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     Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1943–1992)       Croatia
Croatia
(1991–)       Slovenia
Slovenia
(1991–)      Republic of Serbian Krajina (1991–1995), after Croatian Army
Croatian Army
Operation Storm
Operation Storm
(1995) and after UN Transitional Administration in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia
Syrmia
(1996–1998), part of Croatia       Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
(1991–)      Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (1991–1994), part of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1995–)      Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992–1995), part of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1995–)      Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia (1993–1995), part of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1995–)      Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003), Serbia and Montenegro
Serbia and Montenegro
(2003–2006), Montenegro
Montenegro
(3 June 2006–), Serbia
Serbia
(5 June 2006–) and Kosovo
Kosovo
(17 February 2008–)       Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(1992–1995), part of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1995–)

Date 25 June 1991 – 27 April 1992

Location Yugoslavia

Outcome Breakup of SFR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and formation of independent successor states

v t e

Yugoslav Wars

Breakup of Yugoslavia Slovenia Croatia Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatia-Bosnia

Kosovo Preševo
Preševo
Valley Macedonia

The breakup of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s. After a period of political crisis in the 1980s, constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
split apart, but the unsolved issues caused bitter inter-ethnic Yugoslav wars. The wars primarily affected Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and neighboring parts of Croatia. After the Allied victory in World War II, Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was set up as a federation of six republics, with borders drawn along ethnic and historical lines: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia
Serbia
and Slovenia. In addition, two autonomous provinces were established within Serbia: Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Kosovo. Each of the republics had its own branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia party and a ruling elite, and any tensions were solved on the federal level. The Yugoslav model of state organization, as well as a "middle way" between planned and liberal economy, had been a relative success, and the country experienced a period of strong economic growth and relative political stability up to the 1980s, under the rule of president-for-life Josip Broz Tito. After his death in 1980, the weakened system of federal government was left unable to cope with rising economic and political challenges. In the 1980s, Kosovo
Kosovo
Albanians
Albanians
started to demand that their autonomous province be granted the status of a constituent republic, starting with the 1981 protests. Ethnic tensions between Albanians
Albanians
and Kosovo Serbs
Serbs
remained high over the whole decade, which resulted in the growth across Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
of Serb opposition to the high autonomy of provinces and ineffective system of consensus at the federal level, which were seen as an obstacle for Serb interests. In 1987, Slobodan Milošević came to power in Serbia, and through a series of populist moves acquired de facto control over Kosovo, Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Montenegro, garnering a high level of support among Serbs
Serbs
for his centralist policies. Milošević was met with opposition by party leaders of the western republics of Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia, who also advocated greater democratization of the country in line with the Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989
in Eastern Europe. The League of Communists of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
dissolved in January 1990 along federal lines. Republican communist organizations became the separate socialist parties. During 1990, the socialists (former communists) lost power to ethnic separatist parties in the first multi-party elections held across the country, except in Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro, where they were won by Milošević and his allies. Nationalist rhetoric on all sides became increasingly heated. Between June 1991 and April 1992, four republics declared independence (only Serbia and Montenegro
Serbia and Montenegro
remained federated), but the status of ethnic Serbs
Serbs
outside Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro, and that of ethnic Croats
Croats
outside Croatia, remained unsolved. After a string of inter-ethnic incidents, the Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
ensued, first in Croatia
Croatia
and then, most severely, in multi-ethnic Bosnia and Herzegovina; the wars left long-term economic and political damage in the region.

Contents

1 Background 2 Causes

2.1 Structural problems 2.2 Economic collapse and the international climate 2.3 Death of Tito and the weakening of Communism

3 Rise of nationalism in Serbia
Serbia
(1987–89)

3.1 Slobodan Milošević 3.2 Anti-bureaucratic revolution 3.3 Repercussions

4 Final political crisis (1990–92)

4.1 Party crisis 4.2 Multi-party elections 4.3 Ethnic tensions in Croatia 4.4 Independence of Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia

5 The beginning of the Yugoslav Wars

5.1 War in Slovenia 5.2 War in Croatia

6 Independence of the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina

6.1 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6.2 Macedonia

7 International recognition of the breakup 8 Aftermath in Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro 9 See also 10 References 11 Sources 12 Further reading 13 External links

Background[edit] Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
occupied a significant portion of the Balkan peninsula, including a strip of land on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea, stretching southward from the Bay of Trieste in Central Europe
Central Europe
to the mouth of Bojana as well as Lake Prespa
Lake Prespa
inland, and eastward as far as the Iron Gates
Iron Gates
on the Danube
Danube
and Midžor
Midžor
in the Balkan Mountains, thus including a large part of Southeast Europe, a region with a history of ethnic conflict. The important elements that fostered the discord involved contemporary and historical factors, including the formation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the first breakup and subsequent inter-ethnic and political wars and genocide during World War II, ideas of Greater Serbia, Greater Croatia, Greater Albania, and conflicting views about Pan-Slavism, and the unilateral recognition by a newly reunited Germany of the breakaway republics. Before World War II, major tensions arose from the first, monarchist Yugoslavia's multi-ethnic make-up and relative political and demographic domination of the Serbs. Fundamental to the tensions were the different concepts of the new state. The Croats
Croats
and Slovenes envisaged a federal model where they would enjoy greater autonomy than they had as a separate crown land under Austria-Hungary. Under Austria-Hungary, both Slovenes
Slovenes
and Croats
Croats
enjoyed autonomy with free hands only in education, law, religion, and 45% of taxes.[1] The Serbs tended to view the territories as a just reward for their support of the allies in World War I and the new state as an extension of the Kingdom of Serbia.[citation needed] Tensions between the Croats
Croats
and Serbs
Serbs
often erupted into open conflict, with the Serb-dominated security structure exercising oppression during elections and the assassination in national parliament of Croat political leaders, including Stjepan Radić, who opposed the Serbian monarch's absolutism.[2] The assassination and human rights abuses were subject of concern for the Human Rights League and precipitated voices of protest from intellectuals, including Albert Einstein.[3] It was in this environment of oppression that the radical insurgent group (later fascist dictatorship), the Ustaše
Ustaše
were formed. During World War II, the country's tensions were exploited by the occupying Axis forces
Axis forces
which established a Croat puppet state spanning much of present-day Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Axis powers installed the Ustaše
Ustaše
as the leaders of the "Independent State of Croatia". The Ustaše
Ustaše
resolved that the Serbian minority were a fifth column of Serbian expansionism, and pursued a policy of persecution against the Serbs. The policy dictated that one-third of the Serbian minority were to be killed, one-third expelled, and one-third converted to Catholicism and assimilated as Croats. Conversely, the Chetniks pursued their own campaign of persecution in parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Sandžak
Sandžak
per the Moljevic plan ("On Our State and Its Borders") and the orders issues by Draža Mihailović
Draža Mihailović
which included "[t]he cleansing of all nation understandings and fighting". Both Croats
Croats
and Muslims were recruited as soldiers by the SS (primarily in the 13th Waffen Mountain Division). At the same time, former royalist, General Milan Nedić, was installed by the Axis as head of the puppet government and local Serbs
Serbs
were recruited into the Gestapo
Gestapo
and the Serbian Volunteer Corps. Both quislings were confronted and eventually defeated by the communist-led, anti-fascist Partisan movement composed of members of all ethnic groups in the area, leading to the formation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The official Yugoslav post-war estimate of victims in Yugoslavia during World War II was 1,704,000. Subsequent data gathering in the 1980s by historians Vladimir Žerjavić and Bogoljub Kočović showed that the actual number of dead was about 1 million. Of that number, 330,000 to 390,000 ethnic Serbs
Serbs
perished from all causes in Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia.[4] Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was in its heyday a regional industrial power and an economic success. From 1960 to 1980, annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth averaged 6.1 percent, medical care was free, literacy was 91 percent, and life expectancy was 72 years.[5] Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was a unique state, straddling both the East and West. Moreover, its president, Josip Broz Tito, was one of the fundamental founders of the "third world" or "group of 77" which acted as an alternative to the superpowers. More importantly, Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
acted as a buffer state between the West and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and also prevented the USSR from getting a toehold on the Mediterranean Sea. The central government's control began to be loosened due to increasing nationalist grievances and the Communist's Party's wish to support "national self determination". This resulted in Kosovo
Kosovo
being turned into an autonomous region of Serbia, legislated by the 1974 constitution. This constitution broke down powers between the capital and the autonomous regions in Vojvodina
Vojvodina
(an area of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
with a large number of ethnic minorities) and Kosovo
Kosovo
(with a large ethnic-Albanian population). Despite the federal structure of the new Yugoslavia, there was still tension between the federalists, primarily Croats
Croats
and Slovenes
Slovenes
who argued for greater autonomy, and unitarists, primarily Serbs. The struggle would occur in cycles of protests for greater individual and national rights (such as the Croatian Spring) and subsequent repression. The 1974 constitution was an attempt to short-circuit this pattern by entrenching the federal model and formalizing national rights. The loosened control basically turned Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
into a de facto confederacy, which also placed pressure on the legitimacy of the regime within the federation. Since the late 1970s a widening gap of economic resources between the developed and underdeveloped regions of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
severely deteriorated the federation's unity.[6] The most developed republics, Croatia
Croatia
and Slovenia, rejected attempts to limit their autonomy as provided in the 1974 Constitution.[6] Public opinion in Slovenia
Slovenia
in 1987 saw better economic opportunity in independence from Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
than within it.[6] There were also places that saw no economic benefit from being in Yugoslavia; for example, the autonomous province of Kosovo
Kosovo
was poorly developed, and per capita GDP fell from 47 percent of the Yugoslav average in the immediate post-war period to 27 percent by the 1980s.[7] It highlighted the vast differences in the quality of life in the different republics. Economic growth was curbed due to Western trade barriers combined with the 1973 oil crisis. Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
subsequently fell into heavy IMF debt due to the large number of International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) loans taken out by the regime. As a condition of receiving loans, the IMF demanded the "market liberalization" of Yugoslavia. By 1981, Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
had incurred $19.9 billion in foreign debt. Another concern was the unemployment rate, at 1 million by 1980. This problem was compounded by the general "unproductiveness of the South," which not only added to Yugoslavia's economic woes, but also irritated Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
further.[8][9] Causes[edit] Structural problems[edit] The SFR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was a conglomeration of eight federated entities, roughly divided along ethnic lines, including six republics—

