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Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE

* Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE

* Demotic 7 c. BCE

* Meroitic 3 c. BCE

* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE

* Ugaritic 15 c. BCE

* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE

* Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

* Phoenician 12 c. BCE

* Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE

* Samaritan 6 c. BCE

* Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE

* Tifinagh
Tifinagh

* Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE

* Aramaic 8 c. BCE

* Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE

* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE

* Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)

* E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE

* Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443

* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE

* Canadian syllabics 1840

* Hebrew 3 c. BCE

* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE

* Avestan 4 c. CE

* Palmyrene 2 c. BCE

* Syriac 2 c. BCE

* Nabataean 2 c. BCE

* Arabic 4 c. CE

* N\'Ko 1949 CE

* Sogdian 2 c. BCE

* Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE

* Old Hungarian c. 650 CE

* Old Uyghur

* Mongolian 1204 CE

* Mandaic 2 c. CE

* Greek 8 c. BCE

* Etruscan 8 c. BCE

* Latin 7 c. BCE

* Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

* Runic 2 c. CE * Ogham
Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

* Coptic 3 c. CE * Gothic 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * Glagolitic 862 CE

* Cyrillic c. 940 CE

* Old Permic 1372 CE

Thaana
Thaana
18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals
Brahmi numerals
)

* v * t * e

The BRAHMIC SCRIPTS are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems . They are used throughout the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia
East Asia
, and were once used in Japan
Japan
. They are descended from the Brahmi script of ancient India
India
, and are used by languages of several language families: Indo-European , Dravidian , Tibeto-Burman , Mongolic , Austroasiatic , Austronesian , and Tai . They were also the source of the dictionary order of Japanese kana .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Characteristics

* 3 Comparison

* 3.1 Consonants * 3.2 Vowels * 3.3 Numerals

* 4 List of Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts

* 4.1 Historical * 4.2 Northern Brahmic * 4.3 Southern Brahmic * 4.4 Unicode
Unicode

* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

HISTORY

Spread of Brahmic family of scripts
Brahmic family of scripts
from India.

Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
descended from the Brahmi script . Brahmi is clearly attested from the 3rd century BC during the reign of Ashoka
Ashoka
, who used the script for imperial edicts , but there are some claims of earlier epigraphy found on pottery in South India
India
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
. The most reliable of these were short Brahmi inscriptions dated to the 4th century BC and published by Coningham et al., but scattered press reports have claimed both dates as early as the 6th century BC and that the characters are identifiably Tamil Brahmi , though these latter claims do not appear to have been published academically. Northern Brahmi gave rise to the Gupta script
Gupta script
during the Gupta period , which in turn diversified into a number of cursives during the Middle Ages, including Siddham
Siddham
, Sharada and Nagari
Nagari
.

The Siddhaṃ script
Siddhaṃ script
was especially important in Buddhism
Buddhism
, as many sutras were written in it. The art of Siddham
Siddham
calligraphy survives today in Japan
Japan
. The syllabic nature and dictionary order of the modern kana system of Japanese writing is believed to be descended from the Indic scripts, most likely through the spread of Buddhism
Buddhism
.

Southern Brahmi evolved into Old-Kannada , Pallava and Vatteluttu scripts, which in turn diversified into other scripts of South India and Southeast Asia.

Bhattiprolu was a great centre of Buddhism
Buddhism
during 3rd century BCE and from where Buddhism
Buddhism
spread to east Asia. The present Telugu script is derived from Bhattiprolu Script or 'Kannada- Telugu script ' or Kadamba script , also known as 'old Telugu script', owing to its similarity to the same.

Initially, minor changes were made which is now called Tamil Brahmi which has far fewer letters than some of the other Indic scripts as it has no separate aspirated or voiced consonants.

