HOME
The Info List - Brazzaville





Brazzaville
Brazzaville
(French pronunciation: ​[bʁazavil]) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
and is on the north side of the Congo River, opposite Kinshasa. Its population is estimated to exceed 1.8 million. Over a third of the population of the Republic of Congo lives in the capital, and it is home to 40% of non-agricultural employment. It is also a financial and administrative capital.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History 3 Demographics 4 Government 5 Economy 6 Buildings and institutions 7 Education 8 Climate 9 Transport 10 Notable people 11 Twin towns and sister cities 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References

14.1 Bibliography

15 Notes 16 External links

Geography[edit]

Kinshasa
Kinshasa
seen from Brazzaville. The two capitals are separated by the Congo River.

View of Brazzaville
Brazzaville
from space

Brazzaville
Brazzaville
lies on a large area to the north of the Congo River, near the Pool Malebo. Mbamu, a large island within the Pool, is part of the Republic of Congo's territory. Brazzaville
Brazzaville
is 506 kilometres (314 miles) inland from the Atlantic Ocean and approximately 474 kilometres (295 miles) south of the equator. The city is a commune that is separated from the other regions of the republic; it is surrounded by the Pool Department. Around the city are large plains. The town is relatively flat, and situated at an altitude of 317 metres (1,040 feet). To distinguish between the two African countries with "Congo" in their names, the Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
is sometimes called Congo-Brazzaville, as opposed to Congo- Kinshasa
Kinshasa
(the Democratic Republic of the Congo, known from 1971 to 1997 as Zaïre, the capital of which is Kinshasa). Kinshasa
Kinshasa
lies on the southern bank of the Congo, directly across from Brazzaville. This is the only place in the world where two national capital cities are on opposite banks of a river, within sight of each other.[3] Since the mid-19th century the two cities have been rivals in trade, sports and power.[3] There have been proposals to connect the two capitals by a Brazzaville–Kinshasa Bridge. Studies reveal the anticipated cost is around 1.65 billion USD, but it is not expected that the project will be undertaken in the near or even distant future.[3] History[edit] See also: Timeline of Brazzaville

French Colonial Soldiers at drill in Brazzaville
Brazzaville
in 1899

Brazzaville
Brazzaville
was founded by the French colonial empire
French colonial empire
upon an existing indigenous Bateke
Bateke
settlement called Ncuna, as part of the Scramble for Africa.[4] The Italian-born explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza, granted French citizenship in 1874, officially founded the settlement which commemorates his name on 10 September 1880.[4] The local King, Makoko of the Téké, signed a treaty of protection with de Brazza which subjugated his lands to the French Empire.[4] From October 1880 until May 1882 a small squad of troops led by Senegalese Sergeant Malamine Camara
Malamine Camara
occupied the site, preventing the land from falling into Belgian hands. The first large scale building work of the city only began four years later in order as a competitor with Léopoldville
Léopoldville
(now Kinshasa) which Belgian colonists built on the other side of the river.[4] The Berlin Conference
Berlin Conference
of 1884 placed French control over the area on an official footing. The city became the capital of the French Congo in 1904.[5] It then continued as capital with the creation of French Equatorial Africa, a federation founded in 1910, of French colonial states which encompassed Gabon, the Central African Republic
Central African Republic
and Chad until 1960.[5] 1910–1915 saw the construction of major municipal buildings, including a courthouse and headquarters for the Banque de l'AEF and Institut Pasteur.[6] In 1934 the Congo-Océan railway
Congo-Océan railway
came into service, linking Brazzaville
Brazzaville
with the Atlantic port of Pointe-Noire. Construction of the railway resulted in the death of over 17,000 Africans, which led to a revolt in 1928.[7]

Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza
Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza
Mausoleum

During World War II Brazzaville
Brazzaville
and the rest of French Equatorial Africa remained beyond the control of Vichy France; the city served as the capital of France
France
Libre from 1940–1943.[6] In 1944, Brazzaville hosted a meeting of the French resistance
French resistance
forces and representatives of France's African colonies. The resulting Brazzaville
Brazzaville
Declaration represented an attempt to redefine the relationship between France
France
and its African colonies.[5] Until the 1960s, the city was divided into European (the center of the city) and African sections (Poto-Poto, Bacongo, and Makélékélé). In 1980 it became a "commune" separated from the surrounding Pool Department and divided into nine "arrondissements (boroughs). The city has frequently been a staging ground for wars, including conflicts between rebel and government forces and between forces of the Republic of Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
(DCR), and Angola. It was also the scene of bloody civil wars throughout the 1990s which resulted in thousands of civilian deaths and which forced hundreds of thousands of refugees to flee the city. More recently thousands of people leaving the DRC have found their way to Brazzaville; the local United Nations force and the DRC government have accused the city of deporting thousands of these refugees.[8][9] In April 2016 fighting occurred between police and local militia units, with at least 18 people killed.[10] Demographics[edit]

Housing in the Bacongo arrondisement.