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia
Serbia
and Slovenia

—and two autonomous provinces within Serbia,

Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Kosovo.

With the 1974 Constitution, the office of President of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was replaced with the Yugoslav Presidency, an eight-member collective head-of-state composed of representatives from six republics and, controversially, two autonomous provinces of the Socialist Republic of Serbia, SAP Kosovo
Kosovo
and SAP Vojvodina. Since the SFR Yugoslav federation was formed in 1945, the constituent Socialist Republic of Serbia
Serbia
(SR Serbia) included the two autonomous provinces of SAP Kosovo
Kosovo
and SAP Vojvodina. With the 1974 constitution, the influence of the central government of SR Serbia
Serbia
over the provinces was greatly reduced, which gave them long-sought autonomy. The government of SR Serbia
Serbia
was restricted in making and carrying out decisions that would apply to the provinces. The provinces had a vote in the Yugoslav Presidency, which was not always cast in favor of SR Serbia. In Serbia, there was great resentment towards these developments, which the nationalist elements of the public saw as the "division of Serbia". The 1974 constitution not only exacerbated Serbian fears of a "weak Serbia, for a strong Yugoslavia" but also hit at the heart of Serbian national sentiment. A majority of Serbs
Serbs
see Kosovo
Kosovo
as the "cradle of the nation", and would not accept the possibility of losing it to the majority Albanian population. In an effort to ensure his legacy, Tito's 1974 constitution established a system of year-long presidencies, on a rotation basis out of the eight leaders of the republics and autonomous provinces. Tito's death would show that such short terms were highly ineffective. Essentially it left a power vacuum which was left open for most of the 1980s. Economic collapse and the international climate[edit] During the years of Tito's presidency, his policy is to push for rapid economic growth. Indeed, growth was high in the 1970s. However, the over expansion of economic growth caused inflation and pushed Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
into economy recession.[10] After the death of Tito with the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev, perestroika and glasnost in the Soviet Union, the West felt secure enough in the USSR's intentions that Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was no longer of pivotal strategic importance. Despite Belgrade's non-alignment and its extensive trading relations with the European Community
European Community
and the US, the Reagan administration
Reagan administration
specifically targeted the Yugoslav economy in a Secret Sensitive 1984 National Security Decision Directive
National Security Decision Directive
NSDD 133. "U.S. Policy towards Yugoslavia."[11] A censored version declassified in 1990 elaborated on NSDD 54 on Eastern Europe, issued in 1982.[12] The latter advocated "expanded efforts to promote a 'quiet revolution' to overthrow Communist governments and parties," while reintegrating the countries of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
into a market-oriented economy.[13] The external status quo, which the Communist Party had depended upon to remain viable was thus beginning to disappear. Furthermore, the failure of communism all over Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
once again brought Yugoslavia's inner contradictions, economic inefficiencies (such as chronic lack of productivity, fuelled by the country's leaderships' decision to enforce a policy of full employment), and ethno-religious tensions to the surface. Yugoslavia's non-aligned status resulted in access to loans from both superpower blocs. This contact with the United States
United States
and the West opened up Yugoslavia's markets sooner than the rest of Central and Eastern Europe. The 1980s were a decade of Western economic ministrations. A decade of frugality resulted in growing frustration and resentment against both the Serbian 'ruling class,' and the minorities who were seen to benefit from government legislation. Real earnings in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
fell by 25% from 1979 to 1985.

By 1988 emigrant remittances to Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
totalled over $4.5 billion (USD), and by 1989 remittances were $6.2 billion (USD),

making up over 19% of the world's total.[8][9] Death of Tito and the weakening of Communism[edit] On 4 May 1980, Tito's death was announced through state broadcasts across Yugoslavia. Although he was not a liberal thinker, his death removed what many international political observers saw as Yugoslavia's main unifying force and subsequent ethnic tension started to grow in Yugoslavia. The crisis that emerged in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was connected with the weakening of the Communist states in Eastern Europe towards the end of the Cold War, as symbolized by the fall of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
in 1989. In Yugoslavia, the national communist party, officially called the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, had lost its ideological potency.[14] In 1986, the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts
(SANU) contributed significantly to the rise of nationalist sentiments, as it drafted the controversial SANU Memorandum protesting against the weakening of the Serbian central government. The problems in the Serbian autonomous province of SAP Kosovo
Kosovo
between ethnic Serbs
Serbs
and Albanians
Albanians
grew exponentially. This, coupled with economic problems in Kosovo
Kosovo
and Serbia
Serbia
as a whole, led to even greater Serbian resentment of the 1974 Constitution. Kosovo
Kosovo
Albanians
Albanians
started to demand that Kosovo
Kosovo
be granted the status of a constituent republic beginning in the early 1980s, particularly with the 1981 protests in Kosovo. This was seen by the Serbian public as a devastating blow to Serb pride because of the historic links that Serbians held with Kosovo. It was viewed that that secession would be devastating to Kosovar Serbs. This, eventually, led to the repression of the Albanian majority in Kosovo.[15][better source needed] The more prosperous republics of SR Slovenia
Slovenia
and SR Croatia
Croatia
wanted to move towards decentralization and democracy.[16] Rise of nationalism in Serbia
Serbia
(1987–89)[edit] See also: Serbian nationalism Slobodan Milošević[edit]

Serbian President Slobodan Milošević's unequivocal desire to uphold the unity of Serbs, a status threatened by each republic breaking away from the federation, in addition to his opposition to the Albanian authorities in Kosovo, further inflamed ethnic tensions.