CHARACTERISTICS

CALLIGRAPHY

* Arabic * Chinese * Georgian * Indian * Islamic * Japanese * Korean * Mongolian * Persian * Tibetan * Western

* v * t * e

Some characteristics, which are present in most but not all the scripts, are:

* Each consonant has an inherent vowel which is usually short 'a' (in Bengali and Assamese it is short 'ô' due to sound shifts). Other vowels are written by adding to the character. A mark , known in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as a virama /halant , can be used to indicate the absence of an inherent vowel. * Each vowel has two forms, an independent form when not part of a consonant, and a dependent form, when attached to a consonant. Depending on the script, the dependent forms can be either placed to the left of, to the right of, above, below, or on both the left and the right sides of the base consonant. * Consonants (up to 4 in Devanagari) can be combined in ligatures . Special
Special
marks are added to denote the combination of 'r' with another consonant. * Nasalization and aspiration of a consonant's dependent vowel is also noted by separate signs. * The alphabetical order is: vowels , velar consonants , palatal consonants , retroflex consonants , dental consonants , bilabial consonants , approximants , sibilants , and other consonants. Each consonant grouping had four stops (with all four possible values of voicing and aspiration), and a nasal consonant .

COMPARISON

Below are comparison charts of several of the major Indic scripts, organised on the principle that glyphs in the same column all derive from the same Brahmi glyph. Accordingly:

* The charts are not comprehensive. Glyphs may be unrepresented if they don't derive from any Brahmi character, but are later inventions. * The pronunciations of glyphs in the same column may not be identical. The pronunciation row is only representative; the International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) pronunciation is given for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
where possible, or another language if necessary.

The transliteration is indicated in ISO 15919 .

CONSONANTS

ISO KA KHA GA GHA ṅ CA CHA JA JHA ñ ṭA ṭHA ḍA ḍHA ṇA TA THA DA DHA NA ṉ PA PHA BA BHA MA YA RA ṟ LA ḷA ḻ V śHA ṣA SA H

ASSAMESE ক খ গ ঘ ঙ চ ছ জ ঝ ঞ ট ঠ ড ঢ ণ ত থ দ ধ ন

প ফ ব ভ ম য ৰ

ৱ শ ষ স হ

BENGALI ক খ গ ঘ ঙ চ ছ জ ঝ ঞ ট ঠ ড ঢ ণ ত থ দ ধ ন

প ফ ব ভ ম য র

শ ষ স হ

DEVANAGARI क ख ग घ ङ च छ ज झ ञ ट ठ ड ढ ण त थ द ध न ऩ प फ ब भ म य र ऱ ल ळ ऴ व श ष स ह

GUJARATI ક ખ ગ ઘ ઙ ચ છ જ ઝ ઞ ટ ઠ ડ ઢ ણ ત થ દ ધ ન

પ ફ બ ભ મ ય ર

લ ળ

વ શ ષ સ હ

ODIA କ ଖ ଗ ଘ ଙ ଚ ଛ ଜ ଝ ଞ ଟ ଠ ଡ ଢ ଣ ତ ଥ ଦ ଧ ନ ନ଼ ପ ଫ ବ ଭ ମ ୟ ର ର଼ ଲ ଳ ଳ଼ ୱ ଶ ଷ ସ ହ

GURMUKHI ਕ ਖ ਗ ਘ ਙ ਚ ਛ ਜ ਝ ਞ ਟ ਠ ਡ ਢ ਣ ਤ ਥ ਦ ਧ ਨ

ਪ ਫ ਬ ਭ ਮ ਯ ਰ

ਲ ਲ਼

ਵ ਸ਼

ਸ ਹ

TIBETAN ཀ ཁ ག

ང ཅ ཆ ཇ

ཉ ཊ ཋ ཌ

ཎ ཏ ཐ ད

པ ཕ བ

མ ཡ ར

ཝ ཤ ཥ ས ཧ

SYLHETI ꠇ ꠈ ꠉ ꠊ ꠋ ꠌ ꠍ ꠎ ꠏ

ꠐ ꠑ ꠒ ꠓ

ꠔ ꠕ ꠖ ꠗ ꠘ

ꠙ ꠚ ꠛ ꠜ ꠝ

ꠡ ꠢ

BRAHMI 𑀓 𑀔 𑀕 𑀖 𑀗 𑀘 𑀙 𑀚 𑀛 𑀜 𑀝 𑀞 𑀟 𑀠 𑀡 𑀢 𑀣 𑀤 𑀥 𑀦

𑀧 𑀨 𑀩 𑀪 𑀫 𑀬 𑀭

𑀮 𑀴

𑀱 𑀲 𑀳

TELUGU క ఖ గ ఘ ఙ చ ఛ జ ఝ ఞ ట ఠ డ ఢ ణ త థ ద ధ న

ప ఫ బ భ మ య ర ఱ ల ళ ೞ వ శ ష స హ

KANNADA ಕ ಖ ಗ ಘ ಙ ಚ ಛ ಜ ಝ ಞ ಟ ಠ ಡ ಢ ಣ ತ ಥ ದ ಧ ನ

ಪ ಫ ಬ ಭ ಮ ಯ ರ ಱ ಲ ಳ ೞ ವ ಶ ಷ ಸ ಹ

SINHALA ක ඛ ග ඝ ඞ ච ඡ ජ ඣ ඤ ට ඨ ඩ ඪ ණ ත ථ ද ධ න

ප ඵ බ භ ම ය ර

ල ළ

ව ශ ෂ ස හ

MALAYALAM ക ഖ ഗ ഘ ങ ച ഛ ജ ഝ ഞ ട ഠ ഡ ഢ ണ ത ഥ ദ ധ ന ഩ പ ഫ ബ ഭ മ യ ര റ ല ള ഴ വ ശ ഷ സ ഹ

TAMIL க

ங ச

ஞ ட

ண த

ந ன ப

ம ய ர ற ல ள ழ வ ஶ ஷ ஸ ஹ

BURMESE က ခ ဂ ဃ င စ ဆ ဇ ဈ ဉ/ည ဋ ဌ ဍ ဎ ဏ တ ထ ဒ ဓ န

ပ ဖ ဗ ဘ မ ယ ရ

လ ဠ ၔ ဝ ၐ ၑ သ ဟ

KHMER ក ខ គ ឃ ង ច ឆ ជ ឈ ញ ដ ឋ ឌ ឍ ណ ត ថ ទ ធ ន

ប ផ ព ភ ម យ រ

ល ឡ

វ ឝ ឞ ស ហ

THAI ก ข ค ฆ ง จ ฉ ช ฌ ญ ฎ ฐ ฑ ฒ ณ ด ถ ท ธ น

บ ผ พ ภ ม ย ร

ล ฬ

ว ศ ษ ส ห

LAO ກ ຂ ຄ

ງ ຈ

ດ ຖ ທ

ບ ຜ ຟ ພ ມ ຍ ຣ

ສ ຫ

BALINESE ᬓ ᬔ ᬕ ᬖ ᬗ ᬘ ᬙ ᬚ ᬛ ᬜ ᬝ ᬞ ᬟ ᬠ ᬡ ᬢ ᬣ ᬤ ᬥ ᬦ

ᬧ ᬨ ᬩ ᬪ ᬫ ᬬ ᬭ

ᬯ ᬰ ᬱ ᬲ ᬳ

JAVANESE ꦏ ꦑ ꦒ ꦓ ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ ꦗ ꦙ ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ ꦝ ꦞ ꦟ ꦠ ꦡ ꦢ ꦣ ꦤ ꦘ ꦥ ꦦ ꦧ ꦨ ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ

ꦮ ꦯ ꦰ ꦱ ꦲ

SUNDANESE ᮊ

ᮍ ᮎ

ᮙ ᮚ ᮛ

ᮞ ᮠ

LONTARA ᨀ

ᨂ ᨌ

ᨆ ᨐ ᨑ

ᨔ ᨕ

BATAK (TOBA) ᯂ

ᯠ/ᯛ

ᯘ ᯂ

Notes

* ^ Implemented in Unicode
Unicode
6.0. May not be rendered correctly. * ^ A B C D E Pallava grantha letters are not used in pure Tamil but are used for transcribing foreign loanwords. * ^ A B C Modified forms of these letters are used for, but are not restricted to, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pali in the Thai script. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M Letters used in Old Javanese . They are now obsolete, but are used for honorifics in contemporary Javanese.

VOWELS

Vowels are presented in their independent form on the left of each column, and in their corresponding dependent form (vowel sign) combined with the consonant k on the right. A glyph for ka is an independent consonant letter itself without any vowel sign, where the vowel a is inherent . When used to write their own languages, Khmer can have either an a or an o as the inherent vowel, following the rules of its orthography. Thai and Lao script
Lao script
do not have independent vowel forms, for syllables starting with a vowel sound, a "zero" consonant, อ and ອ, respectively, to represent the glottal stop /ʔ/.

