Brazil ( pt|Brasil; ),
officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ),
is the largest country in both South America
and Latin America
. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area
and the sixth most populous
. Its capital is Brasília
, and its most populous city
is São Paulo
. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states
and the Federal District
. It is the largest country to have Portuguese
as an official language
and the only one in the Americas
it is also one of the most multicultural
and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world
; as well as the most populous Roman Catholic-majority country
Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean
on the east, Brazil has a coastline
It borders all other countries in South America except Ecuador
and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon basin
includes a vast tropical forest
, home to diverse wildlife
, a variety of ecological systems
, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats
This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries
, and is the subject of significant global interest, as environmental degradation through processes like deforestation
has direct impacts on global issues like climate change
and biodiversity loss
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations
prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral
, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire
. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony
until 1808 when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro
. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil
, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress
. The country became a presidential republic
in 1889 following a military coup d'état
. An authoritarian military junta
came to power in 1964
and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution
, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic
Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world
by number of UNESCO World Heritage Site
Brazil is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank
and a newly industrialized country
, with the largest share of global wealth
in Latin America. It is considered an advanced emerging economy
, having the twelfth largest GDP
in the world by nominal
, and eighth by PPP
It is one of the world's major breadbasket
s, being the largest producer of coffee
for the last 150 years.
Brazil is a regional power
and sometimes considered a great
or a middle power
in international affairs
On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power
[FRIDE: The international arena and emerging powers: stabilising or destabilising forces?](_blank)
, Susanne Gratius, April 2008
and a potential superpower
by several analysts.
Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations
, the G20
, Organization of American States
, Organization of Ibero-American States
and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries
The word "Brazil" likely comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood
, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called ''pau-brasil'', with the word ''brasil'' commonly given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from ''brasa'' ("ember") and the suffix ''-il'' (from ''-iculum'' or ''-ilium'').
As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was highly valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil.
Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples
) along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders (mostly Portuguese, but also French) in return for assorted European consumer goods.
The official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross" (''Terra da Santa Cruz''),
but European sailors and merchants commonly called it simply the "Land of Brazil" (''Terra do Brasil'') because of the brazilwood trade.
The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name. Some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots".
In the Guarani language
, an official language of Paraguay
, Brazil is called "Pindorama". This was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas
, Luzia Woman
, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo
, Minas Gerais
and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years.
The earliest pottery
ever found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin
of Brazil and radiocarbon dated
to 8,000 years ago (6000 BC). The pottery was found near Santarém
and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture.
[Science Magazine, 13 December 1991 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/254/5038/1621.abstract]
The Marajoara culture
flourished on Marajó
in the Amazon delta from 400 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification
, large populations, mound building
, and complex social formations such as chiefdom
Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people, mostly semi-nomadic, who subsisted on hunting, fishing, gathering, and migrant agriculture. The indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups (e.g. the Tupis
). The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins
, and there were also many subdivisions of the other groups.
Before the arrival of the Europeans, the boundaries between these groups and their subgroups were marked by wars that arose from differences in culture, language and moral beliefs.
These wars also involved large-scale military actions on land and water, with cannibalistic
rituals on prisoners of war
. While heredity had some weight, leadership status was more subdued over time, than allocated in succession ceremonies and conventions.
among the Indians had a different meaning than it had for Europeans, since it originated from a diverse socioeconomic organization, in which asymmetries were translated into kinship
The land now called Brazil was claimed for the Portuguese Empire
on 22 April 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral
[Boxer, p. 98.]
The Portuguese encountered indigenous peoples divided into several tribes, most of whom spoke languages of the Tupi–Guarani
family, and fought among themselves.
[Boxer, p. 100.]
Though the first settlement was founded in 1532, colonization
effectively began in 1534, when King John III of Portugal
divided the territory into the fifteen private and autonomous Captaincy Colonies of Brazil
[Skidmore, p. 27.]
However, the decentralized and unorganized tendencies of the captaincy colonies proved problematic, and in 1549 the Portuguese king restructured them into the Governorate General of Brazil
in the city of Salvador
, which became the capital of a single and centralized Portuguese colony in South America.
In the first two centuries of colonization, Indigenous and European groups lived in constant war, establishing opportunistic
alliances in order to gain advantages against each other. By the mid-16th century, cane sugar
had become Brazil's most important export,
and slaves purchased in Sub-Saharan Africa
, in the slave market of Western Africa
(not only those from Portuguese allies of their colonies in Angola
), had become its largest import, to cope with plantations
of sugarcane, due to increasing international demand for Brazilian sugar.
[Boxer, p. 102.]
Portuguese Brazil received more than 2.8 million slaves from Africa between the years of 1500 to 1800.
By the end of the 17th century, sugarcane exports began to decline, and the discovery of gold by bandeirantes
in the 1690s would become the new backbone of the colony's economy, fostering a Brazilian Gold Rush
which attracted thousands of new settlers
to Brazil from Portugal and all Portuguese colonies around the world. This increased level of immigration in turn caused some conflicts
between newcomers and old settlers.
Portuguese expeditions known as Bandeiras
gradually advanced the Portugal colonial original frontiers
in South America to approximately the current Brazilian borders. In this era other European powers tried to colonize parts of Brazil, in incursions that the Portuguese had to fight, notably the French in Rio during the 1560s
, in Maranhão during the 1610s
, and the Dutch in Bahia and Pernambuco
, during the Dutch–Portuguese War
, after the end of Iberian Union
The Portuguese colonial administration in Brazil had two objectives that would ensure colonial order and the monopoly
of Portugal's wealthiest and largest colony: to keep under control and eradicate all forms of slave rebellion
and resistance, such as the Quilombo of Palmares
, and to repress all movements for autonomy
, such as the Minas Conspiracy
United Kingdom with Portugal
In late 1807, Spanish and Napoleonic forces threatened the security of continental Portugal
, causing Prince Regent João
, in the name of Queen Maria I
, to move the royal court from Lisbon
to Rio de Janeiro
[Boxer, p. 213]
There they established some of Brazil's first financial institutions, such as its local stock exchange
s, and its National Bank
, additionally ending the Portuguese monopoly
on Brazilian trade and opening Brazil to other nations. In 1809, in retaliation for being forced into exile, the Prince Regent ordered the Portuguese conquest of French Guiana
With the end of the Peninsular War
in 1814, the courts of Europe demanded that Queen Maria I and Prince Regent João return to Portugal, deeming it unfit for the head of an ancient European monarchy to reside in a colony
. In 1815, to justify continuing to live in Brazil, where the royal court had thrived for six years, the Crown established the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves
, thus creating a pluricontinental
transatlantic monarchic state.
However, the leadership in Portugal, resentful of the new status of its larger colony, continued to demand the return of the court to Lisbon (''v.'' Liberal Revolution of 1820
). In 1821, acceding to the demands of revolutionaries who had taken the city of Porto
D. João VI departed for Lisbon. There he swore an oath to the new constitution, leaving his son, Prince Pedro de Alcântara
, as Regent of the Kingdom of Brazil
Tensions between Portuguese and Brazilians increased, and the Portuguese Cortes
, guided by the new political regime imposed by the 1820 Liberal Revolution, tried to re-establish Brazil as a colony. The Brazilians refused to yield, and Prince Pedro decided to stand with them, declaring the country's independence from Portugal
on 7 September 1822. A month later, Prince Pedro was declared the first Emperor of Brazil
, with the royal title of Dom Pedro I
, resulting in the foundation of the Empire of Brazil
The Brazilian War of Independence
, which had already begun along this process, spread through the northern, northeastern regions and in Cisplatina
province. The last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on 8 March 1824; Portugal officially recognized Brazil on 29 August 1825.
On 7 April 1831, worn down by years of administrative turmoil and political dissent with both liberal and conservative sides of politics, including an attempt of republican secession
, and unreconciled to the way that absolutists in Portugal had given in the succession of King John VI, Pedro I went to Portugal to reclaim his daughter's crown
, abdicating the Brazilian throne in favor of his five-year-old son and heir (who thus became the Empire's second monarch, with the royal title of Dom Pedro II
As the new Emperor could not exert his constitutional powers until he came of age, a regency
was set up by the National Assembly. In the absence of a charismatic figure who could represent a moderate face of power, during this period a series of localized rebellions took place, such as the Cabanagem
in Grão-Pará Province
, the Malê Revolt
in Salvador da Bahia
, the Balaiada
), the Sabinada
), and the Ragamuffin War
, which began in Rio Grande do Sul
and was supported by Giuseppe Garibaldi
. These emerged from the dissatisfaction of the provinces with the central power, coupled with old and latent social tensions peculiar to a vast, slaveholding and newly independent nation state
. This period of internal political and social upheaval, which included the Praieira revolt
, was overcome only at the end of the 1840s, years after the end of the regency, which occurred with the premature coronation of Pedro II
During the last phase of the monarchy, internal political debate centered on the issue of slavery. The Atlantic slave trade
was abandoned in 1850, as a result of the British Aberdeen Act
, but only in May 1888
after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the country
, was the institution formally abolished.