In 1987, Serbian communist official Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
was sent to bring calm to an ethnically-driven protest by Serbs
Serbs
against the Albanian administration of SAP Kosovo. Milošević had been, up to this point, a hard-line communist who had decried all forms of nationalism as treachery, such as condemning the SANU Memorandum as "nothing else but the darkest nationalism".[17] However, Kosovo's autonomy had always been an unpopular policy in Serbia
Serbia
and he took advantage of the situation and made a departure from traditional communist neutrality on the issue of Kosovo. Milošević assured Serbs
Serbs
that their mistreatment by ethnic Albanians would be stopped. He then began a campaign against the ruling communist elite of SR Serbia, demanding reductions in the autonomy of Kosovo
Kosovo
and Vojvodina. These actions made him popular amongst Serbs
Serbs
and aided his rise to power in Serbia. Milošević and his allies took on an aggressive nationalist agenda of reviving SR Serbia
Serbia
within Yugoslavia, promising reforms and protection of all Serbs. The ruling party of SFR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was the League of Communists of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(SKJ), a composite political party made-up of eight Leagues of Communists from the six republics and two autonomous provinces. The League of Communists of Serbia
Serbia
(SKS) governed SR Serbia. Riding the wave of nationalist sentiment and his new popularity gained in Kosovo, Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
(Chairman of the League of Communists of Serbia (SKS) since May 1986) became the most powerful politician in Serbia
Serbia
by defeating his former mentor President of Serbia
Serbia
Ivan Stambolic
Ivan Stambolic
at the 8th Session of the League of Communists of Serbia
Serbia
on 22 September 1987. In a 1988 Belgrade rally, Milošević made clear his perception of the situation facing SR Serbia
Serbia
in Yugoslavia, saying:

At home and abroad, Serbia's enemies are massing against us. We say to them "We are not afraid. We will not flinch from battle". — Slobodan Milošević, 19 November 1988.[18]

On another occasion, he privately stated:

We Serbs
Serbs
will act in the interest of Serbia
Serbia
whether we do it in compliance with the constitution or not, whether we do it in compliance in the law or not, whether we do it in compliance with party statutes or not. — Slobodan Milošević[19]

Anti-bureaucratic revolution[edit] Main article: Anti-bureaucratic revolution The Anti-bureaucratic revolution was a series of revolts in Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
which brought Milošević's supporters in SAP Vojvodina, SAP Kosovo, and the Socialist Republic of Montenegro
Montenegro
(SR Montenegro) to power. The government of Montenegro
Montenegro
survived a coup d'état in October 1988,[20] but not a second one in January 1989.[21] In addition to Serbia
Serbia
itself, Milošević could now install representatives of the two provinces and SR Montenegro
Montenegro
in the Yugoslav Presidency Council. The very instrument that reduced Serbian influence before was now used to increase it: in the eight member Presidency, Milošević could count on a minimum of four votes – SR Montenegro (following local events), his own through SR Serbia, and now SAP Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and SAP Kosovo
Kosovo
as well. In a series of rallies, called "Rallies of Truth", Milošević's supporters succeeded in overthrowing local governments and replacing them with his allies. As a result of these events, in February 1989 the ethnic Albanian miners in Kosovo
Kosovo
organized the 1989 Kosovo
Kosovo
miners' strike, demanding the preservation of the, now endangered, autonomy.[22] This contributed to ethnic conflict between the Albanians
Albanians
and the Serb population of the province. At 77% of the population of Kosovo
Kosovo
in the 1980s,[23] ethnic- Albanians
Albanians
were the majority. In June 1989, the 600th anniversary of Serbia's historic defeat at the field of Kosovo, Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
gave the Gazimestan speech
Gazimestan speech
to 200,000 Serbs, with a Serb nationalist theme which deliberately evoked medieval Serbian history. Milošević's answer to the incompetence of the federal system was to centralise the government. Considering Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
were looking farther ahead to independence, this was considered unacceptable. Repercussions[edit] Meanwhile, the Socialist Republic of Croatia
Croatia
(SR Croatia) and the Socialist Republic of Slovenia
Slovenia
(SR Slovenia), supported the Albanian miners and their struggle for recognition. Media in SR Slovenia published articles comparing Milošević to Italian fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. Milošević contended that such criticism was unfounded and amounted to "spreading fear of Serbia".[24] Milošević's state-run media claimed in response that Milan Kučan, head of the League of Communists of Slovenia, was endorsing Kosovo
Kosovo
and Slovene separatism. Initial strikes in Kosovo
Kosovo
turned into widespread demonstrations calling for Kosovo
Kosovo
to be made the seventh republic. This angered Serbia's leadership which proceeded to use police force, and later the federal army (the Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
JNA) by order of the Serbian-controlled Presidency. In February 1989 ethnic Albanian Azem Vllasi, SAP Kosovo's representative on the Presidency, was forced to resign and was replaced by an ally of Milošević. Albanian protesters demanded that Vllasi be returned to office, and Vllasi's support for the demonstrations caused Milošević and his allies to respond stating this was a "counter-revolution against Serbia
Serbia
and Yugoslavia", and demanded that the federal Yugoslav government put down the striking Albanians
Albanians
by force. Milošević's aim was aided when a huge protest was formed outside of the Yugoslav parliament in Belgrade by Serb supporters of Milošević who demanded that the Yugoslav military forces make their presence stronger in Kosovo
Kosovo
to protect the Serbs there and put down the strike. On 27 February, SR Slovene representative in the collective presidency of Yugoslavia, Milan Kučan, opposed the demands of the Serbs
Serbs
and left Belgrade for SR Slovenia
Slovenia
where he attended a meeting in the Cankar Hall in Ljubljana, co-organized with the democratic opposition forces, publicly endorsing the efforts of Albanian protesters who demanded that Vllasi be released. In the 1995 BBC
BBC
documentary The Death of Yugoslavia, Kučan claimed that in 1989, he was concerned that with the successes of Milošević's anti-bureaucratic revolution in Serbia's provinces as well as Montenegro, that his small republic would be the next target for a political coup by Milošević's supporters if the coup in Kosovo
Kosovo
went unimpeded. Serbian state-run television denounced Kučan as a separatist, a traitor, and an endorser of Albanian separatism. Serb protests continued in Belgrade demanding action in Kosovo. Milošević instructed communist representative Petar Gračanin to make sure the protest continued while he discussed matters at the council of the League of Communists, as a means to induce the other members to realize that enormous support was on his side in putting down the Albanian strike in Kosovo. Serbian parliament speaker Borisav Jović, a strong ally of Milošević, met with the current President of the Yugoslav Presidency, Bosnian representative Raif Dizdarević, and demanded that the federal government concede to Serbian demands. Dizdarević argued with Jović saying that "You [Serbian politicians] organized the demonstrations, you control it", Jović refused to take responsibility for the actions of the protesters. Dizdarević then decided to attempt to bring calm to the situation himself by talking with the protesters, by making an impassioned speech for unity of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
saying:

Our fathers died to create Yugoslavia. We will not go down the road to national conflict. We will take the path of Brotherhood and Unity. — Raif Dizdarević, 1989.[18]