ISO A ā æ ɒ I ī U ū E ē AI O ō AU R̥ R̥̄ L̥ L̥̄ ṁ ḥ

A KA ā Kā æ Kæ ɒ Kɒ I KI ī Kī U KU ū Kū E KE ē Kē AI KAI

KO

Kō AU KAU R̥ KR̥ R̥̄ KR̥̄ L̥ KL̥ L̥̄ KL̥̄ ṁ Kṁ ḥ Kḥ K

ODIA ଅ କ ଆ କା ଅଽ କଽ

ଇ କି ଈ କୀ ଉ କୁ ଊ କୂ

ଏ କେ ଐ କୈ

ଓ କୋ ଔ କୌ ଋ କୃ ୠ କୃ୍ ଌ କ୍ଲୃ ୡ କ୍ଳୃ ଂ କଂ ଃ କଃ କ୍

ASSAMESE অ ক আ কা অ্যা ক্যা

ই কি ঈ কী উ কু ঊ কূ

এ কে ঐ কৈ

ও কো ঔ কৌ ঋ কৃ ৠ কৄ ঌ কৢ ৡ কৣ

BENGALI অ ক আ কা অ্যা ক্যা

ই কি ঈ কী উ কু ঊ কূ এ কে

ঐ কৈ অ ক ও কো ঔ কৌ ঋ কৃ ৠ কৄ ঌ কৢ ৡ কৣ

DEVANAGARI अ क आ का अॅ कॅ ऑ कॉ इ कि ई की उ कु ऊ कू ऎ कॆ ए के ऐ कै ऒ कॊ ओ को औ कौ ऋ कृ ॠ कॄ ऌ कॢ ॡ कॣ अं कं अः कः क्

GUJARATI અ ક આ કા

ઇ કિ ઈ કી ઉ કુ ઊ કૂ

એ કે ઐ કૈ

ઓ કો ઔ કૌ ઋ કૃ ૠ કૄ ઌ કૢ ૡ કૣ

GURMUKHI ਅ ਕ ਆ ਕਾ

ਇ ਕਿ ਈ ਕੀ ਉ ਕੁ ਊ ਕੂ

ਏ ਕੇ ਐ ਕੈ

ਓ ਕੋ ਔ ਕੌ

TIBETAN ཨ ཀ ཨཱ ཀཱ

ཨི ཀི ཨཱི ཀཱི ཨུ ཀུ ཨཱུ ཀཱུ

ཨེ ཀེ ཨཻ ཀཻ

ཨོ ཀོ ཨཽ ཀཽ རྀ ཀྲྀ རཱྀ ཀཷ ལྀ ཀླྀ ལཱྀ ཀླཱྀ

BRAHMI 𑀅 𑀓 𑀆 𑀓𑀸

𑀇 𑀓𑀺 𑀈 𑀓𑀻 𑀉 𑀓𑀼 𑀊 𑀓𑀽

𑀏 𑀓𑁂 𑀐 𑀓𑁃

𑀑 𑀓𑁄 𑀒 𑀓𑁅 𑀋 𑀓𑀾 𑀌 𑀓𑀿 𑀍 𑀓𑁀 𑀎 𑀓𑁁

TELUGU అ క ఆ కా

ఇ కి ఈ కీ ఉ కు ఊ కూ ఎ కె ఏ కే ఐ కై ఒ కొ ఓ కో ఔ కౌ ఋ కృ ౠ కౄ ఌ కౢ ౡ కౣ అం కం అః కః క్

KANNADA ಅ ಕ ಆ ಕಾ

ಇ ಕಿ ಈ ಕೀ ಉ ಕು ಊ ಕೂ ಎ ಕೆ ಏ ಕೇ ಐ ಕೈ ಒ ಕೊ ಓ ಕೋ ಔ ಕೌ ಋ ಕೃ ೠ ಕೄ ಌ ಕೢ ೡ ಕೣ అం ಕಂ అః ಕಃ ಕ್

SINHALA අ ක ආ කා ඇ කැ ඈ කෑ ඉ කි ඊ කී උ කු ඌ කූ එ කෙ ඒ කේ ඓ කෛ ඔ කො ඕ කෝ ඖ කෞ සෘ කෘ සෲ කෲ ඏ කෟ ඐ කෳ අං කං අඃ කඃ ක්

