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Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
(March 4, 1869 – May 24, 1934) was an American journalist, attorney, politician, Georgist, four-time mayor of Toledo, Ohio elected on the Independent ticket; ambassador to Belgium, and author of numerous articles and books, both novels and non-fiction.

Contents

1 Journalist 2 Springfield, Illinois 3 Attorney and mayor of Toledo, Ohio 4 Ambassador to Belgium 5 Writings 6 Represented in popular culture 7 Legacy and honors 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Journalist[edit] Born Joseph Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
in Urbana, Ohio, son of the Rev. Elias and Mollie Lavinia (Brand) Whitlock, he was educated in the public schools and by private tutors. Rather than attend college, Whitlock began working as a reporter for several papers in Toledo, Ohio, including The Toledo Blade. In 1891, he moved to Chicago
Chicago
to work for The Chicago
Chicago
Herald.[1] He covered baseball, including longtime Chicago
Chicago
captain-manager Cap Anson, whom he sometimes referred to in print as "Grampa."[2] He also covered the 1892 Republican National Convention
1892 Republican National Convention
and the 1892 Illinois legislative session.[2] Whitlock joined the Whitechapel Club. Springfield, Illinois[edit]

The Holy Trinity, as Ohio mayors (L-R) Henry Thomas Hunt
Henry Thomas Hunt
of Cincinnati, Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
of Toledo, and Newton D. Baker
Newton D. Baker
of Cleveland were called following the mayoral elections of November 4, 1911.

His political writing attracted attention by Illinois politicians, and Whitlock was offered a job as Gov. John Peter Altgeld's personal secretary; instead he took a position with the Secretary of State.[3] While in Springfield, he also studied the law under Senator J. M. Palmer; he was admitted to the bar in 1894, at the age of 25.[2] Whitlock had married Susan Brainerd in 1892, but she died four months after their wedding.[4] In 1895 he married again, choosing her sister Nell Brainerd.[4] In 1893, Whitlock prepared the pardon documents for the Haymarket Affair's convicted men: Fielden, Neebe, and Schwab. After Gov. Altgeld signed the pardons, Whitlock commented, "The storm will break now," to which the governor replied, "It was merely doing right." [5] Whitlock became very active in Illinois Democratic Party
Illinois Democratic Party
politics. In 1894, he was Chair of the Democratic Finance Committee and in charge of arrangements for the state convention.[6] Attorney and mayor of Toledo, Ohio[edit] After the defeat of Gov. Altgeld in 1896, Whitlock returned to Toledo in 1897, where he established a successful legal practice. Whitlock provided legal services to the Mayor of Toledo, Samuel M. Jones, a.k.a. "Golden Rule" Jones. In one case, Whitlock successfully argued to overturn the Ohio state statutes that governed municipalities.[7] Whitlock entered politics more directly in Toledo, running on the Independent ticket for mayor; he was elected four times from 1906 to 1914. He was one of a number of Progressive politicians elected as mayors of major Midwestern cities in 1911. He declined a fifth nomination as mayor when recruited for a diplomatic post. Ambassador to Belgium[edit]

Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
and his wife in New York City in 1915

After finishing his last term as mayor, in 1913 Whitlock was appointed minister to Belgium
Belgium
by President Wilson. When the First World War broke out, his responsibilities were increased as he was given representation for seven additional countries in wartime. His position was extremely sensitive after the German occupation of Belgium. His adroit performance of his duties in the office won him an international reputation for tact, zeal, and efficiency. Whitlock ensured food aid sent by the Committee for Relief in Belgium
Belgium
went to Belgian citizens rather than the German occupation forces.[8] With the United States' declaration of war against Germany
Germany
in April 1917, Whitlock needed to leave Belgium. He insisted on ensuring he accompanied other Americans out of Belgium, and crossed into Switzerland, which was neutral. During the war, he visited King Albert of Belgium
Belgium
at the Allied battle front. After the signing of the armistice in November 1918 and the restoration of the Belgian government, Whitlock returned to Brussels as minister. In 1919, he went to the United States
United States
for a visit. While he was at home, the United States' representation in Belgium
Belgium
was raised to rank of an embassy, and Whitlock became an ambassador.[9][10] Writings[edit] Whitlock wrote numerous newspaper articles, short stories, novels, essays, biographies, non-fiction and memoirs. His novels dealt with political and social issues. Non-fiction

(1908). Abraham Lincoln. (1910-1913). On the Enforcement of Law in Cities. (1914). Forty Years of It. (1919). Belgium: a Personal Record [2 vols.] (1920). Walt Whitman: How to Know Him. (1929). Lafayette. (1936). The Letters and Journal of Brand Whitlock.

Fiction

(1902). The Thirteenth District: The Story of a Candidate. (1904). The Happy Average. (1904). Her Infinite Variety. (1907). The Turn of the Balance. (1910). The Gold Brick. (1912). The Fall Guy. (1923). J. Hardin and Son. (1926). Uprooted. (1927). Transplanted. (1928). Big Matt. (1931). Narcissus. (1931). The Little Green Shutter. (1933). The Stranger on the Island.

Represented in popular culture[edit]

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
wrote about Altgeld's pardons of men from the Haymarket Affair
Haymarket Affair
in his book, Profiles in Courage. In the 1965 television show based on the book, John Kerr played Brand Whitlock. The Reluctant Hero: Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
was a WBGU- PBS
PBS
documentary about him.

