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''Brassica'' () is a genus of plants in the cabbage and mustard family (Brassicaceae). The members of the genus are informally known as cruciferous vegetables, cabbages, or mustard plants. Crops from this genus are sometimes called ''cole crops''derived from the Latin ''caulis'', denoting the stem or stalk of a plant. The genus ''Brassica'' is known for its important agricultural and horticultural crops and also includes a number of weeds, both of wild taxa and escapees from cultivation. ''Brassica'' species and varieties commonly used for food include broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, choy sum, rutabaga, turnip and some seeds used in the production of canola oil and the condiment mustard. Over 30 wild species and hybrids are in cultivation, plus numerous cultivars and hybrids of cultivated origin. Most are seasonal plants (annuals or biennials), but some are small shrubs. ''Brassica'' plants have been the subject of much scientific interest for their agricultural importance. Six particular species (''B. carinata'', ''B. juncea'', ''B. oleracea'', ''B. napus'', ''B. nigra'', and ''B. rapa'') evolved by the combining of chromosomes from three earlier species, as described by the Triangle of U theory. The genus is native to Western Europe, the Mediterranean and temperate regions of Asia. Many wild species grow as weeds, especially in North America, South America, and Australia. A dislike for cabbage or broccoli can result from the fact that these plants contain a compound similar to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), which is either bitter or tasteless to people depending on their taste buds.


Uses





Food


The flowers, seeds, stalks, and tender leaves of many species of ''Brassica'' can be eaten raw or cooked. Almost all parts of some species have been developed for food, including the root (swede, turnip), stems (kohlrabi), leaves (cabbage, collard greens, kale), flowers (cauliflower, broccoli), buds (Brussels sprouts, cabbage), and seeds (many, including mustard seed, and oil-producing rapeseed). Some forms with white or purple foliage or flowerheads are also sometimes grown for ornament. ''Brassica'' species are sometimes used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species—see List of Lepidoptera that feed on Brassica.


Nutrition


''Brassica'' vegetables provide high amounts of vitamin C, vitamin K, manganese, and soluble fiber, and contain glucosinolates which are under preliminary research for their potential biological properties when consumed. Epidemiological studies suggest that brassica vegetables are protective against cancers of the lungs and alimentary tract. Cruciferous vegetables are the dietary source of glucosinolates, a large group of sulfur-containing glucosides. These compounds remain intact unless brought into contact with the enzyme myrosinase by pests, food processing, or chewing. Myrosinase releases glucose and breakdown products, including isothiocyanates. These highly reactive compounds are potent inducers of Phase II enzymes in vitro. Isothiocyanates also inhibit mitosis and stimulate apoptosis in human tumor cells, in vitro and in vivo.


Cooking


Boiling substantially reduces the levels of broccoli glucosinolates, while other cooking methods, such as steaming, microwaving, and stir frying, have no significant effect on glucosinolate levels.


Species


There is some disagreement among botanists on the classification and status of ''Brassica'' species and subspecies. The following is an abbreviated list, with an emphasis on economically important species. * ''Brassica balearica'': Mallorca cabbage * ''Brassica carinata'': Abyssinian mustard or Abyssinian cabbage, used to produce biodiesel * ''Brassica elongata'': elongated mustard * ''Brassica fruticulosa'': Mediterranean cabbage * ''Brassica hilarionis'': St. Hilarion cabbage * ''Brassica juncea'': Indian mustard, brown and leaf mustards, Sarepta mustard * ''Brassica napus'': rapeseed, canola, rutabaga, Siberian kale * ''Brassica narinosa'': broadbeaked mustard * ''Brassica nigra'': black mustard * ''Brassica oleracea'': kale, cabbage, collard greens, broccoli, cauliflower, ''kai-lan'', Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi * ''Brassica perviridis'': tender green, mustard spinach * ''Brassica rapa'' (syn. ''B. campestris''): Chinese cabbage, turnip, rapini, ''komatsuna'' * ''Brassica rupestris'': brown mustard * ''Brassica spinescens'': * ''Brassica tournefortii'': Asian mustard


Species formerly placed in ''Brassica''


* ''B. alba'' or ''B. hirta'' (white or yellow mustard)—see ''Sinapis alba'' * ''B. geniculata'' (hoary mustard)—see ''Hirschfeldia incana'' * ''B. kaber'' (wild mustard or charlock)—see ''Sinapis arvensis''


Genome sequencing and genetics


Bayer CropScience (in collaboration with BGI-Shenzhen, China; Keygene N.V.; the Netherlands and the University of Queensland, Australia) announced it had sequenced the entire genome of rapeseed (canola, ''Brassica napus'') and its constituent genomes present in ''B. rapa'' and ''B. oleracea'' in 2009. The ''B. rapa'' genome was sequenced by the Multinational Brassica Genome Project in 2011. This also represents the A genome component of the amphidiploid crop species ''B. napus'' and ''B. juncea''.


Etymology


'Brassica' is Pliny the Elder's name for several cabbage-like plants.Gledhill, David (2008). "The Names of Plants". Cambridge University Press. (hardback), (paperback). pp 76


References




External links

* {{Authority control Category:Brassicaceae genera Category:Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus