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BRAHMOISM is a religious movement from the late 19th century Bengal originating the Bengali Renaissance , the nascent Indian independence movement and the wider Hindu
Hindu
reform movements of the period. Adherents, known as Brahmos (singular Brahmo), are mainly of Indian or Bangladeshi origin or nationality. The Brahmo Samaj , literally the "Divine Society", was founded as a movement by Ram Mohan Roy
Ram Mohan Roy
. Placing great importance on the use of reason, he aimed to reform Hindu religious and social practices, being influenced by the monotheistic religions and modern science.

CONTENTS

* 1 Fundamental principles

* 1.1 Articles of faith

* 2 History * 3 Brief history and timeline * 4 See also * 5 Notes and references

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

The Brahmo articles of faith derive from the Fundamental (Adi) Principles of the Adi Brahmo Samaj religion.

* On God: There is always Infinite (limitless, undefinable, imperceivable, indivisible) Singularity - immanent and transcendent Singular Author and Preserver of Existence - "He" whose Love is manifest everywhere and in everything, in the fire and in the water, in the smallest plant to the mightiest oak. * On Being: Being is created from Singularity. Being is renewed to Singularity. Being exists to be one (again) with Loving Singularity. (See Tat Tvam Asi .) * On Intelligent Existence: Righteous (worshipful, intelligent, moral) actions alone rule (regulate ) Existence against Chaos (loss ). Knowledge (Intelligence ) of pure Conscience (light within) is the One (Supreme) ruler (authority ) of Existence with no symbol (creation ) or intermediary (being ). * On Love: Respect all creations and beings but never venerate (worship) them for only Singularity can be loved (adored, worshipped).

ARTICLES OF FAITH

The Articles of faith for Brahmos are:

* Brahmos embrace righteousness as the only way of life. * Brahmos embrace truth, knowledge, reason, free will and virtuous intuition (observation) as guides. * Brahmos embrace secular principles but oppose sectarianism and imposition of religious belief into governance (especially propagation of religious belief by government). * Brahmos embrace the co-existence of Brahmo principles with governance, but oppose all governance in conflict with Brahmo principles. * Brahmos reject narrow theism (especially polytheism), idolatry and symbolism. * Brahmos reject the need for formal rituals, priests or places (church, temple, mosque) for worship. * Brahmos reject dogma and superstition. * Brahmos reject scriptures as authority. * Brahmos reject revelations, prophets, gurus, messiahs, or avatars as authority. * Brahmos reject bigotry and irrational distinctions like caste, creed, colour, race, religion which divide beings. * Brahmos reject all forms of totalitarianism. * Brahmos examine the prevalent notion of "sin". * Brahmos examine the prevalent notions of "heaven" or "hell". * Brahmos examine the prevalent notion of "salvation".

Adherence to these articles are required only of Adi Brahmos or such Sadharan Brahmos who accept Adi-ism i.e. Trust deed of Brahmo Sabha (1830).

HISTORY

Ram Mohan Roy
Ram Mohan Roy
's quest for religious truth had led him to study with an open mind the scriptures of all major religions. Thus he not only studied the Hindu
Hindu
scriptures such as the Vedas
Vedas
in Sanskrit; he also read the Quran in Arabic and the Bible in Hebrew and Greek. His study of different religions convinced him that since every religion had the same end, namely, the moral regeneration of mankind, each stood in need of reinterpretation and reassessment in changing circumstances of the time. Therefore, he thought there was no reason for him to give up Hinduism and accept any other religion. He accepted the universal moral teachings of every religion but without its dogma, ritual and superstition.

While Ram Mohan Roy
Ram Mohan Roy
aimed at reforming Hinduism from within, his successor Maharshi Debendranath Tagore in 1850 rejected the authority of the Vedas
Vedas
and thus broke with orthodox Hinduism . Tagore tried to retain some Hindu
Hindu
customs, but a series of schisms eventually resulted in the formation of the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj in 1878.

In 1901, a decision of the Privy Council
Privy Council
of British India
India
found that "the vast majority of Brahmo religionists are not Hindus and have their own religion".

