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Brandenburg
Brandenburg
(German pronunciation: [ˈbʁandn̩bʊɐ̯k] ( listen); Low German: Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Upper Sorbian: Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany. It lies in the northeast of the country covering an area of 29,478 square kilometers and has 2.48 million inhabitants. The capital and largest city is Potsdam. Brandenburg
Brandenburg
surrounds but does not include the national capital and city-state Berlin
Berlin
forming a metropolitan area. Originating in the medieval Northern March, the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
grew to become the core of the Kingdom of Prussia, which would later become the Free State of Prussia
Free State of Prussia
with part being the province of Brandenburg. Brandenburg
Brandenburg
is one of the federal states that were re-created in 1990 upon the reunification of the former East Germany
Germany
and West Germany.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early Middle Ages 1.2 Late Middle Ages 1.3 16th and 17th centuries 1.4 Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
and German Empire 1.5 East Germany 1.6 Federal Republic of Germany

2 Geography

2.1 Protected areas 2.2 Cities

3 Demography

3.1 Religion

4 Politics

4.1 Subdivisions 4.2 Government

5 Economy

5.1 Transport

6 Culture

6.1 Education 6.2 Music 6.3 Notable people

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit]

History of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and Prussia

Northern March pre–12th century Old Prussians pre–13th century

Margraviate of Brandenburg 1157–1618 (1806) Teutonic Order 1224–1525

Duchy of Prussia 1525–1618 Royal (Polish) Prussia 1466–1772

Brandenburg-Prussia 1618–1701

Kingdom in Prussia 1701–1772

Kingdom of Prussia 1772–1918

Free State of Prussia 1918–1947 Klaipėda Region (Lithuania) 1920–1939 / 1945–present

Brandenburg (Germany) 1947–1952 / 1990–present Recovered Territories (Poland) 1918/1945–present Kaliningrad Oblast (Russia) 1945–present

Main article: Margraviate of Brandenburg In late medieval and early modern times, Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was one of seven electoral states of the Holy Roman Empire, and, along with Prussia, formed the original core of the German Empire, the first unified German state. Governed by the Hohenzollern dynasty from 1415, it contained the future German capital Berlin. After 1618 the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and the Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
were combined to form Brandenburg-Prussia, which was ruled by the same branch of the House of Hohenzollern. In 1701 the state was elevated as the Kingdom of Prussia. Franconian Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Ansbach, Swabian Hohenzollern, the eastern European connections of Berlin, and the status of Brandenburg's ruler as prince-elector together were instrumental in the rise of that state. Early Middle Ages[edit] Main article: Northern March Brandenburg
Brandenburg
is situated in territory known in antiquity as Magna Germania, which reached to the Vistula river. By the 7th century, Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
are believed to have settled in the Brandenburg
Brandenburg
area. The Slavs expanded from the east, possibly driven from their homelands in present-day Ukraine
Ukraine
and perhaps Belarus by the invasions of the Huns
Huns
and Avars. They relied heavily on river transport. The two principal Slavic groups in the present-day area of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
were the Hevelli
Hevelli
in the west and the Sprevane
Sprevane
in the east. Beginning in the early 10th century, Henry the Fowler
Henry the Fowler
and his successors conquered territory up to the Oder River. Slavic settlements such as Brenna[5] ( Brandenburg
Brandenburg
an der Havel), Budusin[6] (Bautzen), and Chośebuz[7] (Cottbus) came under imperial control through the installation of margraves. Their main function was to defend and protect the eastern marches. In 948 Emperor Otto I established margraves to exert imperial control over the pagan Slavs west of the Oder River. Otto founded the Bishoprics of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and Havelberg. The Northern March
Northern March
was founded as a northeastern border territory of the Holy Roman Empire. However, a great uprising of Wends drove imperial forces from the territory of present-day Brandenburg
Brandenburg
in 983. The region returned to the control of Slavic leaders. Late Middle Ages[edit] Main article: Margraviate of Brandenburg During the 12th century, the Ottonian
Ottonian
German kings and emperors re-established control over the mixed Slav-inhabited lands of present-day Brandenburg, although some Slavs like the Sorbs
Sorbs
in Lusatia adapted to Germanization
Germanization
while retaining their distinctiveness. The Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
brought bishoprics which, with their walled towns, afforded protection from attacks for the townspeople. With the monks and bishops, the history of the town of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
an der Havel, which was the first center of the state of Brandenburg, began.