Legacy and honors[edit] For his service to Belgium, Whitlock received numerous honors, including the Order of Leopold knighthood.[11] A boulevard in Brussels was named for him in the Woluwe-Saint-Lambert
Woluwe-Saint-Lambert
municipality. Notes[edit]

^ Crunden, Robert M. (1969). A Hero in Spite of Himself - Brand Whitlock in Art, Politics, and War. New York: Alfred A. Knoff, Inc. p. 23.  ^ a b c Crunden, Robert M. (1969). A Hero in Spite of Himself - Brand Whitlock in Art, Politics, and War. New York: Alfred A. Knoff, Inc. pp. 31 to 35.  ^ Crunden, Robert M. (1969). A Hero in Spite of Himself. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 42.  ^ a b Crunden, Robert M. (1969). A Hero in Spite of Himself. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 36.  ^ Crunden, Robert M. (1969). A Hero in Spite of Himself. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 59.  ^ Tager, Jack (1968). The Intellectual as Urban Reformer - Brand Whitlock and the Progressive Movement. Cleveland: The Press of Case Western University. p. 36.  ^ Tager, Jack (1968). The Intellectual as Urban Reformer - Brand Whitlock and the Progressive Movement. Cleveland, Ohio: The Press of Case Western Reserve University. pp. 64 to 66.  ^ Tager, Jack (1969). The Intellectual as Urban Reformer - Brand Whitlock and the Progressive Movement. Cleveland Ohio: The Press of Case Western Reserve University. pp. 152 and 153.  ^  Reynolds, Francis J., ed. (1921). "Whitlock, Brand". Collier's New Encyclopedia. New York: P.F. Collier & Son Company.  ^  Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Whitlock, Brand". Encyclopedia Americana.  ^ Crunden, Robert M. (1969). A Hero in Spite of Himself - Brand Whitlock in Art, Politics, and War. New York: Albert A. Knopf. p. 370. 

References[edit]

 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Whitlock, Brand". Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York. 

Further reading[edit]

Anderson, David D. (1968). Brand Whitlock. New York: Twayne Publishers. Bremner, Robert H. (1950). "The Civic Revival in Ohio: Artist in Politics: Brand Whitlock," The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 239–254. Cayton, Andrew (2002). Ohio: The History of a People. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press. Hofstadter, Richard (1960). The Age of Reform: From Bryan to F.D.R. New York, NY: Vintage Books. Hofstadter, Richard (1963). The Progressive Movement, 1900-1915. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. McGerr, Michael (2003). A Fierce Discontent: The Rise and Fall of the Progressive Movement in America, 1870-1920. New York, NY: Free Press. Thorburn, Neil (1968). " Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
(1869-1934)," American Literary Realism, 1870-1910, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 30–35.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brand Whitlock.

Works by Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
at Project Gutenberg Works by Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
at Faded Page (Canada) Works by or about Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
at Internet Archive Works by Brand Whitlock, at Hathi Trust Works by Brand Whitlock, at Unz.org The Reluctant Hero: Brand Whitlock, WBGU- PBS
PBS
documentary. IMDB. "Profiles in Courage: John Peter Altgeld
John Peter Altgeld
(1965)". Retrieved 2012-11-25. 

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by post created United States
United States
Ambassador to Belgium 1919–1921 Succeeded by Henry P. Fletcher

v t e

United States
United States
Ambassadors to Belgium
Belgium

Chargé d'affaires

Legaré Maxcy Hilliard Clemson Bayard Seibels

Minister Resident

Seibels Fair Sanford Jones Merrill Goodloe Putnam Fish Tree

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary

Tree Parkhurst Terrell Ewing Storer Townsend Wilson Bryan Anderson Marburg Whitlock

Ambassador

Whitlock Fletcher Phillips Gibson Morris Gibson Davies Cudahy Biddle Sawyer Kirk Murphy Cowen Alger Folger Burden MacArthur Knight Eisenhower Strausz-Hupé Firestone Chambers Price Swaebe Glitman Gelb Blinken Cejas Brauer Korologos Fox Bush Gutman Bauer

v t e

Mayors of Toledo, Ohio

John Berdan Hezekiah D. Mason Myron H. Tilden James Myers George B. Way Richard Mott Emery D. Potter Daniel O. Morton Caleb F. Abbott Charles M. Dorr Daniel McBain Egbert B. Brown Ira L. Clark Mavor Brigham Charles M. Dorr Alexander Brownlee Alexander H. Newcomb Isaac R. Sherwood John Manor Charles M. Dorr Charles A. King William Kraus William W. Jones Guido Marx William W. Jones Jacob Romeis George W. Scheets Samuel F. Forbes James Kent Hamilton Vincent J. Emmick Guy G. Major Samuel M. Jones Robert H. Finch Brand Whitlock Carl Henry Keller Charles M. Milroy Cornell Schreiber Bernard F. Brough Fred J. Mery William T. Jackson Addison Q. Thacher Solon T. Klotz Roy C. Start John Q. Carey Lloyd Emerson Roulet Michael DiSalle Ollie Czelusta Lloyd Emerson Roulet Ollie Czelusta John W. Yager Michael J. Damas John William Potter William J. Ensign Harry W. Kessler Douglas DeGood Donna Owens John McHugh Carty Finkbeiner Jack Ford Carty Finkbeiner Michael Bell D. Michael Collins Paula Hicks-Hudson Wade Kapszukiewicz

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 23336635 LCCN: n50019870 ISNI: 0000 0000 8102 4303 GND: 133679314 SUDOC: 09367337X BNF: cb13203603b (da

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