The Brahma
Brahma
Dharma
Dharma
was first codified by Debendranath Tagore with the formulation of the Brahmo Dharma
Dharma
Beej and publication of the Brahma Dharma, a book of 1848 or 1850 in two parts. The Brahma
Brahma
Dharma
Dharma
is the source of every Brahmo's spiritual faith and reflects Brahmo repudiation of the Hindu
Hindu
Vedas
Vedas
as authority and the shift away from Ram Mohan Roy's Vedantic Unitary God
God
per the Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
Advaita school. The traditional seed principles and Debendranath's Brahmo Dharma
Dharma
(or religious and moral law) now stand evolved as the "Fundamental Principles of Brahmoism" and are supplemented by precise evolving rules for adherents, akin to "Articles of Faith" which regulate the Brahmo way of life. In addition the assembly of Brahmos (and also Brahmo Samajists) for meeting or worship is always consonant with the Trust Principles of 1830 or its derivatives.

BRIEF HISTORY AND TIMELINE

* 1828 : Raja Ram Mohun Roy establishes Brahma
Brahma
Sabha (assembly of Brahmins). * 1829 : Asiatic Society
Asiatic Society
admits the first Indians to its membership, the first of whom are Ramkamal Sen , Dwarkanath Tagore and Prasanna Coomar Tagore . * 1830 : Dwarkanath Tagore, Prasanna Coomar Tagore and Ors. establish the first Brahmo Place for Worship
Worship
through a legal Trust Deed at Chitpur
Chitpur
( Jorasanko
Jorasanko
Kolkatta India
India
). Ram Mohun departs for Britain. * 1833 : Ram Mohun dies in Bristol. * 1839 : Debendranath Tagore forms Tattwabodhini (@Tattvaranjini) Sabha, the "Truth ">

* ^ Chambers Dictionary Of World History. Editor BP Lenman. Chambers. 2000. * ^ Brahmo Samaj Website * ^ brahmosamaj.org - BRAHMO SAMAJ * ^ Ahmed, AF Salahuddin (2012). " Brahma
Brahma
Sabha". In Islam, Sirajul ; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society
Asiatic Society
of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. * ^ Official website http://brahmosamaj.org/ "In 1901 (Bhagwan Koer & Ors v J.C.Bose Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(First ed.). Asiatic Society
Asiatic Society
of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. Archived from the original on 4 October 2006. * ^ http://www.nau.edu/cline/courses/Hay_-_Leaders_of_hindu_reform_and_revival_PDF.pdf * ^ http://www.ccsindia.org/lssreader/14lssreader.pdf * ^ Shivanath Shastri 's Brahmo History (1911) p.114 * ^ "Daughter of Boston: The Extraordinary Diary of Caroline Dall", by Helen Deese. p.xv" * ^ A B " Charles Dall Archived March 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Primary Source: History of Brahmo Samaj by Sivanath Sastri 1911, Secondary Source: Official website brahmosamaj.org

* v * t * e

Religion
Religion

MAJOR RELIGIOUS GROUPS AND RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS

ABRAHAMIC

JUDAISM

* Orthodox

* Haredi * Hasidic * Modern

* Conservative * Reform * Karaite * Reconstructionist * Renewal * Humanistic * Haymanot
Haymanot

CHRISTIANITY

* Catholicism

* Eastern Catholic Churches

* Eastern Christianity
Christianity

* Church of the East
Church of the East

* Assyrian Church of the East
Church of the East

* Eastern Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy

* Oriental Orthodoxy

* Ethiopian Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy

* Independent Catholicism

* Old Catholicism

* Protestantism

* Adventism
Adventism
* Anabaptism
Anabaptism
* Anglicanism * Baptists
Baptists

* Calvinism

* Presbyterianism * Congregationalism * Continental Reformed

* Lutheranism * Methodism
Methodism
* Pentecostalism * Evangelicalism
Evangelicalism

* Nontrinitarianism

* Jehovah\'s Witnesses * Mormonism * Jesuism
Jesuism

* Nondenominational

ISLAM

* Sunni

* Hanafi
Hanafi
* Maliki * Hanbali
Hanbali
* Shafi\'i

* Shia

* Twelver
Twelver
* Isma\'ilism * Zaidiyyah
Zaidiyyah

* Ahmadi * Ibadi * Non-denominational * Quranism
Quranism
* Zahirism

* Salafism

* Wahhabism * Ahl al-Hadith

* Mahdavia * European Islam
Islam
* Nation of Islam
Islam

OTHERS

* Bábism

* Azáli Bábism * Bahá\'í Faith
Faith

* Druze
Druze
* Mandaeism * Rastafari * Samaritanism
Samaritanism

DHARMIC

HINDUISM

* Vaishnavism * Shaktism
Shaktism
* Shaivism
Shaivism
* Ayyavazhi * Smartism * Balinese