MALAYALAM അ ക ആ കാ

ഇ കി ഈ കീ ഉ കു ഊ കൂ എ കെ ഏ കേ ഐ കൈ ഒ കൊ ഓ കോ ഔ കൗ ഋ കൃ ൠ കൄ ഌ കൢ ൡ കൣ അം കം അഃ കഃ ക്

TAMIL அ க ஆ கா

இ கி ஈ கீ உ கு ஊ கூ எ கெ ஏ கே ஐ கை ஒ கொ ஓ கோ ஔ கௌ

க்

BURMESE အ က အာ ကာ

ဣ ကိ ဤ ကီ ဥ ကု ဦ ကူ ဧ ကေ အေး ကေး

ဩ ကော

ဪ ကော် ၒ ကၖ ၓ ကၗ ၔ ကၘ ၕ ကၙ

KHMER ឣ ក ឤ កា

ឥ កិ ឦ កី ឧ កុ ឩ កូ

ឯ កេ ឰ កៃ

ឱ កោ ឳ កៅ ឫ ក្ឫ ឬ ក្ឬ ឭ ក្ឭ ឮ ក្ឮ

THAI ะ กะ า กา

ิ กิ ี กี ุ กุ ู กู เ◌ะ เกะ เ เก ไ ไก โ◌ะ โกะ โ โก เ◌า เกา ฤ กฤ ฤๅ กฤๅ ฦ กฦ ฦๅ กฦๅ

LAO

ກັ

ກາ

ກິ

ກີ

ກຸ

ກູ

ເກ

ໄກ/ໃກ

ໂກ

ເກົາ/ກາວ

BALINESE ᬅ ᬓ ᬆ ᬓᬵ

ᬇ ᬓᬶ ᬈ ᬓᬷ ᬉ ᬓᬸ ᬊ ᬓᬹ ᬏ ᬓᬾ

ᬐ ᬓᬿ ᬑ ᬓᭀ

ᬒ ᬓᭁ ᬋ ᬓᬺ ᬌ ᬓᬻ ᬍ ᬓᬼ ᬎ ᬓᬽ

JAVANESE ꦄ ꦏ ꦄꦴ ꦏꦴ

ꦆ ꦏꦶ ꦇ ꦏꦷ ꦈ ꦏꦸ ꦈꦴ ꦏꦹ ꦌ ꦏꦺ

ꦍ ꦏꦻ ꦎ ꦏꦺꦴ

ꦎꦴ ꦏꦻꦴ ꦉ ꦏꦽ ꦉꦴ ꦏꦽꦴ ꦊ

SUNDANESE ᮃ ᮊ

ᮄ ᮊᮤ

ᮅ ᮊᮥ

ᮈ ᮊᮦ

ᮇ ᮊᮧ

BUGINESE

ᨕᨗ

ᨕᨘ

ᨕᨙ

ᨕᨚ

BATAKNESE (TOBA) ᯀ ᯂ

ᯤ ᯂᯪ

ᯥ ᯂᯮ

ᯂᯩ

ᯂᯬ

Note: Glyphs for r̥̄, l̥, l̥̄ and a few other glyphs are obsolete or very rarely used.