The foreign-affairs policies of the monarchy dealt with issues with the countries of the Southern Cone
with whom Brazil had borders. Long after the Cisplatine War
that resulted in independence for Uruguay
, Brazil won three international wars during the 58-year reign of Pedro II. These were the Platine War
, the Uruguayan War
and the devastating Paraguayan War
, the largest war effort
in Brazilian history.
Although there was no desire among the majority of Brazilians to change the country's form of government
, on 15 November 1889, in disagreement with the majority of Army
officers, as well as with rural and financial elites (for different reasons), the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup. 15 November is now Republic Day
, a national holiday.
The early republican government was nothing more than a military dictatorship, with army dominating affairs both in Rio de Janeiro and in the states. Freedom of the press disappeared and elections were controlled by those in power. Not until 1894, following an economic
crisis and a military one
, did civilians take power, remaining there until October 1930.
If in relation to its foreign policy, the country in this first republican period maintained a relative balance characterized by a success in resolving border disputes with neighboring countries, only broken by the Acre War
(1899–1902) and its involvement
in World War I
(1914–1918), followed by a failed attempt to exert a prominent role in the League of Nations
; Internally, from the ''crisis of Encilhamento'' and the Armada Revolts
, a prolonged cycle of financial, political and social instability began until the 1920s, keeping the country besieged by various rebellions, both civilian and military.
Little by little, a cycle of general instability
sparked by these crises undermined the regime to such an extent that in the wake of the murder of his running mate, the defeated opposition presidential candidate Getúlio Vargas
, supported by most of the military, successfully led the October 1930 Coup
. Vargas and the military were supposed to assume power temporarily, but instead closed the Congress, extinguished the Constitution, ruled with emergency powers and replaced the states' governors with their own supporters.
In the 1930s, three failed attempts to remove Vargas and his supporters from power occurred. The first was the Constitutionalist Revolution
in 1932, led by the Paulista oligarchy
. The second was a Communist uprising
in November 1935, and the last one a ''putsch'' attempt by local fascists
in May 1938. The 1935 uprising created a security crisis in which the Congress transferred more power to the executive. The 1937 ''coup d'état'' resulted in the cancellation of the 1938 election, formalized Vargas as dictator, beginning the Estado Novo
era, which was noted for government brutality and censorship of the press.
Foreign policy during the Vargas years was marked by the antecedents and World War II
. Brazil remained neutral until August 1942, when the country entered on the allied side
, after suffering retaliation
by Nazi Germany
and Fascist Italy
, in a strategic dispute over the South Atlantic. In addition to its participation in the battle of the Atlantic
, Brazil also sent an expeditionary force
to fight in the Italian campaign
With the Allied victory in 1945 and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in another military coup, with democracy "reinstated" by the same army that had ended it 15 years earlier. Vargas committed suicide in August 1954 amid a political crisis, after having returned to power by election in 1950.
Several brief interim governments followed Vargas's suicide. Juscelino Kubitschek
became president in 1956 and assumed a conciliatory posture towards the political opposition
that allowed him to govern without major crises. The economy and industrial sector grew remarkably, but his greatest achievement was the construction of the new capital city of Brasília
, inaugurated in 1960.
Kubitschek's successor, Jânio Quadros
, resigned in 1961 less than a year after taking office. His vice-president, João Goulart
, assumed the presidency, but aroused strong political opposition and was deposed in April 1964
by a coup that resulted in a military regime
The new regime was intended to be transitory but gradually closed in on itself and became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act
[Gaspari, ''A Ditadura Envergonhada'', p. 35.]
Oppression was not limited to those who resorted to guerrilla tactics to fight the regime, but also reached institutional opponents, artists, journalists and other members of civil society, inside and outside the country through the infamous "Operation Condor
". Despite its brutality, like other authoritarian regimes
, due to an economic boom, known as an "economic miracle", the regime reached a peak in popularity in the early 1970s.
Slowly, however, the wear and tear of years of dictatorial power that had not slowed the repression, even after the defeat of the leftist guerrillas, plus the inability to deal with the economic crises of the period and popular pressure, made an opening policy inevitable, which from the regime side was led by Generals Ernesto Geisel
and Golbery do Couto e Silva
. With the enactment of the Amnesty Law
in 1979, Brazil began a slow return to democracy, which was completed during the 1980s.
Civilians returned to power in 1985 when José Sarney
assumed the presidency. He became unpopular during his tenure through failure to control the economic crisis and hyperinflation
he inherited from the military regime. Sarney's unsuccessful government led to the election in 1989
of the almost-unknown Fernando Collor
, subsequently impeached by the National Congress in 1992.
Collor was succeeded by his vice-president, Itamar Franco
, who appointed Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Minister of Finance. In 1994, Cardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real
, that, after decades of failed economic plans made by previous governments attempting to curb hyperinflation, finally stabilized the Brazilian economy. Cardoso won the 1994 election
, and again in 1998
The peaceful transition of power
from Cardoso to his main opposition leader, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
(elected in 2002
and re-elected in 2006
), was seen as proof that Brazil had achieved a long-sought political stability. However, sparked by indignation and frustrations accumulated over decades from corruption, police brutality
, inefficiencies of the political establishment
and public service
, numerous peaceful protests
erupted in Brazil from the middle of first term of Dilma Rousseff
, who had succeeded Lula after winning election in 2010
and again in in 2014
by narrow margins.
Rousseff was impeached
by the Brazilian Congress
in 2016, halfway into her second term,
and replaced by her Vice-President Michel Temer
, who assumed full presidential powers after Rousseff's impeachment was accepted on 31 August. Large street protests for and against her
took place during the impeachment process. The charges against her were fueled by political and economic crises along with evidence of involvement with politicians (from all the primary political parties) in several bribery
and tax evasion
In 2017, the Supreme Court requested the investigation of 71 Brazilian lawmakers and nine ministers of President Michel Temer
's cabinet who were allegedly linked to the Petrobras corruption scandal
. President Temer himself was also accused of corruption
. According to a 2018 poll, 62% of the population said that corruption was Brazil's biggest problem.
Through the Operation Car Wash
, the Federal Police of Brazil
has since acted on the deviations and corruption of the PT and allied parties at that time. In the fiercely disputed 2018 elections
, the controversial conservative candidate Jair Bolsonaro
of the Social Liberal Party
(PSL) was elected president, winning in the second round Fernando Haddad
, of the Workers Party
(PT), with the support of 55.13% of the valid votes.
Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior,
sharing land borders with Uruguay
to the south; Argentina
to the southwest; Bolivia
to the west; Colombia
to the northwest; and Venezuela
(French overseas region of French Guiana
) to the north. It shares a border with every South American country except Ecuador
It also encompasses a number of oceanic archipelago
s, such as Fernando de Noronha
, Rocas Atoll
, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks
, and Trindade and Martim Vaz
Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Brazil geographically diverse.
Including its Atlantic
islands, Brazil lies between latitudes 6°N
, and longitudes 28°
Brazil is the fifth largest
country in the world, and third largest in the Americas, with a total area of ,
[Official Area (In Portuguese)](_blank)
IBGE: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
including of water.
It spans four time zone
s; from UTC−5
comprising the state of Acre
and the westernmost portion of Amazonas
, to UTC−4
in the western states, to UTC−3
in the eastern states (the national time
) and UTC−2
in the Atlantic islands
Brazil is the longest country in the world, spanning 4,395 km (2,731 mi) from north to south. Brazil is also the only country in the world that has the equator
and the Tropic of Capricorn
running through it. Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. Much of the terrain lies between and in elevation.
The main upland area occupies most of the southern half of the country.
The northwestern parts of the plateau consist of broad, rolling terrain broken by low, rounded hills.
The southeastern section is more rugged, with a complex mass of ridges and mountain ranges reaching elevations of up to .
These ranges include the Mantiqueira
mountains and the Serra do Mar
In the north, the Guiana Highlands
form a major drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin
from rivers that empty into the Orinoco
River system, in Venezuela, to the north. The highest point in Brazil is the Pico da Neblina
at , and the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean.
Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic.
Major rivers include the Amazon
(the world's second-longest river and the largest in terms of volume of water), the Paraná
and its major tributary the Iguaçu
(which includes the Iguazu Falls
), the Negro
, São Francisco
The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical.
According to the Köppen system
, Brazil hosts six major climatic subtypes: desert
. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests
in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forest
s in the south and tropical savannas
in central Brazil.
Many regions have starkly different microclimate
An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. There is no real dry season
, but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls.
Temperatures average ,
with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons.
Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate.
This region is as extensive as the Amazon basin but has a very different climate as it lies farther south at a higher altitude.
In the interior northeast, seasonal rainfall is even more extreme.
The semiarid climatic region generally receives less than of rain,
most of which generally falls in a period of three to five months of the year and occasionally less than this, creating long periods of drought.