As of the 2007 census, it had a population of 1.37 million. The projection of the CNSEE (national statistics centre) shows an increase to 1.7 million by 2015,[1] but the projection was made before 2007 and based on a lower estimate of the population (1.26 million) than recorded in the census. The United Nations Population Division estimate for 2014 is 1.83 million. The populous city of Kinshasa
Kinshasa
(more than 10 million inhabitants in 2014),[2] capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, lies across the Congo River
Congo River
from Brazzaville. Together with Kinshasa, the combined conurbation of Kinshasa- Brazzaville
Brazzaville
has thus about 12 million inhabitants (although significant political and infrastructure challenges prevent the two cities from functioning with any meaningful connection). Government[edit] See also: List of mayors of Brazzaville Brazzaville, like Pointe-Noire, has both the status of a commune (municipality) and a department. It is thus governed by a municipal council and a departmental council. The mayor is the president of the municipal council.[11] The city is divided into nine arrondissements (boroughs):[12]

Bacongo (fr) Djiri (fr) Madibou (fr) Makélékélé (fr) Mfilou (fr) Moungali (fr) Ouenzé Poto-Poto Talangaï (fr)

Economy[edit]

Nabemba Tower

The location of Brazzaville
Brazzaville
near the pool of the Congo River
Congo River
enabled it to grow as an industrial, trading and port settlement, in part due to the accumulation of raw materials extracted during the colonial period.[5] Industries present in Brazzaville
Brazzaville
include machine shops, textiles, tanning, and manufacturing. As a key port on the Congo River, the city takes deliveries of raw materials, such as rubber, wood and agricultural products. From here they are generally sent onward to Pointe-Noire
Pointe-Noire
for export. As the capital city of the Republic of Congo, many companies, government organizations and NGOs have regional offices in the city. The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
has its regional office for Africa located in Brazzaville.[13] Companies headquartered in Brazzaville include Equatorial Congo Airlines[14] and the mobile operator Warid Congo.[15] Buildings and institutions[edit]

The Sacred Heart Cathedral in 1926

Notable buildings in the city include the Sacred Heart Cathedral, St Anne's Basilica built in 1949 by Roger Erell, and known for its green tiled roof; Erell also designed a house in the city for Charles de Gaulle. Other buildings include the Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza Mausoleum, the Nabemba Tower
Nabemba Tower
and the Congressional Palace. Other features include the Marien Ngouabi Mausoleum, Brazzaville Zoo
Brazzaville Zoo
and the Poto-Poto
Poto-Poto
School of Painting. The United States Embassy for the Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
is also in Brazzaville, as is the Dutch Honorary Consulate. The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
Regional Office for Africa is based in Brazzaville
Brazzaville
on a vast campus at the Cité du Djoué. Education[edit] The Marien Ngouabi University is a public university in Brazzaville.[16] The university was founded in December, 1971 and has approximately 26,000 students.[16] International schools:

Lycée Français Saint-Exupéry de Brazzaville
Lycée Français Saint-Exupéry de Brazzaville
(French) American International School of Brazzaville

Climate[edit] Brazzaville, much like neighboring Kinshasa, features a tropical wet and dry climate. Its wet season, which runs from October–May, is longer than its dry season, which covers the remaining months. Brazzaville's driest months, July and August, see on average no significant precipitation. Since Brazzaville
Brazzaville
is south of the equator, its dry season begins at around its "winter" solstice, which is the month of June. The city experiences relatively consistent temperatures throughout the course of the year.

Climate data for Brazzaville
Brazzaville
(Maya-Maya Airport) 1961–1990, extremes 1932–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 37.5 (99.5) 36.3 (97.3) 37.5 (99.5) 36.8 (98.2) 37.3 (99.1) 34.3 (93.7) 33.8 (92.8) 40.2 (104.4) 39.5 (103.1) 38.9 (102) 35.8 (96.4) 40.2 (104.4) 40.2 (104.4)

Average high °C (°F) 30.5 (86.9) 31.3 (88.3) 31.7 (89.1) 31.8 (89.2) 30.9 (87.6) 28.4 (83.1) 27.0 (80.6) 28.5 (83.3) 30.4 (86.7) 30.8 (87.4) 30.4 (86.7) 30.2 (86.4) 30.2 (86.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) 26.0 (78.8) 26.4 (79.5) 26.7 (80.1) 26.8 (80.2) 26.2 (79.2) 23.8 (74.8) 22.4 (72.3) 23.6 (74.5) 25.5 (77.9) 26.1 (79) 25.9 (78.6) 25.8 (78.4) 25.4 (77.7)