NUMERALS

HINDU-ARABIC 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

ODIA ୦ ୧ ୨ ୩ ୪ ୫ ୬ ୭ ୮ ୯

ASSAMESE ০ ১ ২ ৩ ৪ ৫ ৬ ৭ ৮ ৯

BENGALI ০ ১ ২ ৩ ৪ ৫ ৬ ৭ ৮ ৯

DEVANAGARI ० १ २ ३ ४ ५ ६ ७ ८ ९

GUJARATI ૦ ૧ ૨ ૩ ૪ ૫ ૬ ૭ ૮ ૯

GURMUKHI ੦ ੧ ੨ ੩ ੪ ੫ ੬ ੭ ੮ ੯

TIBETAN ༠ ༡ ༢ ༣ ༤ ༥ ༦ ༧ ༨ ༩

BRAHMI N

𑁒 𑁓 𑁔 𑁕 𑁖 𑁗 𑁘 𑁙 𑁚

BRAHMI D 𑁦 𑁧 𑁨 𑁩 𑁪 𑁫 𑁬 𑁭 𑁮 𑁯

TELUGU ౦ ౧ ౨ ౩ ౪ ౫ ౬ ౭ ౮ ౯

KANNADA ೦ ೧ ೨ ೩ ೪ ೫ ೬ ೭ ೮ ೯

MALAYALAM ൦ ൧ ൨ ൩ ൪ ൫ ൬ ൭ ൮ ൯

TAMIL ೦ ௧ ௨ ௩ ௪ ௫ ௬ ௭ ௮ ௯

BURMESE ၀ ၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈ ၉

KHMER ០ ១ ២ ៣ ៤ ៥ ៦ ៧ ៨ ៩

THAI ๐ ๑ ๒ ๓ ๔ ๕ ๖ ๗ ๘ ๙

LAO ໐ ໑ ໒ ໓ ໔ ໕ ໖ ໗ ໘ ໙

BALINESE ᭐ ᭑ ᭒ ᭓ ᭔ ᭕ ᭖ ᭗ ᭘ ᭙

JAVANESE ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

SUNDANESE ᮰ ᮱ ᮲ ᮳ ᮴ ᮵ ᮶ ᮷ ᮸ ᮹

LIST OF BRAHMIC SCRIPTS

HISTORICAL

A fragment of Ashoka\'s 6th pillar edict . Indo-Aryan languages (incl Dogri) using their respective Brahmic family
Brahmic family
scripts (except dark blue colored- Sindhi, Lahnda, Western Panjabi, Shina, Kashmiri, Urdu- not marked here, which use Arabic derived scripts). Dravidian languages using their respective Brahmic family
Brahmic family
scripts (except Brahui which uses Arabic derived script).

The Brahmi script was already divided into regional variants at the time of the earliest surviving epigraphy around the 3rd century BC. Cursives of the Brahmi script began to diversify further from around the 5th century AD and continued to give rise to new scripts throughout the Middle Ages. The main division in antiquity was between northern and southern Brahmi . In the northern group, the Gupta script was very influential, and in the southern group the Vatteluttu
Vatteluttu
and Old-Kannada /Pallava scripts with the spread of Buddhism
Buddhism
sent Brahmic scripts throughout Southeast Asia.

NORTHERN BRAHMIC

* Gupta script
Gupta script
, 5th century

* Sharada , 8th century

* Landa , 10th century

* Gurmukhi , 14th century * Khojki , 16th century * Khudawadi
Khudawadi
, 1550s * Mahajani * Multani

* Takri

* Siddham
Siddham
, 7th century

* Assamese script , 13th century * Bengali alphabet , 11th century * Tibetan script , 7th century * \'Phags-pa , 13th century

* Tirhuta
Tirhuta

* Kalinga Alphabet
Alphabet

* Odia , 10th century

* Nagari
Nagari
, 8th century

* Devanagari
Devanagari
, 13th century

* Gujarati , 16th century * Modi , 17th century

* Kaithi , 16th century * Sylheti Nagari , 16th century

* Bhaiksuki

* Nepal

* Bhujimol , 6th century

* Ranjana , 12th century

* Soyombo , 17th century

* Prachalit

* Anga Lipi , 720 * Mithilakshar
Mithilakshar
, 15th century

SOUTHERN BRAHMIC

( Tamil Brahmi , perhaps 5th or older but certainly 3rd, century BC, Kalinga , Bhattiprolu )

* Proto Kannada

* Kadamba or Old Kannada
Old Kannada
, 5th century

* Pallava , 6th century

* Kawi script , 8th century

* Javanese script

* Mon script

* Burmese script
Burmese script

* Ahom , 13th century * Tai Tham (Lanna), 14th century

* Batak , 14th century

* Chakma , 8th century

* Vatteluttu
Vatteluttu

* Tamil script

* Grantha , 6th century

* Dhives Akuru
Dhives Akuru
* Malayalam script * Tulu script

* Tocharian script ("Slanting Brahmi"), 7th century * Meeitei Mayek

UNICODE

As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0, the following Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
have been encoded:

SCRIPT DERIVATION PERIOD OF DERIVATION USAGE NOTES ISO 15924 UNICODE RANGE(S) SAMPLE

Ahom Pallava grantha 13th century Extinct Ahom language Ahom U+11700–U1173F 𑜒𑜠𑜑𑜨𑜉