Brazil's 1877–78 ''Grande Seca
'' (Great Drought), the worst in Brazil's history, caused approximately half a million deaths. A similarly devastating drought occurred in 1915.
South of Bahia, near the coasts, and more southerly most of the state of São Paulo, the distribution of rainfall changes, with rain falling throughout the year.
The south enjoys subtropical conditions, with cool winters and average annual temperatures not exceeding ;
winter frosts and snowfall
are not rare in the highest areas.
Biodiversity and environment
Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest
, recognized as having the greatest biological diversity
in the world,
with the Atlantic Forest
and the Cerrado
, sustaining the greatest biodiversity.
In the south, the Araucaria
pine forest grows under temperate conditions.
The rich wildlife of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats. Scientists estimate that the total number of plant
and animal species
in Brazil could approach four million, mostly invertebrates.
Larger mammals include carnivores pumas
s, rare bush dog
s, and fox
es, and herbivores peccaries
s, and armadillo
are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World monkey
s are found in the northern rain forests
Concern for the environment has grown in response to global interest in environmental issues.
Brazil's Amazon Basin is home to an extremely diverse array of fish species, including the red-bellied piranha
By 2013, Brazil's "dramatic policy-driven reduction in Amazon Basin deforestation" was a "global exception in terms of forest change", according to scientific journal ''Science
From 2003 to 2011, compared to all other countries in the world, Brazil had the "largest decline in annual forest loss", as indicated in the study using high-resolution satellite maps showing global forest cover changes.
The annual loss of forest cover decreased from a 2003/2004 record high of more than to a 2010/2011 low of under ,
reversing widespread deforestation
from the 1970s to 2003.
However, in 2019, when the Bolsonaro government
came to power, the rate of deforestation of the Amazon rainforest
increased sharply threatening to reach a tipping point after it the forest will collapse, having severe consequences for the world (see Tipping points in the climate system
) and possibly complicating the trade agreement with the European Union
According to a 2008 GreenPeace article, the natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water pollution, climate change
, fire, and invasive species.
In many areas of the country, the natural environment is threatened by development. The construction of highways has opened up previously remote areas for agriculture and settlement; dams have flooded valleys and inundated wildlife habitats; and mines have scarred and polluted the landscape.
At least 70 dams are said to be planned for the Amazon region, including the controversial Belo Monte
hydroelectric dam. In summer 2019, 2 states in Brazil Paraná
and Santa Catarina
, what it is expected to have positive effects on the climate and water quality, because the shale gas
and shale oil
reserves in the state of Parana are the larger in the southern hemisphere.
In 2020 the government of Brazil pledged to reduce its annual greenhouse gas
es emissions by 43% by 2030. It also set as indicative target of reaching carbon neutrality by the year 2060 if the country gets 10 billion dollars per year.
Government and politics
The form of government is a democratic federative republic
, with a presidential system
The president is both head of state and head of government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term,
with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The current president is Jair Bolsonaro
. The previous president, Michel Temer
, replaced Dilma Rousseff
after her impeachment
The President appoints the Ministers of State
, who assist in government.
Legislative houses in each political entity are the main source of law in Brazil. The National Congress
is the Federation's bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies
and the Federal Senate
. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively. Brazil is a democracy
, according to the Democracy Index
The political-administrative organization of the Federative Republic of Brazil comprises the Union, the states, the Federal District, and the municipalities.
The Union, the states, the Federal District, and the municipalities, are the "spheres of government". The federation
is set on five fundamental principles:
sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labor and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism
. The classic tripartite branches of government (executive, legislative and judicial under a checks and balances system) are formally established by the Constitution.
The executive and legislative are organized independently in all three spheres of government
, while the judiciary is organized only at the federal and state and Federal District spheres.
All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected.
Judges and other judicial officials are appointed after passing entry exams.
For most of its democratic history, Brazil has had a multi-party system, proportional representation. Voting is compulsory for the literate between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and those between 16 and 18 or beyond 70.
Together with several smaller parties, four political parties stand out: Workers' Party
(PT), Brazilian Social Democracy Party
(PSDB), Brazilian Democratic Movement
(MDB) and Democrats
(DEM). Fifteen political parties are represented in Congress. It is common for politicians to switch parties, and thus the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. Almost all governmental and administrative functions are exercised by authorities and agencies affiliated to the Executive.
The country has more than 40 active political parties, and only one of them defines itself as a right-wing party (PSL
), with a clear political imbalance. The country has several far-left parties like PSOL
, PC do B
, left parties like PT
and center-left like PSDB
. Ten parties declare themselves as the center: MDB
. Five parties declare themselves as center-right: PTB
. The only party that claims to be purely liberal, without further consideration, is Novo
. When asked about their ideological spectrum, Brazilian parties tend to give obtuse and non-conclusive answers on the subject.
Brazilian law is based on the civil law
legal system and civil law
concepts prevail over common law practice. Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role. Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines; however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases. Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases.
The legal system is based on the Federal Constitution
, promulgated on 5 October 1988, and the fundamental law of Brazil. All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules. , there have been 53 amendments. States have their own constitutions, which must not contradict the Federal Constitution. Municipalities and the Federal District have "organic laws" (), which act in a similar way to constitutions.
Legislative entities are the main source of statutes, although in certain matters judiciary and executive bodies may enact legal norms.
Jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary entities, although in rare situations the Federal Constitution
allows the Federal Senate to pass on legal judgments.
There are also specialized military, labor, and electoral courts.
The highest court is the Supreme Federal Court
This system has been criticized over the last few decades for the slow pace of decision-making. Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases more than a decade elapses before definitive rulings. Nevertheless, the Supreme Federal Tribunal was the first court in the world to transmit its sessions on television, and also via YouTube
. In December 2009, the Supreme Court adopted Twitter
to display items on the day planner of the ministers, to inform the daily actions of the Court and the most important decisions made by them.
The armed forces of Brazil are the largest
in Latin America by active personnel and the largest in terms of military equipment. It consists of the Brazilian Army
(including the Army Aviation Command
), the Brazilian Navy
(including the Marine Corps
and Naval Aviation
), and the Brazilian Air Force
. Brazil's conscription
policy gives it one of the world's largest military forces, estimated at more than 1.6 million reservists
Numbering close to 236,000 active personnel, the Brazilian Army has the largest number of armored vehicles in South America
, including armored transports and tanks
It is also unique in Latin America for its large, elite forces specializing in unconventional missions, the Brazilian Special Operations Command
, and the versatile Strategic Rapid Action Force, made up of highly mobilized and prepared Special Operations Brigade, Infantry Brigade Parachutist
, 1st Jungle Infantry Battalion (Airmobile) and 12th Brigade Light Infantry (Airmobile) able to act anywhere in the country, on short notice, to counter external aggression. The states' Military Police
and the Military Firefighters Corps
are described as an ancillary forces of the Army by the constitution, but are under the control of each state's governor.
Brazil's navy, the second-largest in the Americas, once operated some of the most powerful warships in the world with the two dreadnought
s, which sparked a South American dreadnought race
between Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Today, it is a green water
force and has a group of specialized elite in retaking ships and naval facilities, GRUMEC
, unit specially trained to protect Brazilian oil platforms along its coast. It is the only navy in Latin America that operates an aircraft carrier
, PHM Atlantico
, and one of the ten navies of the world to operate one.
The Air Force is the largest in Latin America and has about 700 manned aircraft in service and effective about 67,000 personnel.
Brazil has not been invaded since 1865 during the Paraguayan War
. Additionally, Brazil has no contested territorial disputes with any of its neighbors and neither does it have rivalries, like Chile and Bolivia have with each other. The Brazilian military has also three times intervened militarily to overthrow the Brazilian government
It has built a tradition of participating in UN peacekeeping
missions such as in Haiti
, East Timor
and Central African Republic
. Brazil signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons
Brazil's international relations are based on Article 4 of the Federal Constitution
, which establishes non-intervention
, international cooperation
and the peaceful settlement of conflicts
as the guiding principles of Brazil's relationship with other countries and multilateral organizations. According to the Constitution, the President
has ultimate authority over foreign policy, while the Congress
is tasked with reviewing and considering all diplomatic nominations and international treaties
, as well as legislation relating to Brazilian foreign policy.
Brazil's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's position as a regional power
in Latin America
, a leader among developing countries
, and an emerging world power
. Brazilian foreign policy has generally been based on the principles of multilateralism
, peaceful dispute settlement, and non-intervention
in the affairs of other countries. Brazil is a founding member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries
(CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, an international organization and political association of Lusophone
nations across four continents, where Portuguese
is an official language.
An increasingly well-developed tool of Brazil's foreign policy is providing aid as a donor to other developing countries.
[Cabral and Weinstock 2010]
Brazil: an emerging aid player
(). London: Overseas Development Institute
Brazil does not just use its growing economic strength to provide financial aid, but it also provides high levels of expertise and most importantly of all, a quiet non-confrontational diplomacy to improve governance levels.
Total aid is estimated to be around $1 billion per year, which includes.