Eisenhardt Castle in Bad Belzig

In 1134, in the wake of a German crusade against the Wends, the German magnate, Albert the Bear, was granted the Northern March
Northern March
by the Emperor Lothar III. He formally inherited the town of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and the lands of the Hevelli
Hevelli
from their last Wendish ruler, Pribislav, in 1150. After crushing a force of Sprevane
Sprevane
who occupied the town of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
in the 1150s, Albert proclaimed himself ruler of the new Margraviate of Brandenburg. Albert, and his descendants the Ascanians, then made considerable progress in conquering, colonizing, Christianizing, and cultivating lands as far east as the Oder. Within this region, Slavic and German residents intermarried. During the 13th century, the Ascanians began acquiring territory east of the Oder, later known as the Neumark
Neumark
(see also Altmark). In 1320, the Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Ascanian line came to an end, and from 1323 up until 1415 Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was under the control of the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria, followed by the Luxembourg Dynasties. Under the Luxembourgs, the Margrave of Brandenburg
Margrave of Brandenburg
gained the status of a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire. In the period 1373-1415, Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was a part of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. In 1415, the Electorate of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was granted by Emperor Sigismund to the House of Hohenzollern, which would rule until the end of World War I. The Hohenzollerns established their capital in Berlin, by then the economic center of Brandenburg. 16th and 17th centuries[edit] Main article: Brandenburg-Prussia

Brandenburg's victory over Swedish forces at the Battle of Fehrbellin in 1675

Brandenburg
Brandenburg
converted to Protestantism in 1539 in the wake of the Protestant Reformation, and generally did quite well in the 16th century, with the expansion of trade along the Elbe, Havel, and Spree Rivers. The Hohenzollerns expanded their territory by co-rulership since 1577 and acquiring the Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
in 1618, the Duchy of Cleves (1614) in the Rhineland, and territories in Westphalia. The result was a sprawling, disconnected country known as Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
that was in poor shape to defend itself during the Thirty Years' War. Beginning near the end of that devastating conflict, however, Brandenburg
Brandenburg
enjoyed a string of talented rulers who expanded their territory and power in Europe. The first of these was Frederick William, the so-called "Great Elector", who worked tirelessly to rebuild and consolidate the nation. He moved the royal residence to Potsdam. At the Treaty of Westphalia, his envoy Joachim Friedrich von Blumenthal negotiated the acquisition of several important territories such as Halberstadt. Under the Treaty of Oliva
Treaty of Oliva
Christoph Caspar von Blumenthal(son of the above) negotiated the incorporation of the Duchy of Prussia into the Hohenzollern inheritance. Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
and German Empire[edit] Main articles: Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
and Province of Brandenburg

Sanssouci Palace
Sanssouci Palace
in Potsdam, the former summer palace of Frederick the Great, today a World Heritage site

Province of Brandenburg
Province of Brandenburg
superimposed on modern borders.