Balinese Old Kawi
Old Kawi
11th century Balinese language Bali U+1B00–U1B7F ᬅᬓ᭄ᬲᬭᬩᬮᬶ

Batak Pallava grantha 14th century Batak languages
Batak languages
Batk U+1BC0–U1BFF ᯘᯮᯒᯖ᯲ ᯅᯖᯂ᯲

Baybayin Old Kawi
Old Kawi
14th century Tagalog , other Philippine languages Tglg U+1700–U171F ᜊᜌ᜔ᜊᜌᜒᜈ᜔

Bengali Siddham
Siddham
11th century Assamese language
Assamese language
( Assamese script variant), Bengali language ( Bengali script
Bengali script
variant), Bishnupriya Manipuri , Maithili , Angika Beng U+0980–U09FF

* অসমীয়া লিপি * বাংলা লিপি

Bhaiksuki Gupta

Was used around the turn of the first millennium for writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Bhks U+11C00–U11C6F

Buhid Old Kawi
Old Kawi
14th century Buhid language Buhd U+1740–U175F ᝊᝓᝑᝒᝇ

Burmese Pallava grantha 11th century Burmese language
Burmese language
, numerous modifications for other languages including Chakma , Eastern and Western Pwo Karen , Geba Karen, Kayah, Mon , Rumai Palaung , S\'gaw Karen , Shan Mymr U+1000–U109F, U+A9E0–UA9FF, U+AA60–UAA7F မြန်မာအက္ခရာ

Chakma Pallava grantha 8th century Chakma language Cakm U+11100–U1114F

Cham Pallava grantha 8th century Cham language Cham U+AA00–UAA5F ꨌꨠ

Devanagari
Devanagari
Nagari
Nagari
13th century Numerous Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
, including Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, Hindi
Hindi
, Marathi , Nepali , Bhili , Konkani , Bhojpuri , Nepal Bhasa and sometimes Sindhi and Kashmiri . Formerly used to write Gujarati . Sometimes used to write or transliterate Sherpa Deva U+0900–U097F, U+A8E0–UA8FF देवनागरी

Grantha Brahmi 6th century Restricted use in traditional Vedic schools to write Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. Was widely used by Tamil speakers for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and the classical language Manipravalam
Manipravalam
. Gran U+11300–U1137F

Gujarati Nagari
Nagari
17th century Gujarati language
Gujarati language
, Kutchi language Gujr U+0A80–U0AFF ગુજરાતી લિપિ

Gurmukhi Sharada 16th century Punjabi language
Punjabi language
Guru U+0A00–U0A7F ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ

Hanunó\'o Old Kawi
Old Kawi
14th century Hanuno\'o language Hano U+1720–U173F ᜱᜨᜳᜨᜳᜢ

Javanese Old Kawi
Old Kawi
16th century Javanese language
Javanese language
, Sundanese language , Madurese language Java U+A980–UA9DF ꦄꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮ

Kaithi Nagari
Nagari
16th century Historically used for writing legal, administrative, and private records. Kthi U+11080–U110CF

Kannada Kadamba / Old Kannada
Old Kannada
9th century Kannada language
Kannada language
, Konkani language Tulu , Badaga , Kodava , Beary others Knda U+0C80–U0CFF ಕನ್ನಡ ಅಕ್ಷರಮಾಲೆ

Khmer Pallava grantha 11th century Khmer language Khmr U+1780–U17FF, U+19E0–U19FF អក្សរខ្មែរ

Khojki Landa 16th century Some use by Ismaili communities. Was used by the Khoja
Khoja
community for Muslim religious literature. Khoj U+11200–U1124F

Khudawadi
Khudawadi
Landa 1550s Was used by Sindhi communities for correspondence and business records. Sind U+112B0–U112FF

Lao Khmer 14th century Lao language
Lao language
, others Laoo U+0E80–U0EFF ອັກສອນລາວ

Lepcha Tibetan 8th century Lepcha language Lepc U+1C00–U1C4F

Limbu Lepcha 9th century Limbu language Limb U+1900–U194F ᤛᤡᤖᤡᤈᤨᤅ

Lontara Old Kawi
Old Kawi
17th century Buginese language
Buginese language
, others Bugi U+1A00–U1A1F ᨒᨚᨈᨑ