This statement received polite applause, but the protest continued. Later Jović spoke to the crowds with enthusiasm and told them that Milošević was going to arrive to support their protest. When Milošević arrived, he spoke to the protesters and jubilantly told them that the people of Serbia
Serbia
were winning their fight against the old party bureaucrats. Then a shout to be from the crowd yelled "arrest Vllasi'". Milošević pretended not to hear the demand correctly but declared to the crowd that anyone conspiring against the unity of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
would be arrested and punished and the next day, with the party council pushed to submission to Serbia, Yugoslav army forces poured into Kosovo
Kosovo
and Vllasi was arrested. In March 1989, the crisis in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
deepened after the adoption of amendments to the Serbian constitution that allowed the Serbian republic's government to re-assert effective power over the autonomous provinces of Kosovo
Kosovo
and Vojvodina. Up until that time, a number of political decisions were legislated from within these provinces, and they had a vote on the Yugoslav federal presidency level (six members from the republics and two members from the autonomous provinces).[25] A group of Kosovo
Kosovo
Serb supporters of Milošević who helped bring down Vllasi declared that they were going to Slovenia
Slovenia
to hold "the Rally of Truth" which would decry Milan Kučan
Milan Kučan
as a traitor to Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and demand his ousting. However, the attempt to replay the anti-bureaucratic revolution in Ljubljana
Ljubljana
in December 1989 failed: the Serb protesters who were to go by train to Slovenia, were stopped when the police of SR Croatia
Croatia
blocked all transit through its territory in coordination with the Slovene police forces.[26][27][28] In the Presidency of Yugoslavia, Serbia's Borisav Jović
Borisav Jović
(at the time the President of the Presidency), Montenegro's Nenad Bućin, Vojvodina's Jugoslav Kostić and Kosovo's Riza Sapunxhiu, started to form a voting bloc.[29] Final political crisis (1990–92)[edit] Party crisis[edit] In January 1990, the extraordinary 14th Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was convened. The combined Yugoslav ruling party, the League of Communists of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(SKJ), was in crisis. Most of the Congress was spent with the Serbian and Slovene delegations arguing over the future of the League of Communists and Yugoslavia. SR Croatia's actions in preventing Serb protesters from reaching Slovenia
Slovenia
played its part. The Serbian delegation, led by Milošević, insisted on a policy of "one person, one vote" in the party membership, which would empower the largest party ethnic group, the Serbs. In turn, the Croats
Croats
and Slovenes
Slovenes
sought to reform Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
by delegating even more power to six republics, but were voted down continuously in every motion in an attempt to force the party to adopt the new voting system. As a result, the Croatian delegation, led by Chairman Ivica Račan, and Slovene delegation left the Congress on 23 January 1990, effectively dissolving the all-Yugoslav party. This in turn, along with external pressure, caused the adoption of multi-party systems in all republics. Multi-party elections[edit] When the individual republics organized their multi-party elections in 1990, the ex-communists mostly failed to win re-election, while most of the elected governments took on nationalist platforms, promising to protect their separate nationalist interests. In multi-party parliamentary elections nationalists defeated re-branded former Communist parties in Slovenia
Slovenia
on 8 April 1990, in Croatia
Croatia
on 22 April and 2 May 1990, in Macedonia 11 and 25 November and 9 December 1990, and in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
on 18 and 25 November 1990. In multi-party parliamentary elections, re-branded former communist parties were victorious in Montenegro
Montenegro
on 9 and 16 December 1990, and in Serbia
Serbia
on 9 and 23 December 1990. In addition Serbia
Serbia
re-elected Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
as President. Serbia and Montenegro
Serbia and Montenegro
now increasingly favored a Serb-dominated Yugoslavia. Ethnic tensions in Croatia[edit]

Croatian President Franjo Tuđman

In Croatia, the nationalist Croatian Democratic Union
Croatian Democratic Union
(HDZ) was elected to power, led by controversial nationalist Franjo Tuđman, under the promise of "protecting Croatia
Croatia
from Milošević", publicly advocating for Croatian sovereignty. Croatian Serbs, for their part, were wary of Tuđman's nationalist government and in 1990, Serb nationalists in the southern Croatian town of Knin
Knin
organized and formed a separatist entity known as the SAO Krajina, which demanded to remain in union with the rest of the Serb populations if Croatia decided to secede. The government of Serbia
Serbia
endorsed the Croatian Serbs' rebellion, claiming that for Serbs, rule under Tuđman's government would be equivalent to the World War II
World War II
fascist Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
(NDH) which committed genocide against Serbs
Serbs
during World War II. Milošević used this to rally Serbs
Serbs
against the Croatian government and Serbian newspapers joined in the warmongering.[30] Serbia
Serbia
had by now printed $1.8 billion worth of new money without any backing of the Yugoslav central bank.[31] Croatian Serbs
Serbs
in Knin, under the leadership of local Knin
Knin
police inspector Milan Martić, began to try to gain access to weapons so that the Croatian Serbs
Serbs
could mount a successful revolt against the Croatian government. Croatian Serb politicians including the Mayor of Knin
Knin
met with Borisav Jović, the head of the Yugoslav Presidency
Yugoslav Presidency
in August 1990, and urged him to push the council to take action to prevent Croatia
Croatia
from separating from Yugoslavia, as they claimed that the Serb population would be in danger in Croatia
Croatia
led by Tuđman and his nationalist government. At the meeting, army official Petar Gračanin told the Croatian Serb politicians how to organize their rebellion, telling them to put up barricades, as well as assemble weapons of any sort in which he said "If you can't get anything else, use hunting rifles". Initially the revolt became known as the "Log Revolution" as Serbs
Serbs
blockaded roadways to Knin
Knin
with cut-down trees and prevented Croats
Croats
from entering Knin
Knin
or the Croatian coastal region of Dalmatia. The BBC documentary "The Death of Yugoslavia" revealed that at the time, Croatian TV dismissed the "Log Revolution" as the work of drunken Serbs, trying to diminish the serious dispute. However the blockade was damaging to Croatian tourism. The Croatian government refused to negotiate with the Serb separatists and decided to stop the rebellion by force, and sent in armed special forces by helicopters to put down the rebellion. The pilots claimed they were bringing "equipment" to Knin, but the federal Yugoslav Air Force
Yugoslav Air Force
intervened and sent fighter jets to intercept them and demanded that the helicopters return to their base or they would be fired upon, in which the Croatian forces obliged and returned to their base in Zagreb. To the Croatian government, this action by the Yugoslav Air Force
Yugoslav Air Force
revealed to them that the Yugoslav People's Army was increasingly under Serbian control. The SAO Krajina was officially declared as a separate entity on 21 December 1990, by the Serbian National Council headed by Milan Babić. In August 1990 the Croatian Parliament
Croatian Parliament
replaced its representative Stipe Šuvar
Stipe Šuvar
with Stjepan Mesić
Stjepan Mesić
in the wake of the Log Revolution.[32] Mesić was only seated in October 1990 because of protests from the Serbian side, and then joined Macedonia's Vasil Tupurkovski, Slovenia's Janez Drnovšek
Janez Drnovšek
and Bosnia and Herzegovina's Bogić Bogićević in opposing the demands to proclaim a general state of emergency, which would have allowed the Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
to impose martial law.[29] Following the first multi-party election results, the republics of Slovenia, Croatia
Croatia
and Macedonia proposed transforming Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
into a loose federation of six republics in the autumn of 1990, however Milošević rejected all such proposals, arguing that like Slovenians and Croats, the Serbs
Serbs
also had a right to self-determination. Serbian politicians were alarmed by a change of phrasing in the Christmas Constitution (of Croatia) that changed the status of ethnic Serbs
Serbs
of Croatia, from an explicitly mentioned nation (narod) to a nation listed together with minorities (narodi i manjine).[clarification needed] Independence of Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia[edit] In the Slovenian independence referendum, 1990, held on 23 December 1990, a vast majority of residents voted for independence.[33] 88.5% of all electors (94.8% of those participating) voted for independence – which was declared on 25 June 1991.[34][35] In January 1991, the KOS (Kontraobaveštajna služba, Yugoslav counter-intelligence service) displayed a video of a secret meeting (the "Špegelj Tapes") that they purported had happened some time in 1990 between the Croatian Defence Minister, Martin Špegelj, and two other men, in which Špegelj announced that they were at war with the army and gave instructions about arms smuggling as well as methods of dealing with the Yugoslav Army's officers stationed in Croatian cities. The Army subsequently wanted to indict Špegelj for treason and illegal importation of arms, mainly from Hungary. The discovery of Croatian arms smuggling combined with the crisis in Knin, the election of independence-leaning governments in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia and Slovenia, and Slovenes
Slovenes
demanding independence in the referendum on the issue suggested that Yugoslavia faced the imminent threat of disintegration. On 1 March 1991, the Pakrac clash
Pakrac clash
ensued, and the Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska Narodna Armija, JNA) was deployed to the scene. On 9 March 1991, the March 1991 protests in Belgrade
March 1991 protests in Belgrade
were suppressed with the help of the Army. On 12 March 1991, the leadership of the Army met with the Presidency in an attempt to convince them to declare a state of emergency which would allow for the pan-Yugoslav army to take control of the country. Yugoslav army chief Veljko Kadijević declared that there was a conspiracy to destroy the country, saying:

An insidious plan has been drawn up to destroy Yugoslavia. Stage one is civil war. Stage two is foreign intervention. Then puppet regimes will be set up throughout Yugoslavia. — Veljko Kadijević, 12 March 1991.[18]