In addition, Brazil already managed a peacekeeping mission in Haiti
($350 million) and makes in-kind contributions to the World Food Programme
This is in addition to humanitarian assistance and contributions to multilateral development agencies. The scale of this aid places it on par with China and India.
The Brazilian South-South
aid has been described as a "global model in waiting."
Law enforcement and crime
In Brazil, the Constitution
establishes five different police agencies for law enforcement: Federal Police Department
, Federal Highway Police
, Federal Railroad Police
, Military Police
and Civil Police
. Of these, the first three are affiliated with federal authorities and the last two are subordinate to state governments. All police forces are the responsibility of the executive branch of any of the federal or state powers.
The National Public Security Force
also can act in public disorder situations arising anywhere in the country.
The country still has above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of gun violence and homicide. In 2012, the World Health Organization
(WHO) estimated the number of 32 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, one of the highest rates of homicide of the world
. The number considered tolerable by the WHO is about 10 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. In 2018, Brazil had a record 63,880 murders. However, there are differences between the crime rates in the Brazilian states
. While in São Paulo
the homicide rate registered in 2013 was 10.8 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, in Alagoas
it was 64.7 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants.
Brazil also has high levels of incarceration and the third largest prison population in the world (behind only China
and the United States
), with an estimated total of approximately 700,000 prisoners around the country (June 2014), an increase of about 300% compared to the index registered in 1992. The high number of prisoners eventually overloaded the Brazilian prison system, leading to a shortfall of about 200,000 accommodations.
Brazil is a federation composed of 26 states
, one federal district
, and the 5570 municipalities
States have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Federal government. They have a governor and a unicameral legislative body elected directly by their voters. They also have independent Courts of Law for common justice. Despite this, states have much less autonomy to create their own laws than in the United States. For example, criminal and civil laws can be voted by only the federal bicameral Congress and are uniform throughout the country.
The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern
. The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or administrative divisions, and they do not have any specific form of government. Although defined by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the distribution of federal funds in development projects.
Municipalities, as the states, have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Union and state government.
Each has a mayor and an elected legislative body, but no separate Court of Law. Indeed, a Court of Law organized by the state can encompass many municipalities in a single justice administrative division called ''comarca
Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America
, the world's ninth largest economy
and the eighth largest
in purchasing power parity
(PPP) according to 2018 estimates. Brazil has a mixed economy
with abundant natural resources. After rapid growth in preceding decades, the country entered an ongoing recession in 2014
amid a political corruption scandal and nationwide protests.
Its Gross domestic product
(PPP) per capita was $15,919 in 2017
putting Brazil in the 77th position according to IMF data. Active in agricultural
, mining, manufacturing and service sectors
Brazil has a labor force of over 107 million (ranking 6th worldwide) and unemployment of 6.2% (ranking 64th worldwide).
The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets
, and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC
countries. Brazil has been the world's largest producer of coffee
for the last 150 years.
The country is a major exporter of soy, iron ore, pulp (cellulose), maize, beef, chicken meat, soybean meal, sugar, coffee, tobacco, cotton, orange juice, footwear, airplanes, cars, vehicle parts, gold, ethanol, semi-finished iron, among other products.
Brazil's diversified economy includes agriculture, industry, and a wide range of services.
and allied sectors like forestry
and fishing accounted for 5.1% of the GDP
Brazil is the largest producer of various agricultural commodities
. and also has a large cooperative
sector that provides 50% of the food in the country. The world's largest healthcare cooperative Unimed
is also located in Brazil, and accounts for 32% of the healthcare insurance market in the country.
In the production of animal proteins, Brazil is today one of the largest countries in the world. In 2019, the country was the world's largest exporter of chicken meat. It was also the second largest producer of beef, the world's third largest producer of milk, the world's fourth largest producer of pork and the seventh largest producer of eggs in the world.
In the mining sector
, Brazil stands out in the extraction of iron ore
(where it is the second world exporter), copper, gold, bauxite
(one of the 5 largest producers in the world), manganese
(one of the 5 largest producers in the world), tin
(one of the largest producers in the world), niobium
(concentrates 98% of reserves known to the world) and nickel
. In terms of precious stones, Brazil is the world's largest producer of amethyst
and one of the main producers of tourmaline
Industry in Brazil
– from automobiles, steel and petrochemical
s to computers, aircraft and consumer durables
– accounted for 30.8% of the gross domestic product.
Industry is highly concentrated in metropolitan São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Campinas
, Porto Alegre
, and Belo Horizonte
Brazil has become the fourth largest car market in the world. Major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol
, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef
. In total, Brazil ranks 23rd worldwide in value of exports
. In the food industry
, in 2019, Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world. In 2016, the country was the 2nd largest producer of pulp
in the world and the 8th producer of paper. In the footwear industry
, in 2019, Brazil ranked 4th among world producers. In 2019, the country was the 8th producer of vehicles and the 9th producer of steel in the world. In 2018, the chemical industry
of Brazil was the 8th in the world. Although it was among the 5 largest world producers in 2013, Brazil's textile industry is very little integrated into world trade.
The tertiary sector (trade and services) represented 75.8% of the country's GDP in 2018, according to the IBGE. The service sector was responsible for 60% of GDP and trade for 13%. It covers a wide range of activities: commerce, accommodation and catering, transport, communications, financial services, real estate activities and services provided to businesses, public administration (urban cleaning, sanitation, etc.) and other services such as education, social and health services, research and development, sports activities, etc., since it consists of activities complementary to other sectors. Micro and small businesses represent 30% of the country's GDP. In the commercial sector, for example, they represent 53% of the GDP within the activities of the sector.
Brazil pegged its currency, the real
, to the U.S. dollar in 1994. However, after the East Asian financial crisis
, the Russian default
in 1998 and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, the Central Bank of Brazil
temporarily changed its monetary policy
to a managed float regime
scheme while undergoing a currency crisis
, until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float
in January 1999.
Brazil received an International Monetary Fund
(IMF) rescue package in mid-2002 of $30.4 billion, a record sum at the time. Brazil's central bank repaid the IMF loan in 2005, although it was not due to be repaid until 2006. One of the issues the Central Bank of Brazil
recently dealt with was an excess of speculative
short-term capital inflows to the country, which may have contributed to a fall in the value of the U.S. dollar against the real during that period. Nonetheless, foreign direct investment
(FDI), related to long-term, less speculative investment in production, is estimated to be $193.8 billion for 2007. Inflation
monitoring and control currently plays a major part in the Central bank's role in setting short-term interest rate
s as a monetary policy
costs Brazil almost $41 billion a year alone in 2010, with 69.9% of the country's firms identifying the issue as a major constraint in successfully penetrating the global market. Local government corruption is so prevalent that voters perceive it as a problem only if it surpasses certain levels, and only if a local media e.g. a radio station is present to divulge the findings of corruption charges. Initiatives, like this exposure, strengthen awareness which is indicated by the Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index
; ranking Brazil 69th out of 178 countries in 2012.
The purchasing power
in Brazil is eroded by the so-called Brazil cost
Brazil is the world's tenth largest
energy consumer with much of its energy coming from renewable sources
, particularly hydroelectricity
; the Itaipu Dam
is the world's largest hydroelectric plant
by energy generation,
and the country has other large plants like Belo Monte
. The first car with an ethanol engine was produced in 1978 and the first airplane engine running on ethanol in 2005.
In total electricity generation, in 2019 Brazil reached 170,000 megawatts of installed capacity, more than 75% from renewable sources (the majority, hydroelectric plants). In 2019, Brazil had 217 hydroelectric plants in operation, with an installed capacity of 98,581 MW, 60.16% of the country's energy generation. Brazil is one of the 5 largest hydroelectric energy producers in the world (2nd place in 2017).
according to ONS, total installed capacity of wind power
was 16.3 GW, with average capacity factor
of 58%. While the world average wind production capacity factors is 24.7%, there are areas in Northern Brazil, specially in Bahia State, where some wind farms record with average capacity factors over 60%; the average capacity factor in the Northeast Region
is 45% in the coast and 49% in the interior.
In 2019, wind energy represented 9% of the energy generated in the country.
In 2019, it was estimated that the country had an estimated wind power generation potential of around 522 GW (this, only onshore), enough energy to meet three times the country's current demand. Brazil is one of the 10 largest wind energy producers in the world (8th place in 2019, with 2.4% of world production).
according to ONS, total installed capacity of photovoltaic solar
was 6.9 GW, with average capacity factor
of 23%. Some of the most irradiated
Brazilian States are Minas Gerais, Bahia and Goiás. In 2019, solar power represented 1.27% of the energy generated in the country.
Recent oil discoveries in the pre-salt layer
have opened the door for a large increase in oil production.
The governmental agencies responsible for the energy policy are the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the National Council for Energy Policy, the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels
, and the National Agency of Electricity
In the beginning of 2020, in the production of oil
and natural gas
, the country exceeded 4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, for the first time. In January this year, 3.168 million barrels of oil per day and 138.753 million cubic meters of natural gas were extracted.