BUDDHISM

* Mahayana
Mahayana

* Chan

* Zen
Zen
* Thiền * Seon

* Pure Land * Nichiren * Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
* Tiantai
Tiantai

* Theravada
Theravada

* Vajrayana
Vajrayana

* Tibetan * Shingon * Newar * Bon
Bon

* Navayana

OTHERS

* Jainism
Jainism

* Digambara
Digambara
* Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara

* Sikhism * Gurung shamanism * Bon
Bon
Lamaism * Kirant Mundhum

IRANIAN

* Manichaeism

* Yazdânism

* Yazidism * Ishikism * Ali-Illahism * Yarsanism
Yarsanism

* Zoroastrianism

EUROPEAN

* Armenian

* Baltic

* Dievturība
Dievturība
* Druwi * Romuva

* Caucasian

* Celtic

* Druidry

* Germanic * Hellenism * Italo-Roman * Romanian * Slavic

URALIC

* Finnish * Hungarian

* Uralic

* Mari * Mordvin * Udmurt

Central and Northern Asian

* Burkhanism
Burkhanism
* Chuvash * Manchu * Mongolian * Siberian * Tengrism
Tengrism

EAST ASIAN

* Confucianism * Faism * Taoism * Luoism * Neo- Confucianism * Shenism * Wuism * Shinto
Shinto
* Ryukyuan religion * Cheondoism * Muism * Jeungsanism * Benzhuism * Bimoism * Bon
Bon
* Dongbaism * Hmongism * Meishanism * Mileism * Shigongism * Yiguandao
Yiguandao

SOUTHEAST ASIAN

* Burmese * Caodaism * Satsana Phi * Malaysian * Marapu (Sumba) * Indonesian * Kaharingan * Hoahaoism * Javanism * Philippine

* Vietnamese

* Đạo Mẫu

AFRICAN

TRADITIONAL

* Akan * Akamba * Baluba * Bantu * Berber * Bushongo * Cushitic * Dinka * Efik * Fon and Ewe * Guanche * Igbo * Isoko * Lotuko * Lozi * Lugbara * Maasai * Mbuti * San * Serer * Tumbuka * Waaq * Yoruba * Zulu

DIASPORIC

* Candomblé * Kumina * Obeah
Obeah
* Quimbanda * Palo * Santería
Santería
* Umbanda
Umbanda
* Vodou * Voodoo * Winti

OTHER GROUPS

* Bathouism
Bathouism
* Bongthingism * Donyi-Polo * Dravidian * Kiratism * Sanamahism
Sanamahism
* Sarnaism
Sarnaism
* Aboriginal Australian * Native American * Mesoamerican * Hawaiian * Polynesian

RECENT

* Discordianism * Pastafarianism * Eckankar
Eckankar
* Jediism * New Age * New Thought
New Thought
* Raëlism * Satanism * Scientology
Scientology
* Thelema
Thelema
* Unitarian Universalism * Wicca

HISTORICAL RELIGIONS

PREHISTORIC

* Paleolithic

NEAR EAST

* Arabian * Egyptian * Mesopotamian * Semitic

INDO-EUROPEAN

ASIA

* Proto-Indo-Iranian * Armenian * Ossetian * Vedic

* Zoroastrianism

* Mithraism
Mithraism
* Zurvanism

* Gnosticism

* Manichaeism

EUROPE

* Celtic

* Germanic

* Anglo-Saxon * Continental * Norse

* Greek

* Gnosticism * Neoplatonism

* Manichaeism * Balkan * Roman * Slavic

TOPICS

ASPECTS

* Apostasy
Apostasy
/ Disaffiliation * Behaviour * Beliefs * Clergy
Clergy
* Conversion * Deities * Entheogens * Ethnic religion * Denomination * Faith
Faith
* Fire * Folk religion
Folk religion
* God
God
* Meditation
Meditation

* Monasticism
Monasticism

* monk * nun

* Mysticism
Mysticism
* Mythology * Nature * Ordination
Ordination
* Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
* Orthopraxy * Prayer
Prayer
* Religious experience

* Ritual
Ritual

* liturgy * sacrifice

* Spirituality * Supernatural * Symbols * Truth * Water * Worship
Worship

THEISM

* Animism * Deism
Deism
* Dualism
Dualism
* Henotheism * Monotheism * Nontheism * Panentheism * Pantheism
Pantheism
* Polytheism
Polytheism
* Transtheism

RELIGIOUS STUDIES

* Anthropology * Cognitive science * Comparative * Development * Evolutionary origin * Evolutionary psychology * History * Philosophy * Neurotheology * Psychology * Sociology * Theology * Theories * Women