This statement effectively implied that the new independence-advocating governments of the republics were seen by Serbs
Serbs
as tools of the West. Croatian delegate Stjepan Mesić
Stjepan Mesić
responded angrily to the proposal, accusing Jović and Kadijević of attempting to use the army to create a Greater Serbia
Serbia
and declared "That means war!". Jović and Kadijević then called upon the delegates of each republic to vote on whether to allow martial law, and warned them that Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
would likely fall apart if martial law was not introduced. In the meeting, a vote was taken on a proposal to enact martial law to allow for military action to end the crisis in Croatia
Croatia
by providing protection for the Serbs. The proposal was rejected as the Bosnian delegate Bogić Bogićević voted against it, believing that there was still the possibility of diplomacy being able to solve the crisis. The Yugoslav Presidency
Yugoslav Presidency
crisis reached an impasse when Sapunxhiu 'defected' his faction in the second vote on martial law in March 1991.[29] Jović briefly resigned from the presidency in protest, but soon returned.[29] On 16 May 1991, the Serbian parliament replaced Kosovo's Riza Sapunxhiu with Sejdo Bajramović, and Vojvodina's Nenad Bućin with Jugoslav Kostić.[36] This effectively deadlocked the Presidency, because Milošević's Serbian faction had secured four out of eight federal presidency votes and it was able to block any unfavorable decisions at the federal level, in turn causing objections from other republics and calls for reform of the Yugoslav Federation.[29][37][38] After Jović's term as head of the collective presidency expired, he blocked his successor, Mesić, from taking the position, giving the position instead to Branko Kostić, a member of the pro-Milošević government in Montenegro. In the Croatian independence referendum held on 2 May 1991, 93.24% voted for independence. On 19 May 1991, the second round of the referendum on the structure of the Yugoslav federation was held in Croatia. The phrasing of the question did not explicitly inquire as to whether one was in favor of secession or not. The referendum asked the voter if he or she was in favor of Croatia
Croatia
being "able to enter into an alliance of sovereign states with other republics (in accordance with the proposal of the republics of Croatia
Croatia
and Slovenia
Slovenia
for solving the state crisis in the SFRY)?". 83.56% of the voters turned out, with Croatian Serbs
Serbs
largely boycotting the referendum. Of these, 94.17% (78.69% of the total voting population) voted "in favor" of the proposal, while 1.2% of those who voted were "opposed". Finally, the independence of Croatia
Croatia
was declared on 25 June 1991. The beginning of the Yugoslav Wars[edit] Main article: Yugoslav Wars War in Slovenia[edit] Main article: Ten-Day War Both Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
declared their independence on 25 June 1991. On the morning of 26 June, units of the Yugoslav People's Army's 13th Corps left their barracks in Rijeka, Croatia, to move towards Slovenia's borders with Italy. The move immediately led to a strong reaction from local Slovenians, who organized spontaneous barricades and demonstrations against the YPA's actions. There was, as yet, no fighting, and both sides appeared to have an unofficial policy of not being the first to open fire. By this time, the Slovenian government had already put into action its plan to seize control of both the international Ljubljana
Ljubljana
Airport and Slovenia's border posts on borders with Italy, Austria and Hungary. The personnel manning the border posts were, in most cases, already Slovenians, so the Slovenian take-over mostly simply amounted to changing of uniforms and insignia, without any fighting. By taking control of the borders, the Slovenians were able to establish defensive positions against an expected YPA attack. This meant that the YPA would have to fire the first shot. It was fired on 27 June at 14:30 in Divača
Divača
by an officer of the YPA.[39] On 7 July 1991, whilst supportive of their respective rights to national self-determination, the European Community
European Community
pressured Slovenia and Croatia
Croatia
to place a three-month moratorium on their independence with the Brijuni Agreement
Brijuni Agreement
(recognized by representatives of all republics).[40] During these three months, the Yugoslav Army completed its pull-out from Slovenia. Negotiations to restore the Yugoslav federation with diplomat Lord Carrington and members of the European Community were all but ended. Carrington's plan realized that Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was in a state of dissolution and decided that each republic must accept the inevitable independence of the others, along with a promise to Serbian President Milošević that the European Union would ensure that Serbs
Serbs
outside of Serbia
Serbia
would be protected. In the event, Lord Carrington's opinions were rendered moot following newly reunited Germany's Christmas Eve 1991 recognition of Slovenia and Croatia. Except for secret negotiations between foreign ministers Genscher (Germany) and Mock (Austria), the unilateral recognition came as an unwelcome surprise to most EU governments and the United States, with whom there was no prior consultation. International organizations, including the UN, were nonplussed. While Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was already in a shambles, it's likely that German recognition of the breakaway republics—and Austrian partial mobilization on the border—made things a good deal worse for the decomposing multinational state. US President George H.W. Bush was the only major power representative to voice an objection. The extent of Vatican influence in this episode has been explored by scholars familiar with the details, but the historical record remains disputed. Milošević refused to agree to the plan, as he claimed that the European Community
European Community
had no right to dissolve Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and that the plan was not in the interests of Serbs
Serbs
as it would divide the Serb people into four republics (Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia). Carrington responded by putting the issue to a vote in which all the other republics, including Montenegro
Montenegro
under Momir Bulatović, initially agreed to the plan that would dissolve Yugoslavia. However, after intense pressure from Serbia
Serbia
on Montenegro's President, Montenegro
Montenegro
changed its position to oppose the dissolution of Yugoslavia. War in Croatia[edit] Main article: Croatian War of Independence

Yugoslavia

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of Yugoslavia

Constitution

1921 1931 1946 1953 1963 1974

Executive Legislative

Head of State Deputy Head of State President (1953–80) Vice President (1963–67) Presidency (1971–91)

President of the Presidency (1980–91) Vice President of the Presidency (1971–91)

Government (1918–53)

Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister

Federal Executive Council (1953–92)

President (1963–92)

Parliament (list)

President

Elections

1920 1923 1925 1927 1935 1938 1945 1950 1953 1958 1963 1969 1974 1978 1982 1986

Political parties

Administrative divisions

States

Kingdom of Yugoslavia SFR Yugoslavia

SR Bosnia and Herzegovina

SR Croatia SR Macedonia SR Montenegro SR Serbia

SAP Kosovo SAP Vojvodina

SR Slovenia

Breakup

Yugoslav Wars

(Slovenian Croatian Bosnian)

Foreign relations

United Nations

Other countries Atlas

v t e

With the Plitvice Lakes incident
Plitvice Lakes incident
of late March/early April 1991, the Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
broke out between the Croatian government and the rebel ethnic Serbs
Serbs
of the SAO Krajina
SAO Krajina
(heavily backed by the by-now Serb-controlled Yugoslav People's Army). On 1 April 1991, the SAO Krajina
SAO Krajina
declared that it would secede from Croatia. Immediately after Croatia's declaration of independence, Croatian Serbs
Serbs
also formed the SAO Western Slavonia
SAO Western Slavonia
and the SAO of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Srijem. These three regions would combine into the Republic of Serbian Krajina
Republic of Serbian Krajina
(RSK) on 19 December 1991. The other significant Serb-dominated entities in eastern Croatia announced that they too would join SAO Krajina. Zagreb
Zagreb
had by this time discontinued submitting tax money to Belgrade, and the Croatian Serb entities in turn halted paying taxes to Zagreb. In some places, the Yugoslav Army acted as a buffer zone,[where?] in others it aided Serbs
Serbs
in their confrontation with the new Croatian army and police forces.[clarification needed] The influence of xenophobia and ethnic hatred in the collapse of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
became clear during the war in Croatia. Propaganda by Croatian and Serbian sides spread fear, claiming that the other side would engage in oppression against them and would exaggerate death tolls to increase support from their populations.[41] In the beginning months of the war, the Serb-dominated Yugoslav army and navy deliberately shelled civilian areas of Split and Dubrovnik, a UNESCO world heritage site, as well as nearby Croat villages.[42] Yugoslav media claimed that the actions were done due to what they claimed was a presence of fascist Ustaše
Ustaše
forces and international terrorists in the city.[42] UN investigations found that no such forces were in Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
at the time.[43] Croatian military presence increased later on. Montenegrin Prime Minister Milo Đukanović, at the time an ally of Milošević, appealed to Montenegrin nationalism, promising that the capture of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
would allow the expansion of Montenegro
Montenegro
into the city which he claimed was historically part of Montenegro, and denounced the present borders of Montenegro
Montenegro
as being "drawn by the old and poorly educated Bolshevik
Bolshevik
cartographers".[42] At the same time, the Serbian government contradicted its Montenegrin allies by claims by the Serbian Prime Minister Dragutin Zelenović contended that Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
was historically Serbian, not Montenegrin.[44] The international media gave immense attention to bombardment of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
and claimed this was evidence of Milosevic pursuing the creation of a Greater Serbia
Serbia
as Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
collapsed, presumably with the aid of the subordinate Montenegrin leadership of Bulatović and Serb nationalists in Montenegro
Montenegro
to foster Montenegrin support for the retaking of Dubrovnik.[43] In Vukovar, ethnic tensions between Croats
Croats
and Serbs
Serbs
exploded into violence when the Yugoslav army entered the town. The Yugoslav army and Serbian paramilitaries devastated the town in urban warfare and the destruction of Croatian property. Serb paramilitaries committed atrocities against Croats, killing over 200, and displacing others to add to those who fled the town in the Vukovar massacre.[45] Independence of the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit] Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Bosnian President Alija Izetbegović

Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadžić

With Bosnia's demographic structure comprising a mixed population of a majority of Bosniaks, and minorities of Serbs
Serbs
and Croats, the ownership of large areas of Bosnia was in dispute. From 1991 to 1992, the situation in the multiethnic Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
grew tense. Its parliament was fragmented on ethnic lines into a plurality Bosniak faction and minority Serb and Croat factions. In 1991, the controversial nationalist leader Radovan Karadžić
Radovan Karadžić
of the largest Serb faction in the parliament, the Serb Democratic Party gave a grave and direct warning to the Bosnian parliament should it decide to separate, saying:

This, what you are doing, is not good. This is the path that you want to take Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
on, the same highway of hell and death that Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
went on. Don't think that you won't take Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
into hell, and the Muslim people maybe into extinction. Because the Muslim people cannot defend themselves if there is war here. — Radovan Karadžić, 14 October 1991.[46]

In the meantime, behind the scenes, negotiations began between Milošević and Tuđman to divide Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
into Serb and Croat administered territories to attempt to avert war between Bosnian Croats
Croats
and Serbs.[47] Bosnian Serbs
Serbs
held the November 1991 referendum which resulted in an overwhelming vote in favor of staying in a common state with Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro. In public, pro-state media in Serbia
Serbia
claimed to Bosnians that Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
could be included a new voluntary union within a new Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
based on democratic government, but this was not taken seriously by Bosnia and Herzegovina's government.[48] On 9 January 1992, the Bosnian Serb assembly proclaimed a separate Republic of the Serb people of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(the soon-to-be Republic of Srpska), and proceeded to form Serbian autonomous regions (SARs) throughout the state. The Serbian referendum on remaining in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the creation of Serbian autonomous regions (SARs) were proclaimed unconstitutional by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The independence referendum sponsored by the Bosnian government was held on 29 February and 1 March 1992. That referendum was in turn declared contrary to the Bosnian and federal constitution by the federal Constitution Court and the newly established Bosnian Serb government; it was also largely boycotted by the Bosnian Serbs. According to the official results, the turnout was 63.4%, and 99.7% of the voters voted for independence.[49] It was unclear what the two-thirds majority requirement actually meant and whether it was satisfied.

The building of the executive council building in Sarajevo burns after being hit by Serbian tank fire in 1992.

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
declared independence on 3 March 1992 and received international recognition the following month on 6 April 1992.[50] On the same date, the Serbs
Serbs
responded by declaring the independence of the Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
and laying siege to Sarajevo which marked the start of the Bosnian War.[51] The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
was subsequently admitted as a member State of the United Nations
United Nations
on 22 May 1992.[52] Macedonia[edit] In the Macedonian independence referendum held on 8 September 1991, 95.26% voted for independence. It was declared on 25 September 1991. Five hundred US soldiers were then deployed under the UN banner to monitor Macedonia's northern borders with the Republic of Serbia, Yugoslavia. However, given that Belgrade's authorities had neither intervened to prevent Macedonia's departure, nor protested nor acted against the arrival of the UN troops, the indications were in place that once Belgrade was to form its new country (to be the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
from April 1992), it would recognise the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
and develop diplomatic relations with it. As such, it became the only former republic to gain sovereignty without resistance from the Belgrade-based Yugoslav authorities and Army. In addition, Macedonia's first president, Kiro Gligorov, did indeed maintain good relations with Belgrade as well as the other former republics and there have to date been no problems between Macedonian and Serbian border police despite the fact that small pockets of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Preševo
Preševo
valley complete the northern reaches of the historical region known as Macedonia, which would otherwise have created a border dispute (see also IMORO). The Insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia, the last major conflict being between Albanian nationalists and the government of Republic of Macedonia, reduced in violence after 2001. International recognition of the breakup[edit]

State entities on the former territory of SFR Yugoslavia, 2008.

In November 1991, the Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on Yugoslavia, led by Robert Badinter, concluded at the request of Lord Carrington that the SFR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was in the process of dissolution, that the Serbian population in Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia did not have a right to self-determination in the form of new states, and that the borders between the republics were to be recognized as international borders. As a result of the conflict, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted UN Security Council Resolution 721 on 27 November 1991, which paved the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.[53] In January 1992, Croatia
Croatia
and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
signed an armistice under UN supervision, while negotiations continued between Serb and Croat leaderships over the partitioning of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[54] On 15 January 1992, the independence of Croatia
Croatia
and Slovenia
Slovenia
was recognized worldwide. Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia would later be admitted as member states of the United Nations
United Nations
on 22 May 1992. Macedonia was admitted as a member state of the United Nations
United Nations
on 8 April 1993. Aftermath in Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro[edit]

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
consisted of Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro.

The independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
proved to be the final blow to the pan-Yugoslav Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 28 April 1992, the Serb-dominated Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(FRY) was formed as a rump state, consisting only of the former Socialist Republics of Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro. Its government claimed continuity to the former country, however, the international community refused to recognize it as such. The stance of the international community was that Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
had dissolved into its separate states. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was prevented by a UN resolution on 22 September 1992 from continuing to occupy the United Nations
United Nations
seat as successor state to SFRY. This question was important for claims on SFRY's international assets, including embassies in many countries. Only in 1996 had the FRY abandoned its claim to continuity from the SFRY. The FRY was dominated by Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
and his political allies. The five years of disintegration and war in the 1990s led to a boycott and embargo of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, whose economy collapsed as a result. The war in the western parts of former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
ended in 1995 with US-sponsored peace talks in Dayton, Ohio, which resulted in the Dayton Agreement. The Kosovo
Kosovo
War started in 1996 and ended with the 1999 NATO
NATO
bombing of Yugoslavia. Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
was overthrown in 2000. FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was renamed on 4 February 2003 as the State Union of Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro. The State Union of Serbia and Montenegro
Serbia and Montenegro
was itself unstable, and finally broke up during 2006 to 2008. In a referendum held in Montenegro
Montenegro
on 21 May 2006 independence was backed by 55.5% of voters, and independence was declared on 3 June 2006. Serbia
Serbia
inherited the State Union's UN membership.[55] Kosovo
Kosovo
had been administered by the UN since the Kosovo
Kosovo
war; however, on 17 February 2008, Kosovo
Kosovo
declared independence from Serbia
Serbia
as the Republic of Kosovo. On one side, The United States, the United Kingdom and much of the EU recognized this act of self determination, with the United States
United States
sending people to help assist Kosovo.[56] On the other hand, Serbia
Serbia
and some of the international community—most notably Russia, Spain
Spain
and China—have not recognised Kosovo's declaration of independence. As of July 2015, Kosovo
Kosovo
is recognised by 56% of the United Nations. See also[edit]