Tourism in Brazil is a growing sector and key to the economy of several regions of the country. The country had 6.36 million visitors in 2015, ranking in terms of the international tourist arrivals as the main destination in South America and second in Latin America
after Mexico. Revenues from international tourists reached billion in 2010, showing a recovery from the 2008–2009 economic crisis
Historical records of 5.4 million visitors and billion in receipts were reached in 2011.
In the list of world tourist destinations, in 2018, Brazil was the 48th most visited country, with 6.6 million tourists (and revenues of 5.9 billion dollars).
Natural areas are its most popular tourism product, a combination of ecotourism
with leisure and recreation, mainly sun and beach, and adventure travel, as well as cultural tourism. Among the most popular destinations are the Amazon Rainforest
, beaches and dunes in the Northeast Region
, the Pantanal
in the Center-West Region
, beaches at Rio de Janeiro
and Santa Catarina
, cultural tourism in Minas Gerais
and business trips to São Paulo
In terms of the 2015 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index
(TTCI), which is a measurement of the factors that make it attractive to develop business in the travel and tourism industry of individual countries, Brazil ranked in the 28st place at the world's level, third in the Americas
, after Canada and United States.
[ ''See Table 4, pp. 18–19 and Country/Economy Profile: Brazil, pp. 116–17.'']
Brazil's main competitive advantages are its natural resources, which ranked 1st on this criteria out of all countries considered, and ranked 23rd for its cultural resources, due to its many World Heritage site
s. The TTCI report notes Brazil's main weaknesses: its ground transport infrastructure remains underdeveloped (ranked 116th), with the quality of roads ranking in 105th place; and the country continues to suffer from a lack of price competitiveness (ranked 114th), due in part to high ticket taxes and airport charges, as well as high prices and high taxation. Safety and security have improved significantly: 75th in 2011, up from 128th in 2008.
Science and technology
Technological research in Brazil is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes, with the majority of funding for basic research coming from various government agencies.
Brazil's most esteemed technological hubs are the Oswaldo Cruz Institute
, the Butantan Institute
, the Air Force's Aerospace Technical Center
, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation
and the National Institute for Space Research
The Brazilian Space Agency
has the most advanced space program in Latin America, with significant resources to launch vehicles, and manufacture of satellites
. Owner of relative technological sophistication, the country develops submarine
s, aircraft, as well as being involved in space research, having a Vehicle Launch Center Light and being the only country in the Southern Hemisphere
the integrate team building International Space Station
[NASA Signs International Space Station Agreement With Brazil](_blank)
The country is also a pioneer in the search for oil in deep water, from where it extracts 73% of its reserves.
is enriched at the Resende Nuclear Fuel Factory
, mostly for research purposes (as Brazil obtains 88% from its electricity from hydroelectricity
) and the country's first nuclear submarine was delivered in 2015 (by France).
Brazil is one of the three countries in Latin America with an operational Synchrotron
Laboratory, a research facility on physics, chemistry, material science and life sciences, and Brazil is the only Latin American country to have a semiconductor
company with its own fabrication plant
, the CEITEC
. According to the Global Information Technology Report 2009–2010 of the World Economic Forum, Brazil is the world's 61st largest developer of information technology.
Among the most renowned Brazilian inventors are priests Bartolomeu de Gusmão
, Landell de Moura
and Francisco João de Azevedo, besides Alberto Santos-Dumont
, Evaristo Conrado Engelberg
Manuel Dias de Abreu
, Andreas Pavel
and Nélio José Nicolai.
Brazilian science is represented by the likes of César Lattes
Pathfinder of ''Pi Meson
(considered the greatest theoretical physicist of Brazil), José Leite Lopes
(only Brazilian physicist holder of the ''UNESCO Science Prize''), Artur Ávila
(the first Latin American winner of the Fields Medal
) and Fritz Müller
(pioneer in factual support of the theory of evolution by Charles Darwin).
[West, David A. 2003. Fritz Müller: a naturalist in Brazil. Blacksburg: Pocahontas Press]
Brazilian roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic. The road system totaled 1.98 million km (1.23 million mi) in 2002. The total of paved roads increased from in 1967 to in 2018. The country has about of divided highways
, only in the State of São Paulo
. Currently it's possible to travel from Rio Grande
, in the extreme south of the country, to Brasília
() or Casimiro de Abreu
, in the state of Rio de Janeiro
(), only on divided highways. The first investments in road infrastructure have given up in the 1920s, the government of Washington Luís
, being pursued in the governments of Getúlio Vargas
and Eurico Gaspar Dutra
. President Juscelino Kubitschek
(1956–61), who designed and built the capital Brasília, was another supporter of highways.
system has been declining since 1945, when emphasis shifted to highway construction. The total length of railway track was in 2002, as compared with in 1970. Most of the railway system belonged to the Federal Railroad Corporation RFFSA, which was privatized in 2007. The São Paulo Metro
was the first underground transit system in Brazil. The other metro systems are in Rio de Janeiro
, Porto Alegre
, Belo Horizonte
. The country has an extensive rail network of in length, the tenth largest network in the world.
[Country Comparison to the World: Gini Index – Brazil](_blank)
The World Factbook. Retrieved on 3 April 2012.
Currently, the Brazilian government, unlike the past, seeks to encourage this mode of transport; an example of this incentive is the project of the Rio–São Paulo high-speed rail
, that will connect the two main cities of the country to carry passengers.
There are about 2,500 airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States. São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport
, near São Paulo, is the largest and busiest airport with nearly 20 million passengers annually, while handling the vast majority of commercial traffic for the country.
For freight transport waterways
are of importance, e.g. the industrial zones of Manaus
can be reached only by means of the Solimões–Amazonas waterway ( with minimum depth). The country also has of waterways.
Coastal shipping links widely separated parts of the country. Bolivia and Paraguay have been given free ports at Santos
. Of the 36 deep-water ports, Santos, Itajaí, Rio Grande, Paranaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Sepetiba, Vitória, Suape, Manaus and São Francisco do Sul are the most important. Bulk carriers have to wait up to 18 days before being serviced, container ships 36.3 hours on average.
The Brazilian public health
system, the Unified Health System
(''Sistema Único de Saúde'' – SUS), is managed and provided by all levels of government,
being the largest system of this type in the world. On the other hand, private healthcare systems play a complementary role.
Public health services are universal and offered to all citizens of the country for free. However, the construction and maintenance of health centers and hospitals are financed by taxes, and the country spends about 9% of its GDP on expenditures in the area. In 2012, Brazil had 1.85 doctors and 2.3 hospital beds for every 1,000 inhabitants. Despite all the progress made since the creation of the universal health care
system in 1988, there are still several public health problems in Brazil. In 2006, the main points to be solved were the high infant
(2.51%) and maternal mortality rates (73.1 deaths per 1000 births).
The number of deaths from noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases
(151.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) and cancer
(72.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants), also has a considerable impact on the health of the Brazilian population. Finally, external but preventable factors such as car accidents, violence and suicide caused 14.9% of all deaths in the country.
The Brazilian health system was ranked 125th among the 191 countries evaluated by the World Health Organization
(WHO) in 2000.
The Federal Constitution
and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education determine that the Union
, the states
, the Federal District
, and the municipalities
must manage and organize their respective education systems. Each of these public educational systems is responsible for its own maintenance, which manages funds as well as the mechanisms and funding sources. The constitution reserves 25% of the state budget and 18% of federal taxes and municipal taxes for education.
According to the IBGE
, in 2019, the literacy rate of the population was 93.4%, meaning that 11,3 million (6,6% of population) people are still illiterate in the country, with some states like Rio de Janeiro
and Santa Catarina
reaching around 97% of literacy rate;
functional illiteracy has reached 21.6% of the population.
Illiteracy is highest in the Northeast, where 13.87% of the population is illiterate, while the South, has 3.3% of its population illiterate.
Brazil's private institutions tend to be more exclusive and offer better quality education, so many high-income families send their children there. The result is a segregated educational system that reflects extreme income disparities and reinforces social inequality. However, efforts to change this are making impacts.
The University of São Paulo
is the second best university
in Latin America
, according to recent 2019 QS World University Rankings
. Of the top 20 Latin American universities, eight are Brazilian. Most of them are public
Attending an institution of higher education is required by Law of Guidelines and Bases of Education. Kindergarten
and medium education are required of all students.
Media and communication
The Brazilian press was officially born in Rio de Janeiro
on 13 May 1808 with the creation of the Royal Printing National Press by the Prince Regent Dom João
The ''Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro'', the first newspaper published in the country, began to circulate on 10 September 1808.
The largest newspapers nowadays are ''Folha de S.Paulo
,'' ''Super Notícia'', ''O Globo
'' and ''O Estado de S. Paulo
Radio broadcasting began on 7 September 1922, with a speech by then President Pessoa, and was formalized on 20 April 1923 with the creation of "Radio Society of Rio de Janeiro."