Average low °C (°F) 21.4 (70.5) 21.5 (70.7) 21.7 (71.1) 21.9 (71.4) 21.6 (70.9) 19.3 (66.7) 17.8 (64) 18.8 (65.8) 20.6 (69.1) 21.4 (70.5) 21.4 (70.5) 21.5 (70.7) 20.7 (69.3)

Record low °C (°F) 17.0 (62.6) 14.5 (58.1) 17.7 (63.9) 18.6 (65.5) 17.0 (62.6) 12.7 (54.9) 10.5 (50.9) 10.3 (50.5) 15.2 (59.4) 13.7 (56.7) 18.2 (64.8) 17.7 (63.9) 10.3 (50.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 160 (6.3) 137 (5.39) 167 (6.57) 191 (7.52) 118 (4.65) 8 (0.31) 3 (0.12) 4 (0.16) 34 (1.34) 139 (5.47) 261 (10.28) 172 (6.77) 1,394 (54.88)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10 8 11 12 8 1 0 0 4 9 14 12 89

Average relative humidity (%) 81 80 79 81 81 79 77 73 71 76 81 82 78

Mean monthly sunshine hours 171 167 192 181 177 141 127 133 145 152 157 154 1,897

Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(humidity, 1951–1990)[17][18][a]

Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[19]

Transport[edit]

Taxis in Brazzaville

The city is home to Maya-Maya Airport, which lies in the centre of the city and which has regular flights to Pointe-Noire
Pointe-Noire
as well as international destinations in Africa, Europe and the Middle East. A flight operates twice weekly between Brazzaville
Brazzaville
and Kinshasa, but the flight time is only five minutes.[3] The Congo-Ocean Railway
Congo-Ocean Railway
has a station in the city and in 2014 was operating the La Gazelle train
La Gazelle train
service every other day to Pointe-Noire and intermediate destinations.[20] The city is an important river port, with ferries sailing to Kinshasa and to Bangui
Bangui
via Impfondo.[3] Ferries and fast private boats serve as the primary means of connection between Kinshasa
Kinshasa
and Brazzaville.[3] The Livingstone Falls
Livingstone Falls
lie on the outskirts of the city, where the Djoué River meets the Congo, rendering river transport to the coast impossible, qualifying the railway as a portage railway. Although there is no organised public transport system, privately owned buses are available in the capital.[21] Taxis are available on every street and are easily recognized, being painted with a green body and white top, and the fare for a short trip is CF700. About twenty percent of the vehicles in Brazzaville
Brazzaville
are taxis. There are also collective taxis that drive certain routes and charge CF150. Notable people[edit]

Gaitana, Ukrainian singer who lived in Brazzaville
Brazzaville
for five years. Serge Ibaka, professional basketball player born in Brazzaville. Cyril Kongo, a French painter and graffiti artist, lived in Brazzaville
Brazzaville
in the 80s.

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Dresden, Germany[22] Weihai, China Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

See also[edit]

Avenue Matsoua

Notes[edit]

^ Station ID for Brazzaville/ Maya–Maya is 64450 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

References[edit]

^ a b "Répartition de la population par Départements et Communes en 1984 et projetée de 2000 à 2015" (in French). Centre National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (CNSEE), Republic of the Congo. Retrieved 27 October 2013.  ^ a b "Monographie de la Ville de Kinshasa" (in French). Unité de Pilotage du Processus d'Elaboration et de mise œuvre de la Stratégie pour la Réduction de la Pauvreté (UPPE-SRP). Archived from the original (SWF) on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 19 January 2007.  ^ a b c d e f "Face-off over the Congo: the long rivalry between Kinshasa
Kinshasa
and Brazzaville". Retrieved July 15, 2017.  ^ a b c d Pakenham, Thomas (1991). The Scramble for Africa. Abacus. p. 150.  ^ a b c d Thomas, Dominic (2005). Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century African History. Routledge.  ^ a b Jean-Jacques Youlou & Scholastique Dianzinga, "Une capitale dans l'histoire"; Chapter 1 in Ziavoula (2006). ^ " Republic of Congo
Republic of Congo
profile". 11 April 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.  ^ "Deportation comments anger Congo", Independent Online (SAPA-AFP), 28 May 2014. ^ James Butty, "DRC Threatens Legal Action over Deportations from Congo-Brazzaville", VOA News, 27 May 2014. ^ "Heavy gunfire in Congo- Brazzaville
Brazzaville
capital as police battle militia". The Guardian. Retrieved July 15, 2017.  ^ Brazzaville.cg (site officiel de la commune de Brazzaville), "L'administration municipale"; accessed 16 July 2017. ^ "Les arrondissements". Brazzaville.cg (in French). Commune de Brazzaville, Congo. Retrieved 12 September 2017.  ^ "Regional Office for Africa".  ^ "ECAir Fleet Details and History". www.planespotters.net. Retrieved 2016-06-05.  ^ "Company Overview of Warid Congo S.A."  ^ a b "Quick Facts". Retrieved July 15, 2017.  ^ "Klimatafel von Brazzaville
Brazzaville
(Flugh.) / Kongo" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 24 October 2016.  ^ "Station 64450 Brazzaville/ Maya–Maya". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 24 October 2016.  ^ "Station Brazzaville" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved 24 October 2016.  ^ Planet, Lonely. " La Gazelle train
La Gazelle train
Brazzaville
Brazzaville
to Pointe Noire".  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 2014-09-27.  ^ "Coopération". Brazzaville.cg (in French). Commune de Brazzaville, Congo. Retrieved 12 September 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