Balkanization Dissolution of Czechoslovakia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Timeline of the breakup of Yugoslavia

References[edit]

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Slavonia
and Hungary". h-net.org.  ^ Elections, TIME Magazine, 23 February 1925. ^ Appeal to the international league of human rights, Albert Einstein/Heinrich Mann. ^ Staff. Jasenovac concentration camp Archived 16 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Jasenovac, Croatia, Yugoslavia. On the website of the United States
United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum. ^ World Bank, World Development Report 1991, Statistical Annex, Tables 1 and 2, 1991. ^ a b c Dejan Jović. Yugoslavia: a state that withered away. Purdue University Press, 2009. p. 15 ^ Dejan Jović. Yugoslavia: a state that withered away. Purdue University Press, 2009. pp. 15–16 ^ a b Beth J. Asch, Courtland Reichmann, Rand Corporation. Emigration and Its Effects on the Sending Country. Rand Corporation, 1994. (pg. 26) ^ a b Douglas S. Massey, J. Edward Taylor. International Migration: Prospects and Policies in a Global Market. Oxford University Press, 2004. (pg. 159) ^ "YUGOSLAVIA: KEY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON THE DEBT CRISIS" (PDF). Directorate of Intelligence. 2011-05-12.  ^ " Yugoslavia
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Vesna Pešić
(April 1996). "Serbian Nationalism and the Origins of the Yugoslav Crisis". Peaceworks. United States
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Yugoslavia
as History: Twice There Was a Country. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p347 ^ a b c The Death of Yugoslavia. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 1995. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P. 2006. The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation. Indiana University Press. p598. ^ Henry Kamm (9 October 1988). "Yugoslav Police Fight Off A Siege In Provincial City". New York Times. Retrieved 2 February 2010.  ^ "Leaders of a Republic In Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
Resign". The New York Times. Reuters. 12 January 1989. Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2010.  ^ Ramet, Sabrina P. (18 February 2010). Central and Southeast European Politics Since 1989. Cambridge University Press. p. 361. ISBN 9780521716161. Retrieved 9 March 2012.  ^ Demographics of Kosovo#1968-1989: Autonomy ^ Communism
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O Nationalism!, TIME Magazine, 24 October 1988 ^ "A Country Study: Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(Former): Political Innovation and the 1974 Constitution (chapter 4)". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 27 January 2011.  ^ "Historical Circumstances in Which "The Rally of Truth" in Ljubljana Was Prevented". Journal of Criminal Justice and Security. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2012.  ^ "Rally of truth (Miting resnice)". A documentary published by RTV Slovenija. Retrieved 4 July 2012.  ^ "akcijasever.si". The "North" Veteran Organization. Retrieved 3 July 2012.  ^ a b c d e "Stjepan Mesić, svjedok kraja (I) – Ja sam inicirao sastanak na kojem je podijeljena Bosna". BH Dani (in Bosnian) (208). 1 June 2001. Retrieved 2012-11-27.  ^ "Roads Sealed as Yugoslav Unrest Mounts". The New York Times. 19 August 1990. Retrieved 26 April 2010.  ^ Sudetic, Chuck (10 January 1991). "Financial Scandal Rocks Yugoslavia". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 April 2010.  ^ "Svjedoci raspada – Stipe Šuvar: Moji obračuni s njima" (in Croatian). Radio Free Europe. 27 February 2008. Retrieved 2012-11-27.  ^ "REFERENDUM BRIEFING NO 3" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2010.  ^ Flores Juberías, Carlos (November 2005). "Some legal (and political) considerations about the legal framework for referendum in Montenegro, in the light of European experiences and standards". Legal Aspects for Referendum in Montenegro
Montenegro
in the Context of International Law and Practice (PDF). Foundation Open Society Institute, Representative Office Montenegro. p. 74. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2012.  ^ "Volitve" [Elections]. Statistični letopis 2011 [Statistical Yearbook 2011]. Statistical Yearbook 2011. 15. Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 2011. p. 108. ISSN 1318-5403.  ^ Mesić (2004), p. 33 ^ Brown & Karim (1995), p. 116 ^ Frucht (2005), p. 433 ^ "Zgodilo se je ... 27. junija" [It Happened On ... 27 June] (in Slovenian). MMC RTV Slovenia. 27 June 2005.  ^ Woodward, Susan, L. Balkan Tragedy: Chaos & Dissolution after the Cold War, the Brookings Institution Press, Virginia, USA, 1995, p.200 ^ "THE PROSECUTOR OF THE TRIBUNAL AGAINST SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC". Retrieved 24 January 2016.  ^ a b c "Pavlovic: The Siege of Dubrovnik". yorku.ca.  ^ a b "Pavlovic: The Siege of Dubrovnik". yorku.ca.  ^ "Pavlovic: The Siege of Dubrovnik". yorku.ca.  ^ "Two jailed over Croatia
Croatia
massacre". BBC
BBC
News. 27 September 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2010.  ^ Karadzic and Mladic: The Worlds Most Wanted Men – FOCUS Information Agency Archived 16 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Lukic & Lynch 1996, p. 209. ^ Burg, Steven L; Shoup, Paul S. 1999. The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Ethnic Conflict and International Intervention. M.E. Sharpe. p102 ^ The Referendum on Independence in Bosnia-Herzegovina: February 29-March 1, 1992. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) (Report). Washington D.C. 12 March 1992. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011.  ^ Bose, Sumantra (2009). Contested lands: Israel-Palestine, Kashmir, Bosnia, Cyprus, and Sri Lanka. Harvard University Press. p. 124. ISBN 9780674028562.  ^ Walsh, Martha (2001). Women and Civil War: Impact, Organizations, and Action. Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 57; The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
was recognized by the European Union
European Union
on 6 April. On the same date, Bosnian Serb nationalists began the siege of Sarajevo, and the Bosnian war began. ISBN 9781588260468.  ^ D. Grant, Thomas (2009). Admission to the United Nations: Charter Article 4 and the Rise of Universal Organization. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 226. ISBN 9004173633.  ^ "Resolution 721". N.A.T.O. 25 September 1991. Retrieved 21 July 2006.  ^ Lukic & Lynch 1996, p. 210. ^ "Member States of the United Nations". United Nations. Retrieved 19 November 2012.  ^ "U.S. Relations With Kosovo". U.S. Department of State. 2016-03-17. Retrieved 2017-09-21. 

Sources[edit]

Books

Brown, Cynthia; Karim, Farhad (1995). Playing the "Communal Card": Communal Violence and Human Rights. New York City: Human Rights Watch. ISBN 978-1-56432-152-7.  Denitch, Bogdan Denis (1996). Ethnic nationalism: The tragic death of Yugoslavia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9780816629473.  Djokić, Dejan (2003). Yugoslavism: Histories of a Failed Idea, 1918-1992. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85065-663-0.  Frucht, Richard C. (2005). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6.  Ingrao, Charles; Emmert, Thomas A., eds. (2003). Confronting the Yugoslav Controversies: A Scholars' Initiative (2nd ed.). Purdue University Press. ISBN 978-1-55753-617-4.  Jović, Dejan (2009). Yugoslavia: A State that Withered Away. Purdue University Press. ISBN 978-1-55753-495-8.  Lukic, Reneo; Lynch, Allen (1996). Europe from the Balkans to the Urals: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the Soviet Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829200-7.  Mesić, Stjepan (2004). The Demise of Yugoslavia: A Political Memoir. Central European University Press. ISBN 978-963-9241-81-7.  Ramet, Sabrina P. (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-building and Legitimation, 1918-2005. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34656-8.  Rogel, Carole (2004). The Breakup of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Its Aftermath. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32357-7. Retrieved 22 April 2012.  Trbovich, Ana S. (2008). A Legal Geography of Yugoslavia's Disintegration. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533343-5.  Wachtel, Andrew (1998). Making a Nation, Breaking a Nation: Literature and Cultural Politics in Yugoslavia. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-3181-2. 