When Frederick William died in 1688, he was followed by his son Frederick, third of that name in Brandenburg. As the lands that had been acquired in Prussia were outside the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire, Frederick assumed (as Frederick I) the title of "King in Prussia" (1701). Although his self-promotion from margrave to king relied on his title to the Duchy of Prussia, Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was still the most important portion of the kingdom. However, this combined state is known as the Kingdom of Prussia. Brandenburg
Brandenburg
remained the core of the Kingdom of Prussia, and it was the site of the kingdom's capitals, Berlin
Berlin
and Potsdam. When Prussia was subdivided into provinces in 1815, the territory of the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Margraviate of Brandenburg
became the Province of Brandenburg, again subdivided into the government regions of Frankfurt and Potsdam. In 1881, the City of Berlin
Berlin
was separated from the Province of Brandenburg. However, industrial towns ringing Berlin
Berlin
lay within Brandenburg, and the growth of the region's industrial economy brought an increase in the population of the province. The Province of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
had an area of 39,039 km2 (15,073 sq mi) and a population of 2.6 million (1925). After World War II, the Neumark, the part of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
east of the Oder-Neisse Line, was transferred to Poland; and its native German population expelled. The remainder of the province became a state in the Soviet Zone of occupation in Germany
Germany
when Prussia was dissolved in 1947. East Germany[edit] Since the foundation of East Germany
Germany
in 1949 Brandenburg
Brandenburg
formed one of its component states. The State of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was completely dissolved in 1952 by the Socialist government of East Germany, doing away with all component states. The East German government then divided Brandenburg
Brandenburg
among several Bezirke or districts. (See Administrative division of the German Democratic Republic). Most of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
lay within the Bezirke of Cottbus, Frankfurt, or Potsdam, but parts of the former province passed to the Schwerin, Neubrandenburg and Magdeburg districts (town Havelberg). East Germany relied heavily on lignite (the lowest grade of coal) as an energy source, and lignite strip mines marred areas of southeastern Brandenburg. The industrial towns surrounding Berlin
Berlin
were important to the East German economy, while rural Brandenburg
Brandenburg
remained mainly agricultural. Federal Republic of Germany[edit] The present State of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was re-established on 3 October 1990 upon German reunification.[8] The newly elected Landtag of Brandenburg first met on 26 October 1990.[9] As in other former parts of East Germany, the lack of modern infrastructure and exposure to West Germany's competitive market economy brought widespread unemployment and economic difficulty. In the recent years, however, Brandenburg's infrastructure has been modernized and unemployment has slowly declined. In 1995, the governments of Berlin
Berlin
and Brandenburg
Brandenburg
proposed to merge the states in order to form a new state with the name of "Berlin-Brandenburg", though some suggested calling the proposed new state "Prussia". The merger was rejected in a plebiscite in 1996 – while West Berliners voted for a merger, East Berliners and Brandenburgers voted against it. Geography[edit] See also: Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region
Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region
and List of places in Brandenburg Brandenburg
Brandenburg
is bordered by Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
in the north, Poland in the east, the Freistaat Sachsen in the south, Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
in the west, and Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
in the northwest. The Oder River
Oder River
forms a part of the eastern border, the Elbe
Elbe
River a portion of the western border. The main rivers in the state itself are the Spree
Spree
and the Havel. In the southeast, there is a wetlands region called the Spreewald; it is the northernmost part of Lusatia, where the Sorbs, a Slavic people, still live. These areas are bilingual, i.e., German and Sorbian are both used. Protected areas[edit] Brandenburg
Brandenburg
is known for its well-preserved natural environment and its ambitious natural protection policies which began in the 1990s. 15 large protected areas were designated following Germany's reunification. Each of them is provided with state-financed administration and a park ranger staff, who guide visitors and work to ensure nature conservation. Most protected areas have visitor centers. National parks

Lower Oder Valley National Park
Lower Oder Valley National Park
(106 km²)

Biosphere reserves

The Spreewald, a biosphere reserve by UNESCO

Spreewald
Spreewald
Biosphere Reserve (474 km2 or 183 sq mi) Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve
(1,291 km2 or 498.46 sq mi) River Landscape Elbe- Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Biosphere Reserve (533 km2 or 206 sq mi)

Nature parks

Barnim Nature Park
Barnim Nature Park
(750 km2 or 290 sq mi) Dahme-Heideseen Nature Park
Dahme-Heideseen Nature Park
(594 km2 or 229 sq mi) High Fläming Nature Park
High Fläming Nature Park
(827 km2 or 319 sq mi) Märkische Schweiz Nature Park
Märkische Schweiz Nature Park
(204 km2 or 79 sq mi) Niederlausitzer Heidelandschaft
Niederlausitzer Heidelandschaft
Nature Park (490 km2 or 189 sq mi) Niederlausitzer Landrücken Nature Park
Niederlausitzer Landrücken Nature Park
(580 km2 or 224 sq mi) Nuthe-Nieplitz Nature Park
Nuthe-Nieplitz Nature Park
(623 km2 or 241 sq mi) Schlaube Valley Nature Parke
Schlaube Valley Nature Parke
(225 km2 or 87 sq mi) Uckermark Lakes Nature Park
Uckermark Lakes Nature Park
(895 km2 or 346 sq mi) Westhavelland Nature Park
Westhavelland Nature Park
(1,315 km2 or 507.72 sq mi) Stechlin-Ruppiner Land Nature Park
Stechlin-Ruppiner Land Nature Park
(1,080 km2 or 416.99 sq mi)

Cities[edit]

State capital Potsdam

Brandenburg
Brandenburg
an der Havel

Cottbus

Frankfurt (Oder)

Oranienburg

Demography[edit]

Development of population from 1875 within current borders.