Ziavoula, Robert Edmond, ed. (2006). Brazzaville, une ville à reconstruire. Paris: Karthala. ISBN 2-84586-825-1.

Notes[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Brazzaville

Chavannes, Charles de. (1929) "Le Sergent Sénégalais Malamine." Annales de l'Académie des Sciences Coloniales, vol. 3:159–187. Petringa, Maria. (2006) Brazza, A Life for Africa (2006) ISBN 978-1-4259-1198-0 Tiepolo, M. (1996) "City Profile: Brazzaville" in Cities v. 13, pp. 117–124 Brisset-Guibert, Hervé (2007) Brazzaville
Brazzaville
petit guide historique, in the site www.presidence.cg ("palais presidentiel") Cultural reference: In the final scene of the 1942 film, Casablanca, it is to Brazzaville
Brazzaville
that Captain Renault (Claude Rains) suggests he and Rick (Humphrey Bogart) might escape to together for "vacation" and, as Rick counters, "the beginning of a beautiful friendship."

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brazzaville.

BRAKIN, the fusion city of Brazzaville
Brazzaville
and Kinshasa, urban analysis seminar with vectorised maps of the agglomeration by TU Darmstadt, 2009 Maria Petringa's 1997 biographical article on Savorgnan de Brazza, describing events leading to the founding of Brazzaville Brazzaville
Brazzaville
travel guide from Wikivoyage

v t e

Departments of the Republic of the Congo

Departments

Bouenza Brazzaville Cuvette Cuvette-Ouest Kouilou Lékoumou Likouala Niari Plateaux Pointe-Noire Pool Sangha

v t e

Capitals of Africa

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

Abuja, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Algiers, Algeria Antananarivo, Madagascar Asmara, Eritrea Bamako, Mali Bangui, Central African Republic Banjul, Gambia Bissau, Guinea-Bissau Brazzaville, Rep. of the Congo Bujumbura, Burundi Cairo, Egypt Conakry, Guinea Dakar, Senegal Djibouti, Djibouti Dodoma, Tanzania El Aaiún(claimed)/Tifariti(factual), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1 Freetown, Sierra Leone Funchal, Madeira4 Gaborone, Botswana Harare, Zimbabwe Hargeisa, Somaliland1 Jamestown, St Helena, Ascension & Tristan da Cunha2 Juba, South Sudan Kampala, Uganda Khartoum, Sudan Kigali, Rwanda Kinshasa, D.R. Congo Libreville, Gabon Lilongwe, Malawi Lomé, Togo Luanda, Angola Lusaka, Zambia Malabo, Equatorial Guinea Mamoudzou, Mayotte3 Maputo, Mozambique Maseru, Lesotho

Mbabane
Mbabane
(executive)   Lobamba
Lobamba
(legislative), Swaziland

Mogadishu, Somalia Monrovia, Liberia Moroni, Comoros Nairobi, Kenya N'Djamena, Chad Niamey, Niger Nouakchott, Mauritania Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Port Louis, Mauritius Porto-Novo, Benin Praia, Cape Verde

Pretoria
Pretoria
(executive)   Cape Town
Cape Town
(legislative)   Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
(judicial), South Africa

Rabat, Morocco Saint-Denis, Réunion3 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
and Las Palmas, Canary Islands5 São Tomé, São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia Victoria, Seychelles Windhoek, Namibia

Yamoussoukro
Yamoussoukro
(political)   Abidjan
Abidjan
(economic), Ivory Coast

Yaoundé, Cameroon

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation 2 British Overseas Territory 3 Overseas region
Overseas region
of France 4 Autonomous region of Portugal 5 Autonomous community of Spain

v t e

All-Africa Games
All-Africa Games
host cities

   

1965: Brazzaville 1973: Lagos 1978: Algiers 1987: Nairobi

1991: Cairo 1995: Harare 1999: Johannesburg 2003: Abuja

2007: Algiers 2011: Maputo 2015: Brazzaville 2019: Luanda

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 143054905 LCCN: n79079432 GND: 4080519-0 BNF: cb1196

.