Further reading[edit]

Almond, Mark, Europe's Backyard War, William Heinemann Ltd, Great Britain, 1994 et al. Duncan, W. Raymond and Holman, G. Paul, Ethnic Nationalism and Regional Conflict: The Former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Yugoslavia, Westview Press Inc, USA, 1994. ISBN 0-8133-8813-9 Dragosavljevic, Angelija, Slobodan Milosevic: A Study In Charismatic Leadership And Its Distortions 1987–1992, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1993 Glenny, Misha, "The Fall of Yugoslavia", Penguin, 3rd Edition 1996, ISBN 0-14-026101-X LeBor, Adam "Milosevic: A Biography", Bloomsbury, 2002, ISBN 0-7475-6181-8 Magas, Branka, The Destruction of Yugoslavia: Tracking the Break-up 1980–1992, Verso, Great Britain, 1993. ISBN 0-86091-593-X Mojzes, Paul, Yugoslavian Inferno: in the Balkans, The Continuum Publishing Company, USA, 1994 Radan, Peter, Break-up of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and International Law, Routledge, Great Britain, 2002 Woodward, Susan, L. Balkan Tragedy: Chaos & Dissolution after the Cold War, the Brookings Institution Press, Virginia, USA, 1995 Pavlovic, Ivana (2015). "Predstavljanje ratova za Jugoslovensko nasleđe u savremenim udžbenicima istorije". Kultura (148): 144. doi:10.5937/kultura1548144P. 

External links[edit]

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Video on the Conflict in the Former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
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History

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World War II

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List

Motto Orders, decorations, and medals of SFR Yugoslavia

Category

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Revolutions of 1989

Internal background

Era of Stagnation Communism Anti-communism Criticism of communist party rule Eastern Bloc Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
media and propaganda Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection KGB Nomenklatura Shortage economy Totalitarianism Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies

International background

Active measures Cold War List of socialist states People Power Revolution Predictions of the dissolution of the Soviet Union Reagan Doctrine Soviet Empire Terrorism and the Soviet Union Vatican Opposition Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia

Reforms

Uskoreniye Perestroika

Democratization in the Soviet Union Khozraschyot 500 Days Sinatra Doctrine

Glasnost Socialism with Chinese characteristics Đổi mới

Government leaders

Ramiz Alia Nicolae Ceaușescu Mikhail Gorbachev Károly Grósz Erich Honecker János Kádár Miloš Jakeš Egon Krenz Wojciech Jaruzelski Slobodan Milošević Mathieu Kérékou Mengistu Haile Mariam Ne Win Denis Sassou Nguesso Heng Samrin Deng Xiaoping Todor Zhivkov Siad Barre

Opposition methods

Civil resistance Demonstrations Human chains Magnitizdat Polish underground press Protests Samizdat Strike action

Opposition leaders

Lech Wałęsa Václav Havel Alexander Dubček Ion Iliescu Liu Gang Wu'erkaixi Chai Ling Wang Dan Feng Congde Tank Man Joachim Gauck Sali Berisha Sanjaasürengiin Zorig Vladimir Bukovsky Boris Yeltsin Viacheslav Chornovil Vytautas Landsbergis Zianon Pazniak Zhelyu Zhelev Aung San Suu Kyi Meles Zenawi Isaias Afwerki Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush Pope John Paul II

Opposition movements

Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation Charter 77 New Forum Civic Forum Democratic Party of Albania Democratic Russia Initiative for Peace and Human Rights Sąjūdis Peaceful Revolution People's Movement of Ukraine Solidarity Popular Front of Latvia Popular Front of Estonia Public Against Violence Belarusian Popular Front National League for Democracy National Salvation Front Unification Church political activities Union of Democratic Forces

Events by location

Central and Eastern Europe

Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Soviet Union Yugoslavia

Soviet Union

Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Chechnya Estonia Georgia Latvia Lithuania Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikstan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan

Elsewhere

Afghanistan Angola Benin Burma Cambodia China Congo-Brazzaville Ethiopia Mongolia Mozambique Somalia South Yemen

Individual events

1988 Polish strikes April 9 tragedy Black January Baltic Way 1987–89 Tibetan unrest Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria Polish Round Table Agreement Hungarian Round Table Talks Pan-European Picnic Monday Demonstrations Alexanderplatz demonstration Malta Summit German reunification January Events in Lithuania January Events in Latvia 1991 protests in Belgrade August Coup Dissolution of the Soviet Union

Later events

Colour revolution Decommunization Lustration Democratization Economic liberalization Post-Soviet conflicts Neo-Sovietism Neo-Stalinism Post-communism Yugoslav Wars

v t e

Timeline of Yugoslav statehood

Pre-1918 1918–1929 1929–1945 1941–1945 1945–1946 1946–1963 1963–1992 1992–2003 2003–2006 2006–2008 2008–

Slovenia

Part of Austria-Hungary including the Bay of Kotor See also Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia 1868–1918 Kingdom of Dalmatia 1815–1918 Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1878–1918

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes (1918–1929)

Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1945) See also State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs 1918 Republic of Prekmurje 1919 Banat, Bačka and Baranja 1918–1919 Free State of Fiume 1920–1924 1924–1945 Italian province of Zadar 1920–1947

Annexed bya Fascist Italy
Italy
and Nazi Germany Democratic Federal Yugoslavia 1945–1946

Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia 1946–1963

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1963–1992 Consisted of the Socialist Republics of Slovenia
Slovenia
(1945–1991) Croatia
Croatia
(1945–1991) Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
(1945–1992) Serbia
Serbia
(1945–1992) (included the autonomous provinces of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Kosovo) Montenegro
Montenegro
(1945–1992) Macedonia (1945–1991) See also Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste
(1947–1954) j

 Republic of Slovenia Ten-Day War

Dalmatia

Independent State of Croatia 1941–1945 Puppet state of Nazi Germany. Parts annexed by Fascist Italy. Međimurje
Međimurje
and Baranja annexed by Hungary.

 Republic of Croatiab Croatian War of Independence

Slavonia

Croatia

Bosnia  Bosnia and Herzegovinac Bosnian War Consists of the Federation
Federation
of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1995–present), Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(1995–present) and Brčko District (2000–present).

Herzegovina

Vojvodina Part of the Délvidék region of Hungary Autonomous Banatd (part of the German Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia)

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Consisted of the Republic of Serbia
Serbia
(1990–2006) and Republic of Montenegro
Montenegro
(1992–2006)

State Union of Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro Republic of Serbia Included the autonomous provinces of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and, under UN administration, Kosovo
Kosovo
and Metohija

Republic of Serbia Includes the autonomous province of Vojvodina

Serbia Kingdom of Serbia 1882–1918 Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia 1941–1944 e

Kosovo Part of the Kingdom of Serbia 1912–1918 Mostly annexed by Albania 1941–1944 along with western Macedonia and south-eastern Montenegro

Republic of Kosovog

Metohija Kingdom of Montenegro 1910–1918 Metohija
Metohija
controlled by Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
1915–1918

Montenegro Protectorate of Montenegrof 1941–1944  Montenegro

Macedonia Part of the Kingdom of Serbia 1912–1918 Annexed by the Kingdom of Bulgaria 1941–1944  Republic of Macedoniah

a Prekmurje
Prekmurje
annexed by Hungary. b See also SAO Kninska Krajina
SAO Kninska Krajina
(1990) → SAO Krajina (1990–1991); and SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia (1990–1991), SAO Western Slavonia (1990–1991) and the Republic of Serbian Krajina (1990–1995), all replaced by the UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (1996–1998). c See also Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia; and the Serbian Autonomous Oblasts
Serbian Autonomous Oblasts
(SAOs) of Bosanska Krajina, North-Eastern Bosnia, Romanija and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
(1991–1992), which all combined to form the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
(1992–1995). d Bačka
Bačka
was reannexed by Hungary (1941–1944), while Syrmia
Syrmia
was annexed by the Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
(1941–1944). e See also Republic of Užice. f Annexed by Fascist Italy
Italy
(1941–1943) and Nazi Germany (1943–1944). Smaller part annexed by the Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
(1941–1944).

g Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states. h Macedonia is known in the United Nations
United Nations
as The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
because of a naming dispute with Greece. j Free Territory was established in 1947. Its administration was divided into two areas (Zone A) and (Zone B). Free Territory was de facto taken over by Italy

.