Population density in Berlin- Brandenburg
Brandenburg
in 2015

Significant foreign born populations[10]

Nationality Population (2014)

 Poland 14,802

 Syria 10,832

 Russia 7,556

 Ukraine 3,578

 Vietnam 3,344

 Afghanistan 2,868

 Romania 2,764

Religion[edit]

Religion in Brandenburg
Brandenburg
- 2011

religion

percent

Non religious

79.8%

EKD Protestants

17.1%

Roman Catholics

3.1%

The majority (79.8%)[11] of Brandenburgers can be defined as non-religious, adherents of non-Christian religions or not adherents of the larger Christian denominations. 17.1% of the Brandenburgers adhere to the local Evangelical Church in Germany
Germany
(mostly the Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and Silesian Upper Lusatia), while 3.1% are Roman Catholic (mostly the Archdiocese of Berlin, and a minority in the Diocese of Görlitz).[11]

Politics[edit] See also: List of rulers of Brandenburg Subdivisions[edit] Brandenburg
Brandenburg
is divided into 14 rural districts (Landkreise) and four urban districts (kreisfreie Städte), shown with their population in 2011:[12]

Administrative Divisions in Brandenburg

District Population

Barnim 176,953

Dahme-Spreewald 161,556

Elbe-Elster 110,291

Havelland 155,226

Märkisch-Oderland 189,673

Oberhavel 203,508

Oberspreewald-Lausitz 120,023

Oder-Spree 182,798

Ostprignitz-Ruppin 102,108

Potsdam-Mittelmark 205,678

Prignitz 80,872

Spree-Neiße 124,662

Teltow-Fläming 161,546

Uckermark 128,174

Stadt Brandenburg
Brandenburg
an der Havel 71,534

Stadt Cottbus 102,129

Stadt. Frankfurt (Oder) 60,002

Stadt Potsdam 158,902

Government[edit] Main articles: Brandenburg
Brandenburg
state election, 2014; List of Ministers-President of Brandenburg; and Landtag of Brandenburg

The parliament building (Landtag) in the capital Potsdam

Dietmar Woidke, Minister-President

The most recent election took place on 14 September 2014. The coalition government formed by the Social Democrats and the Left Party led by Dietmar Woidke
Dietmar Woidke
(SPD) was re-elected. The next ordinary state election is scheduled for 2019.

e • d Election results for the Landtag of Brandenburg on 14 September 2014[13]

Party Vote % (change) Seats (change) Seat %

Social Democratic Party (SPD) 31.9% -1.1% 30 -1 34.1%

Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 23.0% +3.2% 21 +2 23.9%

The Left Party (Linke) 18.6% -8.6% 17 -9 19.3%

Alternative for Germany
Germany
(AfD) 12.2% +12.2% 11 +11 12.5%

Alliance 90/The Greens
Alliance 90/The Greens
(Die Grünen) 6.2% +0.5% 6 +1 6.8%

Free Voters (BVB) 2.7% +1.0% 3 +3 3.4%

National Democratic Party (NPD) 2.2% -0.4% 0 - -

Pirate Party (Piraten) 1.5% +1.5% 0 - -

Free Democratic Party (FDP) 1.5% -5.7% 0 -7 -

Others 0.4% -0.0% 0 - -

Total

88

Economy[edit] Transport[edit] Berlin
Berlin
Schönefeld
Schönefeld
Airport (IATA code:SXF) is the largest airport in Brandenburg. It is the second largest international airport of the Berlin- Brandenburg
Brandenburg
metropolitan region and is located 18 km (11 mi) southeast of central Berlin
Berlin
in Schönefeld. The airport is a base for Condor, easyJet and Ryanair. In 2016, SXF handled 11.652.922 Passengers (+36,7%). It is planned to incorporate Schönefeld's existing infrastructure and terminals into the new Berlin
Berlin
Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Airport (BER),[14] which is scheduled to open not before the end of 2020.[15] The new BER will have an initial capacity of 35-40 million passengers a year. Due to increasing air traffic in Berlin
Berlin
and Brandenburg
Brandenburg
plans for airport expansions are in the making (as of 2017). Culture[edit]

The University of Potsdam
Potsdam
campus.