Television in Brazil began officially on 18 September 1950, with the founding of TV Tupi
by Assis Chateaubriand
Since then television has grown in the country, creating large commercial broadcast networks such as Globo
. Today it is the most important factor in popular culture of Brazilian society, indicated by research showing that as much as 67% of the general population follow the same daily soap opera
broadcast. Digital Television, using the SBTVD
standard (based on the Japanese standard ISDB-T
), was adopted on 29 June 2006 and launched on 2 November 2007.
In May 2010, the Brazilian government launched TV Brasil Internacional
, an international television station
, initially broadcasting to 49 countries. Commercial television channels broadcast internationally include Globo Internacional
, RecordTV Internacional
and Band Internacional
The population of Brazil, as recorded by the 2008 PNAD, was approximately 190 million (), with a ratio of men to women of 0.95:1 and 83.75% of the population defined as urban. The population is heavily concentrated in the Southeastern (79.8 million inhabitants) and Northeastern (53.5 million inhabitants) regions, while the two most extensive regions, the Center-West and the North, which together make up 64.12% of the Brazilian territory, have a total of only 29.1 million inhabitants.
The first census in Brazil was carried out in 1872 and recorded a population of 9,930,478. From 1880 to 1930, 4 million Europeans arrived. Brazil's population increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, because of a decline in the mortality rate
, even though the birth rate
underwent a slight decline. In the 1940s the annual population growth
rate was 2.4%, rising to 3.0% in the 1950s and remaining at 2.9% in the 1960s, as life expectancy rose from 44 to 54 years and to 72.6 years in 2007.
It has been steadily falling since the 1960s, from 3.04% per year between 1950 and 1960 to 1.05% in 2008 and is expected to fall to a negative value of –0.29% by 2050 thus completing the demographic transition
In 2008, the illiteracy rate was 11.48% and among the youth
(ages 15–19) 1.74%. It was highest (20.30%) in the Northeast, which had a large proportion of rural poor. Illiteracy was high (24.18%) among the rural population and lower (9.05%) among the urban population.
Race and ethnicity
According to the National Research by Household Sample
(PNAD) of 2008, 48.43% of the population (about 92 million) described themselves as White
; 43.80% (about 83 million) as Pardo
), 6.84% (about 13 million) as Black
; 0.58% (about 1.1 million) as Asian
; and 0.28% (about 536 thousand) as Amerindian
(officially called ''indígena'', Indigenous), while 0.07% (about 130 thousand) did not declare their race.
[2008 PNAD, IBGE.]
População residente por cor ou raça, situação e sexo
In 2007, the National Indian Foundation
estimated that Brazil has 67 different uncontacted tribes, up from their estimate of 40 in 2005. Brazil is believed to have the largest number of uncontacted peoples
in the world.
Since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, considerable genetic mixing between Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans has taken place in all regions of the country (with European ancestry being dominant nationwide according to the vast majority of all autosomal studies undertaken covering the entire population, accounting for between 65% to 77%).
[Brazilian DNA is nearly 80% European, indicates study](_blank) [NMO Godinh]
O impacto das migrações na constituição genética de populações latino-americanas
. PhD Thesis, Universidade de Brasília (2008).
Brazilian society is more markedly divided by social class lines
, although a high income disparity
is found between race groups
, so racism
can be conflated. Socially significant closeness to one racial group is taken in account
more in the basis of appearance (phenotype
s) rather than ancestry, to the extent that full sibling
s can pertain to different "racial" groups.
factors are also significant, because a minority of ''pardos''
are likely to start declaring themselves White or Black if socially upward. Skin color and facial features do not line quite well with ancestry (usually, Afro-Brazilians are evenly mixed and European ancestry is dominant in Whites and ''pardos'' with a significant non-European contribution, but the individual variation is great).
[Negros de origem européia](_blank)
The brown population (officially called ''pardo''
in Portuguese, also colloquially ''moreno
[Coelho (1996), p. 268.] [Vesentini (1988), p. 117.]
is a broad category that includes ''caboclo
s'' (assimilated Amerindians in general, and descendants of Whites and Natives), ''mulatos
'' (descendants of primarily Whites and Afro-Brazilians) and ''cafuzos
'' (descendants of Afro-Brazilians and Natives).
[Moreira (1981), p. 108.]
People of considerable Amerindian ancestry form the majority of the population in the Northern, Northeastern and Center-Western regions.
Higher percents of Blacks, mulattoes and tri-racials can be found in the eastern coast of the Northeastern region from Bahia to Paraíba
and also in northern Maranhão, southern Minas Gerais
[Azevedo (1971), p. 161.]
and in eastern Rio de Janeiro.
From the 19th century, Brazil opened its borders to immigration
. About five million people from over 60 countries migrated to Brazil between 1808 and 1972, most of them of Portuguese
, and Arab
origin. Brazil has the second largest Jewish community in Latin America making up 0.06% of its population.
is the country's predominant faith. Brazil has the world's largest Catholic population
According to the 2010 Demographic Census (the PNAD survey does not inquire about religion), 64.63% of the population followed Roman Catholicism
; 22.2% Protestantism
; 2.0% Kardecist spiritism; 3.2% other religions, undeclared or undetermined; while 8.0% have no religion.
[[ftp://ftp.ibge.gov.br/Censos/Censo_Demografico_2010/Caracteristicas_Gerais_Religiao_Deficiencia/tab1_4.pdf IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics). 2010 Census]. Retrieved 7 August 2012.]
Religion in Brazil was formed from the meeting of the Catholic Church with the religious traditions of enslaved African peoples and indigenous peoples.
This confluence of faiths during the Portuguese colonization of Brazil led to the development of a diverse array of syncretistic practices within the overarching umbrella of Brazilian Catholic Church, characterized by traditional Portuguese festivities,
Religious pluralism increased during the 20th century,
and the Protestant community has grown to include over 22% of the population.
The most common Protestant denominations are Evangelical Pentecostal
ones. Other Protestant branches with a notable presence in the country include the Baptists
, Seventh-day Adventists
and the Reformed tradition
However, in the last ten years Protestantism, particularly in forms of Pentecostalism and Evangelicalism, has spread in Brazil, while the proportion of Catholics has dropped significantly.
[ See drop-down essay on "The Growth of Religious Pluralism"]
After Protestantism, individuals professing no religion are also a significant group, exceeding 8% of the population as of the 2010 census. The cities of Boa Vista
, and Porto Velho
have the greatest proportion of Irreligious
residents in Brazil. Teresina
, and Florianópolis
were the most Roman Catholic in the country.
Greater Rio de Janeiro
, not including the city proper
, is the most irreligious and least Roman Catholic Brazilian periphery, while Greater Porto Alegre
and Greater Fortaleza
are on the opposite sides of the lists, respectively.
In October 2009, the Brazilian Senate approved and enacted by the President of Brazil in February 2010, an agreement with the Vatican
, in which the Legal Statute of the Catholic Church in Brazil is recognized. The agreement confirmed norms that were normally complied with regarding religious education in public elementary schools (which also ensures the teaching of other beliefs), marriage and spiritual assistance in prisons and hospitals. The project was criticized by parliamentarians who understood the end of the secular state with the approval of the agreement.
According to IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) urban areas already concentrate 84.35% of the population, while the Southeast region remains the most populated one, with over 80 million inhabitants.
The largest urban agglomerations in Brazil are São Paulo
, Rio de Janeiro
, and Belo Horizonte
– all in the Southeastern Region – with 21.1, 12.3, and 5.1 million inhabitants respectively.
The majority of state capitals are the largest cities in their states, except for Vitória
, the capital of Espírito Santo
, and Florianópolis
, the capital of Santa Catarina.
of the Kuikuro_people
,_[[Xingu_Indigenous_Park,_[[Mato_Grosso.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Xingu Indigenous Park">Kuikuro people, [[Xingu Indigenous Park, [[Mato Grosso">Xingu Indigenous Park">Kuikuro people, [[Xingu Indigenous Park, [[Mato Grosso ]]
The official language of Brazil is Portuguese
(Article 13 of the [[Constitution of Brazil|Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil]]), which almost all of the population speaks and is virtually the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes. Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity and giving it a national culture distinct from those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors.
has had its own development, mostly similar to 16th-century Central and Southern dialects of European Portuguese (despite a very substantial number of Portuguese colonial settlers, and more recent immigrants
, coming from Northern regions
, and in minor degree Portuguese Macaronesia
), with a few influences from the Amerindian
and African languages
, especially West Africa
n and Bantu
restricted to the vocabulary only.
As a result, the language is somewhat different, mostly in phonology, from the language of Portugal and other Portuguese-speaking countries
(the dialects of the other countries, partly because of the more recent end of Portuguese colonialism
in these regions, have a closer connection to contemporary European Portuguese
). These differences are comparable to those between American
and British English
In 1990, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries
(CPLP), which included representatives from all countries with Portuguese as the official language, reached an agreement on the reform of the Portuguese orthography
to unify the two standards then in use by Brazil on one side and the remaining lusophone countries on the other. This spelling reform went into effect in Brazil on 1 January 2009. In Portugal, the reform was signed into law by the President on 21 July 2008 allowing for a six-year adaptation period, during which both orthographies will co-exist. The remaining CPLP countries are free to establish their own transition timetables.
