9

Mecklenburg

Güstrow10 Schwerin Strelitz11

Rantzau12 Regenstein Saxe-Lauenburg5

Cities

Bremen Goslar Hamburg Lübeck Mühlhausen Nordhausen

1 until 1648.   2 until 1701.   3 from 1648.   4 until 1731.   5 until 1705.   6 until 1596.   7 from 1708.   8 until 1773.   9 until 1640.   10 until 1695.   11 from 1701.   12 until 1734. Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

v t e

Bremen

Buildings and structures

Aalto-Hochhaus Atlantis House Bremen
Bremen
Parliament Cotton Exchange Courthouse Ehemaliges Hauptpostamt (old post office) Deutsche Bank Essighaus Forum Domshof Glockenspiel House Heineken House Hotel zur Post House of the Seven Lazy Brothers Karstadt building Kontorhaus am Markt Landherrnamt New Town Hall Post Office Radisson Blu Hotel Raths-Apotheke Rathscafé Robinson Crusoe House Schlachte
Schlachte
Great Crane Schütting (Chamber of Commerce) Shipper's House Spitzen Gebel Stadtsparkasse Building Suding & Soeken Kaufmannshaus Stadtwaage (Weigh house) Stock exchange City Hall Weser
Weser
Tower

Precincts

Böttcherstraße Bremer Marktplatz Domsheide
Domsheide
(square) Domshof
Domshof
(Cathedral Court) Langenstraße Schlachte
Schlachte
Embankment Schnoor
Schnoor
(district) Teerhof Das Viertel Waterfront Bremen

History

List of mayors Timeline

Churches etc

Birgittenkloster (convent) Bremen
Bremen
Cathedral Church of Our Lady St. John's Church St. Martin's Church St Catherine's Monastery

Cultural institutions

Am Wall Windmill Altes Pumpwerk (Water treatment museum) Die Glocke (concert hall) Forum am Wall
Forum am Wall
(library) Gerhard Marcks
Gerhard Marcks
Museum (sculpture) Kunsthalle Bremen
Kunsthalle Bremen
(art gallery) Ludwig Roselius
Ludwig Roselius
Museum Paula Modersohn-Becker
Paula Modersohn-Becker
Museum (paintings) Rundfunkmuseum (Radios) Staatsarchiv Bremen Theater Bremen Theater am Goetheplatz Übersee-Museum (Natural History) Universum Science
Science
Center Weserburg
Weserburg
(modern art) Wilhelm Wagenfeld House
Wilhelm Wagenfeld House
(design exhibitions)

Science
Science
and education

University of Bremen

Transportation

Domsheide
Domsheide
(trams and buses) Bremen
Bremen
Airport Bremen
Bremen
Hauptbahnhof

v t e

Highest points of the German states

Baden-Württemberg: Feldberg Bavaria: Zugspitze Berlin: Großer Müggelberg Brandenburg: Kutschenberg Bremen: Hill in Friedehorst Park Hamburg: Hasselbrack Hesse: Wasserkuppe Lower Saxony: Wurmberg Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania: Helpt Hills North Rhine-Wesphalia: Langenberg Rhineland-Palatinate: Erbeskopf Saarland: Dollberg Saxony: Fichtelberg  Saxony-Anhalt: Brocken Schleswig-Holstein: Bungsberg Thuringia

.