Education[edit] In 2016, around 49,000 students were enrolled in Brandenburg universities and higher education facilities. The largest institution is the University of Potsdam, located southwest of Berlin.[16] Music[edit] The Brandenburg concerti
Brandenburg concerti
by Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
(original title: Six Concerts à plusieurs instruments)[17] are a collection of six instrumental works presented by Bach to Christian Ludwig, Margrave
Margrave
of Brandenburg-Schwedt,[18] in 1721 (though probably composed earlier). They are widely regarded as among the finest musical compositions of the Baroque era and are among the composer's best known works. Notable people[edit]

Theodor Fontane Karl Friedrich Schinkel Peter Joseph Lenné

See also[edit]

Geography portal Europe portal European Union portal Germany
Germany
portal Brandenburg
Brandenburg
portal

Outline of Germany Former countries in Europe after 1815

References[edit]

^ "Bevölkerung im Land Brandenburg
Brandenburg
nach amtsfreien Gemeinden, Ämtern und Gemeinden 31. Dezember 2016 (Fortgeschriebene amtliche Einwohnerzahlen auf Grundlage des Zensus 2011)". Amt für Statistik Berlin- Brandenburg
Brandenburg
(in German). 2016.  ^ BP = Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Province, SB = Soviet Zone, Brandenburg. With the abolition of states in East Germany
Germany
in 1952 vehicle registration followed the new Bezirk subdivisions. Since 1991 distinct prefixes are specified for each district. ^ Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg. "Bruttoinlandsprodukt – in jeweiligen Preisen – in Deutschland 1991 bis 2014 nach Bundesländern (WZ 2008) – Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnungen der Länder VGR dL". Archived from the original on 17 December 2015.  ^ "Population Brandenburg". Statistical Offices of the Länder and Federal Statistical Office. Retrieved 23 July 2014.  ^ Barford, Paul M. (2001). The Early Slavs: Culture and Society in Early Medieval Eastern Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 421. ISBN 0-8014-3977-9.  ^ Institut für Sorbische Volksforschung in Bautzen
Bautzen
(1962). Lětopis Instituta za serbski ludospyt. Bautzen: Domowina.  ^ Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World. Jefferson: McFarland & Company. p. 433. ISBN 0-7864-2248-3.  ^ "Ländereinführungsgesetz (1990)".  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-26.  ^ [1] 31 Dec. 2014 German Statistical Office. Zensus 2014: Bevölkerung am 31. Dezember 2014 ^ a b Die kleine Brandenburg–Statistik 2011. Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg. Archived 24 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Amt für Statistik Berlin
Berlin
Brandenburg
Brandenburg
- Statistiken". www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de. Retrieved 2015-04-24.  ^ "Ergebnistabelle Land". Der Landeswahlleiter für Brandenburg. Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ "The future lies in Schoenefeld". Berlin-airport.de. Archived from the original on 2 May 2011.  ^ [https://www.welt.de/wirtschaft/article171642256/Der-BER-bleibt-noch-drei-Jahre-ein-Geisterflughafen.html "The BER will remain ghost-airport until 2020" ^ Brandenburg
Brandenburg
auf dem Sprung zu 2,5 Millionen-Einwohner-Marke ^ Johann Sebastian Bach's Werke, vol.19: Kammermusik, dritter band, Bach-Gesellschaft, Leipzig; ed. Wilhelm Rust, 1871 ^ MacDonogh, Giles. Frederick the Great: A Life in Deed and Letters. St. Martin's Griffin. New York. 2001. ISBN 0-312-27266-9

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brandenburg.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Brandenburg.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia
Collier's Encyclopedia
article Brandenburg.

Official website (in German) Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Tourist Board Geographic data related to Brandenburg
Brandenburg
at OpenStreetMap

v t e

States of the Federal Republic of Germany

States

   Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
(since 1952)    Bavaria
Bavaria
(since 1949)    Brandenburg
Brandenburg
(since 1990)    Hesse
Hesse
(since 1949)    Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
(since 1949)    Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
(since 1990)   North Rhine- Westphalia
Westphalia
(since 1949)    Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
(since 1949)    Saarland
Saarland
(since 1957)    Saxony
Saxony
(since 1990)    Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
(since 1990)    Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
(since 1949)    Thuringia
Thuringia
(since 1990)

City-states

   Berlin
Berlin
(since 1990)   Bremen (since 1949)    Hamburg
Hamburg
(since 1949)

Former states

   South Baden
South Baden
(1949–1952)    Württemberg-Baden
Württemberg-Baden
(1949–1952)    Württemberg-Hohenzollern
Württemberg-Hohenzollern
(1949–1952)

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the state of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Brandenburg
Brandenburg
an der Havel Cottbus Frankfurt (Oder) Potsdam

Rural districts

Barnim Dahme-Spreewald Elbe-Elster Havelland Märkisch-Oderland Oberhavel Oberspreewald-Lausitz Oder-Spree Ostprignitz-Ruppin Potsdam-Mittelmark Prignitz Spree-Neiße Teltow-Fläming Uckermark

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 246066379 LCCN: n91075824 GND: 4007955-7 BNF: cb119553645 (d

.