The sign language law
legally recognized in 2002,
[LEI Nº 10.436, DE 24 DE ABRIL DE 2002](_blank)
Presidência da República, Casa Civil, Subchefia para Assuntos Jurídicos. Retrieved on 19 May 2012.
(the law was regulated
[Brazilian decree nº 5626, 22 December 2005](_blank)
Planalto.gov.br (23 December 2005). Retrieved on 19 May 2012.
the use of the Brazilian Sign Language
, more commonly known by its Portuguese acronym
LIBRAS, in education and government services. The language must be taught as a part of the education
and speech and language pathology
curricula. LIBRAS teachers, instructors and translators are recognized professionals. Schools and health services must provide access ("inclusion
") to deaf people
Minority languages are spoken throughout the nation. One hundred and eighty Amerindian languages
are spoken in remote areas and a significant number of other languages are spoken by immigrants and their descendants.
In the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira
(a currently endangered South American creole language
– or an 'anti-creole', according to some linguists – with mostly Indigenous Brazilian languages lexicon and Portuguese-based grammar that, together with its southern relative língua geral paulista
, once was a major lingua franca
in Brazil, being replaced by Portuguese only after governmental prohibition led by major political changes
and Tucano languages had been granted co-official status with Portuguese.
There are significant communities of German (mostly the Brazilian Hunsrückisch
, a High German language dialect) and Italian (mostly the Talian
, a Venetian
dialect) origins in the Southern and Southeastern regions, whose ancestors' native languages were carried along to Brazil, and which, still alive there, are influenced by the Portuguese language. Talian is officially a historic patrimony of Rio Grande do Sul
, and two German dialects possess co-official status in a few municipalities.
Italian is also recognized as ''ethnic language'' in the Santa Teresa
microregion and Vila Velha
(Espirito Santo state), and is taught as mandatory second language at school.
Learning at least one second language (generally English or Spanish) is mandatory for all the 12 grades of the mandatory education system
and secondary education
, there called ''ensino fundamental'' and ''ensino médio'' respectively). Brazil is the first country in South America to offer Esperanto
to secondary students.
The core culture of Brazil is derived from Portuguese culture
, because of its strong colonial ties with the Portuguese Empire.
Among other influences, the Portuguese introduced the Portuguese language
, Roman Catholicism
and colonial architectural styles
. The culture was, however, also strongly influenced by African
and non-Portuguese European cultures and traditions.
Some aspects of Brazilian culture were influenced by the contributions of Italian
and other European as well as Japanese
immigrants who arrived in large numbers in the South and Southeast of Brazil during the 19th and 20th centuries.
The indigenous Amerindians influenced Brazil's language and cuisine
; and the Africans influenced language, cuisine, music
, dance and religion.
has developed since the 16th century into different styles that range from Baroque
(the dominant style in Brazil until the early 19th century)
[The Brazilian Baroque]
" ''Encyclopaedia Itaú Cultural''
. Brazilian cinema
dates back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century and has gained a new level of international acclaim since the 1960s.
The architecture of Brazil is influenced by Europe, especially Portugal. It has a history that goes back 500 years to the time when Pedro Cabral
discovered Brazil in 1500. Portuguese colonial architecture
was the first wave of architecture to go to Brazil. It is the basis for all Brazilian architecture of later centuries. In the 19th century during the time of the Empire of Brazil
, Brazil followed European trends and adopted Neoclassical
and Gothic Revival architecture
. Then in the 20th century especially in Brasilia, Brazil experimented with Modernist architecture
The colonial architecture of Brazil dates to the early 16th century when Brazil was first explored, conquered and settled by the Portuguese. The Portuguese built architecture familiar to them in Europe in their aim to colonize Brazil. They built Portuguese colonial architecture which included churches, civic architecture including houses and forts in Brazilian cities and the countryside. During 19th century Brazilian architecture saw the introduction of more European styles to Brazil such as Neoclassical and Gothic Revival architecture. This was usually mixed with Brazilian influences from their own heritage which produced a unique form of Brazilian architecture. In the 1950s the modernist architecture
was introduced when Brasilia
was built as new federal capital in the interior of Brazil to help develop the interior. The architect Oscar Niemeyer
idealized and built government buildings, churches and civic buildings in the modernist style.
[Guimaraens, Cêça de]
. Portal do Ministério das Relações Exteriores.
"Ambientes modernos. A casa modernista da Rua Santa Cruz, de Gregori Warchavchik, e outras casas da modernidade"
In: ''Drops'', 2008; 09 (025.03)
The music of Brazil was formed mainly from the fusion of European and African elements.
Until the nineteenth century, Portugal was the gateway to most of the influences that built Brazilian music, although many of these elements were not of Portuguese origin, but generally European. The first was José Maurício Nunes Garcia, author of sacred pieces with influence of Viennese classicism.
The major contribution of the African element was the rhythmic diversity and some dances and instruments that had a bigger role in the development of popular music and folk, flourishing especially in the twentieth century.
Popular music since the late eighteenth century began to show signs of forming a characteristically Brazilian sound, with samba
considered the most typical and on the UNESCO cultural heritage list. Maracatu
are two Afro-Brazilian
music traditions that have been popularized by their appearance in the annual Brazilian Carnival
The sport of capoeira
is usually played with its own music referred to as capoeira music
, which is usually considered to be a call-and-response type of folk music.
is a type of folk music prominent during the Festa Junina
in northeastern Brazil
. Jack A. Draper III, a professor of Portuguese at the University of Missouri
, argues that Forró was used as a way to subdue feelings of nostalgia for a rural lifestyle.
is a very popular music instrumental style. Its origins are in 19th-century Rio de Janeiro. In spite of the name, the style often has a fast and happy rhythm, characterized by virtuosity, improvisation, subtle modulations
and full of syncopation
is also a well-known style of Brazilian music developed and popularized in the 1950s and 1960s. The phrase "bossa nova" means literally "new trend".
A lyrical fusion of samba and jazz
, bossa nova acquired a large following starting in the 1960s.
dates back to the 16th century, to the writings of the first Portuguese explorers in Brazil, such as Pêro Vaz de Caminha
, filled with descriptions of fauna
and commentary about the indigenous population that fascinated European readers.
Brazil produced significant works in Romanticism
– novelists like Joaquim Manuel de Macedo
and José de Alencar
wrote novels about love and pain. Alencar, in his long career, also treated indigenous people as heroes in the Indigenist
novels ''O Guarani
'' and ''Ubirajara
''. Machado de Assis
, one of his contemporaries, wrote in virtually all genres and continues to gain international prestige from critics worldwide.
, evidenced by the Week of Modern Art
in 1922, was concerned with a nationalist avant-garde literature, while Post-Modernism
brought a generation of distinct poets like João Cabral de Melo Neto
, Carlos Drummond de Andrade
, Vinicius de Moraes
, Cora Coralina
, Graciliano Ramos
, Cecília Meireles
, and internationally known writers dealing with universal and regional subjects like Jorge Amado
, João Guimarães Rosa
, Clarice Lispector
and Manuel Bandeira
Brazilian cuisine varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's varying mix of indigenous and immigrant populations. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences.
Examples are Feijoada
, considered the country's national dish; and regional foods such as beiju, feijão tropeiro, vatapá
(from Italian cuisine) and acarajé
(from African cuisine).
The national beverage is coffee
is Brazil's native liquor
. Cachaça is distilled from sugar cane
and is the main ingredient in the national cocktail, Caipirinha
A typical meal consists mostly of rice and beans
, french fries
and a fried egg
. Often, it is mixed with cassava flour (farofa
). Fried potatoes, fried cassava, fried banana, fried meat and fried cheese are very often eaten in lunch and served in most typical restaurants. Popular snacks are pastel
(a fried pastry); coxinha
(a variation of chicken croquete); pão de queijo
(cheese bread and cassava flour / tapioca
(corn and milk paste); esfirra
(a variation of Lebanese pastry); kibbeh
(from Arabic cuisine); empanada
(pastry) and empada
, little salt pies filled with shrimps or heart of palm.
Brazil has a variety of desserts such as brigadeiro
s (chocolate fudge balls), bolo de rolo
(roll cake with goiabada
(a coconut sweet), beijinho
s (coconut truffles and clove) and romeu e julieta (cheese with goiabada). Peanuts are used to make paçoca
. Local common fruits like açaí
, and hog plum
are turned in juice
s and used to make chocolate
s, ice pop
s and ice cream
The Brazilian film industry began in the late 19th century, during the early days of the Belle Époque
. While there were national film productions during the early 20th century, American films such as ''Rio the Magnificent'' were made in Rio de Janeiro
to promote tourism in the city. The films ''Limite
'' (1931) and ''Ganga Bruta
'' (1933), the latter being produced by Adhemar Gonzaga
through the prolific studio Cinédia, were poorly received at release and failed at the box office, but are acclaimed nowadays and placed among the finest Brazilian films of all time. The 1941 unfinished film ''It's All True
'' was divided in four segments, two of which were filmed in Brazil and directed by Orson Welles
; it was originally produced as part of the United States' Good Neighbor Policy
during Getúlio Vargas' Estado Novo government.
