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BRAND WHITLOCK (March 4, 1869 – May 24, 1934) was an American journalist, attorney, politician, Georgist , four-time mayor of Toledo, Ohio
Toledo, Ohio
elected on the Independent ticket; ambassador to Belgium, and author of numerous articles and books, both novels and non-fiction.

CONTENTS

* 1 Journalist * 2 Springfield, Illinois * 3 Attorney and mayor of Toledo, Ohio
Toledo, Ohio
* 4 Ambassador to Belgium
Belgium
* 5 Writings * 6 Represented in popular culture * 7 Legacy and honors * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

JOURNALIST

Born Joseph Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
in Urbana, Ohio
Urbana, Ohio
, son of the Rev. Elias and Mollie Lavinia (Brand) Whitlock, he was educated in the public schools and by private tutors. Rather than attend college, Whitlock began working as a reporter for several papers in Toledo, Ohio
Toledo, Ohio
, including The Toledo Blade
The Toledo Blade
.

In 1891, he moved to Chicago
Chicago
to work for The Chicago
Chicago
Herald . He covered baseball, including longtime Chicago
Chicago
captain-manager Cap Anson , whom he sometimes referred to in print as "Grampa." He also covered the 1892 Republican National Convention and the 1892 Illinois legislative session. Whitlock joined the Whitechapel Club .

SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS

The Holy Trinity, as Ohio mayors (L-R) Henry Thomas Hunt of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
, Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
of Toledo , and Newton D. Baker
Newton D. Baker
of Cleveland were called following the mayoral elections of November 4, 1911.

His political writing attracted attention by Illinois politicians, and Whitlock was offered a job as Gov. John Peter Altgeld
John Peter Altgeld
's personal secretary; instead he took a position with the Secretary of State. While in Springfield, he also studied the law under Senator J. M. Palmer ; he was admitted to the bar in 1894, at the age of 25.

Whitlock had married Susan Brainerd in 1892, but she died four months after their wedding. In 1895 he married again, choosing her sister Nell Brainerd.

In 1893, Whitlock prepared the pardon documents for the Haymarket Affair 's convicted men: Fielden, Neebe, and Schwab. After Gov. Altgeld signed the pardons, Whitlock commented, "The storm will break now," to which the governor replied, "It was merely doing right."

Whitlock became very active in Illinois Democratic Party
Illinois Democratic Party
politics. In 1894, he was Chair of the Democratic Finance Committee and in charge of arrangements for the state convention.

ATTORNEY AND MAYOR OF TOLEDO, OHIO

After the defeat of Gov. Altgeld in 1896, Whitlock returned to Toledo in 1897, where he established a successful legal practice. Whitlock provided legal services to the Mayor of Toledo, Samuel M. Jones
Samuel M. Jones
, a.k.a. "Golden Rule" Jones. In one case, Whitlock successfully argued to overturn the Ohio state statutes that governed municipalities.

Whitlock entered politics more directly in Toledo, running on the Independent ticket for mayor; he was elected four times from 1906 to 1914. He was one of a number of Progressive politicians elected as mayors of major Midwestern cities in 1911. He declined a fifth nomination as mayor when recruited for a diplomatic post.

AMBASSADOR TO BELGIUM

Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
and his wife in New York City in 1915

After finishing his last term as mayor, in 1913 Whitlock was appointed minister to Belgium
Belgium
by President Wilson . When the First World War broke out, his responsibilities were increased as he was given representation for seven additional countries in wartime. His position was extremely sensitive after the German occupation of Belgium. His adroit performance of his duties in the office won him an international reputation for tact, zeal, and efficiency. Whitlock ensured food aid sent by the Committee for Relief in Belgium
Belgium
went to Belgian citizens rather than the German occupation forces.

With the United States' declaration of war against Germany
Germany
in April 1917, Whitlock needed to leave Belgium. He insisted on ensuring he accompanied other Americans out of Belgium, and crossed into Switzerland, which was neutral. During the war, he visited King Albert of Belgium
Belgium
at the Allied battle front.