Religion
Religion
and society

* Agriculture * Business

* Clergy
Clergy

* monasticism * ordination

* Conversion

* evangelism * missionary * proselytism

* Education * Fanaticism

* Freedom

* pluralism * syncretism * toleration * universalism

* Fundamentalism * Growth * Happiness * Homosexuality * Minorities * National church * National religiosity levels * Religiocentrism * Political science * Populations * Schism
Schism
* Science * State * Theocracy * Vegetarianism * Video games

* Violence

* persecution * terrorism * war

* Wealth

Secularism
Secularism
and irreligion

* Antireligion * Deism
Deism
* Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Atheism
Atheism
* Criticism * LaVeyan Satanism * Deconstruction * Humanistic Judaism
Judaism
* Irreligion by country * Objectivism * Secular humanism
Secular humanism
* Secular theology * Secularization
Secularization
* Separation of church and state * Unaffiliated

Overviews and lists

* Index * Outline * Timeline * Abrahamic prophets * Deification * Deities * Founders * Mass gatherings * New religious movements * Organizations * Religions and spiritual traditions * Scholars

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Bengal Renaissance

PEOPLE

* Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
* Rajnarayan Basu * Jagadish Chandra Bose
Jagadish Chandra Bose
* Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose * Satyendra Nath Bose * Bethune * Upendranath Brahmachari * Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay * Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay
Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay
* Akshay Kumar Datta * Henry Derozio * Alexander Duff * Michael Madhusudan Dutt
Michael Madhusudan Dutt
* Romesh Chunder Dutt * Anil Kumar Gain * Dwarkanath Ganguly * Kadambini Ganguly
Kadambini Ganguly
* Monomohun Ghose
Monomohun Ghose
* Ramgopal Ghosh * Aghore Nath Gupta * David Hare * Kazi Nazrul Islam
Islam
* Eugène Lafont * Ashutosh Mukherjee * Harish Chandra Mukherjee * Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Paramahamsa * Gour Govinda Ray * Upendrakishore Ray Chowdhury * Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Ram Mohan Roy
* Meghnad Saha * Akshay Chandra Sarkar * Mahendralal Sarkar * Brajendra Nath Seal * Girish Chandra Sen * Keshub Chandra Sen
Keshub Chandra Sen
* Haraprasad Shastri * Debendranath Tagore * Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
* Satyendranath Tagore * Jnanadanandini Devi
Devi
* Sitanath Tattwabhushan * Brahmabandhav Upadhyay * Ram Chandra Vidyabagish * Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan
Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan
* Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar * Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
* Paramahansa Yogananda * Begum Rokeya

CULTURE

* Adi Dharm
Adi Dharm
* Bengali literature * Bengali poetry * Bengali music * Brahmo Samaj * British Raj * British Indian Association * History of Bengal * Nazrul geeti * Rabindra Nritya Natya
Rabindra Nritya Natya
* Rabindra Sangeet
Rabindra Sangeet
* Sambad Prabhakar * Socialism in Bengal * Swadeshi * Satyagraha * Tattwabodhini Patrika * Tagore family * Bangiya Sahitya Parishad
Bangiya Sahitya Parishad
* Young Bengal

INSTITUTIONS

* Anandamohan College * Asiatic Society
Asiatic Society
* Banga Mahila Vidyalaya * Bangabasi College * Bethune College
Bethune College
* Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur * Calcutta Madrasah College * Calcutta Medical College * Fort William College * General Assembly\'s Institution * Hindu
Hindu
Mahila Vidyalaya * Hindu
Hindu
Theatre * Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
* Midnapore College * National Council of Education, Bengal * Oriental Seminary * Presidency College * Ripon College * Sanskrit College * Scottish Church College * Serampore College * St. Xavier\'s College, Kolkata * Vidyasagar College * Visva-Bharati University * University of Calcutta
University of Calcutta
* University of Dhaka
University of Dhaka

Other renaissance and revolutionary movements

* Bhakti
Bhakti
movement * Gaudiya Vaishnavism * Brahmoism * Sannyasi Rebellion * Indian independence movement * Kalighat painting * Jugantar movement * Bengal School of Art * Hindu–German Conspiracy
Hindu–German Conspiracy
* Kallol * Gananatya Andolan * Bratachari movement * Bengali Little Magazine Movement * Parallel Cinema * Indian Communism * Naxalism * Hungryalism * Prakalpana Movement

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