During the 1960s, the Cinema Novo
movement rose to prominence with directors such as Glauber Rocha
, Nelson Pereira dos Santos
, Paulo Cesar Saraceni
and Arnaldo Jabor
. Rocha's films ''Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol
'' (1964) and ''Terra em Transe
'' (1967) are considered to be some of the greatest and most influential in Brazilian film history.
During the 1990s, Brazil saw a surge of critical and commercial success with films such as ''O Quatrilho
'' (Fábio Barreto
, 1995), ''O Que É Isso, Companheiro?
'' (Bruno Barreto
, 1997) and ''Central do Brasil
'' (Walter Salles
, 1998), all of which were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
, the latter receiving a Best Actress
nomination for Fernanda Montenegro
. The 2002 crime film ''City of God
'', directed by Fernando Meirelles
, was critically acclaimed, scoring 90% on Rotten Tomatoes
, being placed in Roger Ebert
's Best Films of the Decade list and receiving four Academy Award
nominations in 2004, including Best Director
. Notable film festivals in Brazil include the São Paulo
and Rio de Janeiro International Film Festival
s and the Gramado Festival
The theatre in Brazil has its origins in the period of Jesuit expansion when theater was used for the dissemination of Catholic doctrine in the 16th century. in the 17th and 18th centuries the first dramatists who appeared on the scene of European derivation was for court or private performances. During the 19th century, dramatic theater gained importance and thickness, whose first representative was Luis Carlos Martins Pena
(1813–1848), capable of describing contemporary reality. Always in this period the comedy of costume and comic production was imposed. Significant, also in the nineteenth century, was also the playwright Antônio Gonçalves Dias
There were also numerous operas and orchestras. The Brazilian conductor Antônio Carlos Gomes
became internationally known with operas like ''Il Guarany
''. At the end of the 19th century orchestrated dramaturgias became very popular and were accompanied with songs of famous artists like the conductress Chiquinha Gonzaga
Already in the early 20th century there was the presence of theaters, entrepreneurs and actor companies, but paradoxically the quality of the products staggered, and only in 1940 the Brazilian theater received a boost of renewal thanks to the action of Paschoal Carlos Magno and his student's theater, the comedians group and the Italian actors Adolfo Celi
, Ruggero Jacobbi and Aldo Calvo, founders of the ''Teatro Brasileiro de Comedia''. From the 1960s it was attended by a theater dedicated to social and religious issues and to the flourishing of schools of dramatic art. The most prominent authors at this stage were Jorge Andrade
and Ariano Suassuna
Brazilian painting emerged in the late 16th century, influenced by Baroque
making it a major art style
called Brazilian academic art
The Missão Artística Francesa
(French Artistic Mission) arrived in Brazil in 1816 proposing the creation of an art academy modeled after the respected Académie des Beaux-Arts, with graduation courses both for artists and craftsmen for activities such as modeling, decorating, carpentry and others and bringing artists like Jean-Baptiste Debret
Upon the creation of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts
, new artistic movements spread across the country during the 19th century and later the event called Week of Modern Art
broke definitely with academic tradition in 1922 and started a nationalist trend which was influenced by modernist arts. Among the best-known Brazilian painters are Ricardo do Pilar
and Manuel da Costa Ataíde
(baroque and rococo), Victor Meirelles
, Pedro Américo
and Almeida Junior
(romanticism and realism), Anita Malfatti
, Ismael Nery
, Lasar Segall
, Emiliano di Cavalcanti
, Vicente do Rego Monteiro
, and Tarsila do Amaral
(expressionism, surrealism and cubism), Aldo Bonadei
, José Pancetti
and Cândido Portinari
The most popular sport in Brazil is football
. The Brazilian men's national team
is ranked among the best in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings
, and has won the World Cup
tournament a record five times.
, auto racing
, and martial arts
also attract large audiences. The Brazil men's national volleyball team
, for example, currently holds the titles of the World League
, World Grand Champions Cup
, World Championship
and the World Cup
. In auto racing, three Brazilian drivers have won the Formula One
world championship eight times.
Some sport variations have their origins in Brazil: beach football
(indoor football) and footvolley
emerged in Brazil as variations of football. In martial arts, Brazilians developed Capoeira
, Vale tudo
, and Brazilian jiu-jitsu
Brazil has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, like the 1950 FIFA World Cup
and recently has hosted the 2014 FIFA World Cup
and 2019 Copa América
. The São Paulo
circuit, Autódromo José Carlos Pace
, hosts the annual Grand Prix of Brazil
São Paulo organized the IV Pan American Games
in 1963, and Rio de Janeiro hosted the XV Pan American Games
On 2 October 2009, Rio de Janeiro was selected to host the 2016 Olympic Games
and 2016 Paralympic Games
, making it the first South American city to host the games
[Olympics 2016: Tearful Pele and weeping Lula greet historic win for Rio]
" ''The Guardian'', 2 October 2009.
and second in Latin America, after Mexico City
. Furthermore, the country hosted the FIBA Basketball World Cup
s in 1954
. At the 1963 event, the Brazil national basketball team
won one of its two world championship titles.
* Index of Brazil-related articles
* Outline of Brazil
* Azevedo, Aroldo. ''O Brasil e suas regiões''. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 1971
* Barman, Roderick J. ''Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825–1891.'' Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.
* Boxer, Charles R.
. ''The Portuguese Seaborne Empire'' (1969)
** ''O império marítimo português 1415–1825''. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002.
* Bueno, Eduardo. ''Brasil: uma História''. São Paulo: Ática, 2003.
* Calmon, Pedro. ''História da Civilização Brasileira''. Brasília: Senado Federal, 2002
* Carvalho, José Murilo de. ''D. Pedro II''. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007
* Coelho, Marcos Amorim. ''Geografia do Brasil''. 4th ed. São Paulo: Moderna, 1996
* Diégues, Fernando. ''A revolução brasílica''. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2004
* ''Enciclopédia Barsa
''. Volume 4: Batráquio – Camarão, Filipe. Rio de Janeiro: Encyclopædia Britannica do Brasil, 1987
* Fausto, Boris and Devoto, Fernando J. ''Brasil e Argentina: Um ensaio de história comparada (1850–2002)'', 2nd ed. São Paulo: Editoria 34, 2005.
* Gaspari, Elio
. ''A ditadura envergonhada''. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002.
* Janotti, Aldo. ''O Marquês de Paraná: inícios de uma carreira política num momento crítico da história da nacionalidade''. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1990
* Lyra, Heitor. ''História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Ascenção (1825–1870). v. 1''. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977
* Lyra, Heitor. ''História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Declínio (1880–1891). v. 3''. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977
* Lustosa, Isabel. ''D. Pedro I: um herói sem nenhum caráter''. São Paulo: Companhia das letras, 2006.
* Moreira, Igor A. G. ''O Espaço Geográfico, geografia geral e do Brasil''. 18. Ed. São Paulo: Ática, 1981
* Munro, Dana Gardner. ''The Latin American Republics; A History''. New York: D. Appleton, 1942.
* Peres, Damião (1949) ''O Descobrimento do Brasil por Pedro Álvares Cabral: antecedentes e intencionalidade'' Porto: Portucalense.
* Scheina, Robert L. ''Latin America: A Naval History, 1810–1987''. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1987.
* Stuart B. Schwartz
''Sovereignty and Society in Colonial Brazil'' (1973)
** ''Early Latin America'' (1983)
** ''Sugar Plantations in the Formation of Brazilian Society'' (1985)
* Skidmore, Thomas E
. ''Brazil: Five Centuries of Change'' (Oxford University Press, 1999)
** ''Uma História do Brasil''. 4th ed. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 2003.
* Souza, Adriana Barreto de. ''Duque de Caxias: o homem por trás do monumento''. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2008. .
* Vainfas, Ronaldo. ''Dicionário do Brasil Imperial''. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2002.
* Vesentini, José William. ''Brasil, sociedade e espaço – Geografia do Brasil''. 7th Ed. São Paulo: Ática, 1988
* Vianna, Hélio. ''História do Brasil: período colonial, monarquia e república'', 15th ed. São Paulo: Melhoramentos, 1994
* Zirin, Dave. ''Brazil's Dance with the Devil: The World Cup, The Olympics, and the Fight for Democracy'' Haymarket Books 2014.
* Alencastro Felipe, Luiz Felipe de. ''The Trade in the Living: The Formation of Brazil in the South Atlantic, Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries'' (SUNY Press, 2019 excerpt
* Levine, Robert M. ''Historical Dictionary of Brazil'' (2019)
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