After the signing of the armistice in November 1918 and the restoration of the Belgian government, Whitlock returned to Brussels as minister. In 1919, he went to the United States
United States
for a visit. While he was at home, the United States' representation in Belgium
Belgium
was raised to rank of an embassy, and Whitlock became an ambassador.

WRITINGS

Whitlock wrote numerous newspaper articles, short stories, novels, essays, biographies, non-fiction and memoirs. His novels dealt with political and social issues.

NON-FICTION

* (1908). Abraham Lincoln. * (1910-1913). On the Enforcement of Law in Cities. * (1914). Forty Years of It. * (1919). Belgium: a Personal Record * (1920). Walt Whitman: How to Know Him. * (1929). Lafayette. * (1936). The Letters and Journal of Brand Whitlock.

FICTION

* (1902). The Thirteenth District: The Story of a Candidate. * (1904). The Happy Average. * (1904). Her Infinite Variety. * (1907). The Turn of the Balance. * (1910). The Gold Brick. * (1912). The Fall Guy. * (1923). J. Hardin and Son. * (1926). Uprooted. * (1927). Transplanted. * (1928). Big Matt. * (1931). Narcissus. * (1931). The Little Green Shutter. * (1933). The Stranger on the Island.

REPRESENTED IN POPULAR CULTURE

* John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
wrote about Altgeld's pardons of men from the Haymarket Affair
Haymarket Affair
in his book, Profiles in Courage. In the 1965 television show based on the book, John Kerr played Brand Whitlock. * The Reluctant Hero: Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
was a WBGU- PBS
PBS
documentary about him.

LEGACY AND HONORS

For his service to Belgium, Whitlock received numerous honors, including the Order of Leopold knighthood. A boulevard in Brussels was named for him in the Woluwe-Saint-Lambert
Woluwe-Saint-Lambert
municipality.

NOTES

* ^ Crunden, Robert M. (1969). A Hero in Spite of Himself - Brand Whitlock in Art, Politics, and War. New York: Alfred A. Knoff, Inc. p. 23. * ^ A B C Crunden, Robert M. (1969). A Hero in Spite of Himself - Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
in Art, Politics, and War. New York: Alfred A. Knoff, Inc. pp. 31 to 35. * ^ Crunden, Robert M. (1969). A Hero in Spite of Himself. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 42. * ^ A B Crunden, Robert M. (1969). A Hero in Spite of Himself. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 36. * ^ Crunden, Robert M. (1969). A Hero in Spite of Himself. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 59. * ^ Tager, Jack (1968). The Intellectual as Urban Reformer - Brand Whitlock and the Progressive Movement. Cleveland: The Press of Case Western University. p. 36. * ^ Tager, Jack (1968). The Intellectual as Urban Reformer - Brand Whitlock and the Progressive Movement. Cleveland, Ohio: The Press of Case Western Reserve University. pp. 64 to 66. * ^ Tager, Jack (1969). The Intellectual as Urban Reformer - Brand Whitlock and the Progressive Movement. Cleveland Ohio: The Press of Case Western Reserve University. pp. 152 and 153. * ^ Reynolds, Francis J., ed. (1921). "Whitlock, Brand". Collier\'s New Encyclopedia . New York: P.F. Collier & Son Company. * ^ Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Whitlock, Brand". Encyclopedia Americana
Encyclopedia Americana
. * ^ Crunden, Robert M. (1969). A Hero in Spite of Himself - Brand Whitlock in Art, Politics, and War. New York: Albert A. Knopf. p. 370.

REFERENCES

* Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Whitlock, Brand". Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York.

FURTHER READING

* Anderson, David D. (1968). Brand Whitlock. New York: Twayne Publishers. * Bremner, Robert H. (1950). "The Civic Revival in Ohio: Artist in Politi