Mahajani Landa

Historically used in northern India
India
for writing accounts and financial records. Mahj U+11150–U1117F

Malayalam Grantha 12th century Malayalam language Mlym U+0D00–U0D7F മലയാളലിപി

Marchen

Was used in the Tibetan Bön tradition to write the extinct Zhang-Zhung language Marc U+11C70–U11CBF

Meetei Mayek

Historically used for the Meitei language . Some modern usage. Mtei U+AAE0–UAAFF, U+ABC0–UABFF ꯃꯤꯇꯩ ꯃꯌꯦꯛ

Modi Devanagari
Devanagari
17th century Was used to write the Marathi language
Marathi language
Modi U+11600–U1165F

Multani Landa

Was used to write Saraiki Mult U+11280–U112AF

New Tai Lue Tai Tham 1950s Tai Lü language
Tai Lü language
Talu U+1980–U19DF ᦟᦲᧅᦎᦷᦺᦑ

Odia Kalinga 10th century Odia language
Odia language
Orya U+0B00–U0B7F ଉତ୍କଳାକ୍ଷର

\'Phags-Pa Tibetan 13th century Historically used during the Mongol Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
. Phag U+A840–UA87F ꡖꡍꡂꡛ ꡌ

Prachalit (Newa) Nepal

Has been used for writing the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, Nepali , Hindi
Hindi
, Bengali , and Maithili languages Newa U+11400–U1147F

Rejang Old Kawi
Old Kawi
18th century Rejang language , mostly obsolete Rjng U+A930–UA95F ꥆꤰ꥓ꤼꤽ ꤽꥍꤺꥏ

Saurashtra Grantha 20th century Saurashtra language
Saurashtra language
, mostly obsolete Saur U+A880–UA8DF ꢱꣃꢬꢵꢰ꣄ꢜ꣄ꢬꢵ

Sharada Gupta 8th century Was used for writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kashmiri Shrd U+11180–U111DF

Siddham
Siddham
Gupta 7th century Was used for writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sidd U+11580–U115FF

Sinhala Grantha 12th century Sinhala language Sinh U+0D80–U0DFF, U+111E0–U111FF ශුද්ධ සිංහල

Sundanese Old Kawi
Old Kawi
14th century Sundanese language Sund U+1B80–U1BBF, U+1CC0–U1CCF ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ

Sylheti Nagari Nagari
Nagari
16th century Historically used for writing the Sylheti language Sylo U+A800–UA82F ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ ꠘꠣꠉꠞꠤ

Tagbanwa Old Kawi
Old Kawi
14th century various languages of Palawan
Palawan
, nearly extinct Tagb U+1760–U177F ᝦᝪᝨᝯ

Tai Le Pallava grantha ?

Tai Nüa language Tale U+1950–U197F ᥖᥭᥰᥖᥬᥳᥑᥨᥒᥰ

Tai Tham Mon Script 13th Century Northern Thai language , Tai Lü language
Tai Lü language
, Khün language Lana U+1A20–U1AAF ᨲᩫ᩠ᩅᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ

Tai Viet Thai ? 16th century Tai Dam language
Tai Dam language
Tavt U+AA80–UAADF ꪼꪕꪒꪾ

Takri Sharada

Was used for writing Chambeali , Dogri , and other languages Takr U+11680–U116CF

Tamil Chola-Pallava alphabet 3rd Century BCE Tamil language
Tamil language
Taml U+0B80–U0BFF தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி

Telugu Bhattiprolu script / Old Kannada
Old Kannada
3rd century BCE Telugu language
Telugu language
Telu U+0C00–U0C7F తెలుగు లిపి

Thai Khmer 13th century Thai language
Thai language
Thai U+0E00–U0E7F อักษรไทย

Tibetan Siddham
Siddham
8th century Tibetan language , Dzongkha language
Dzongkha language
, Ladakhi language Tibt U+0F00–U0FFF བོད་ཡིག་

Tirhuta
Tirhuta
Gupta

Historically used for the Maithili language Tirh U+11480–U114DF 𑒞𑒱𑒩𑒯𑒳𑒞𑒰

SEE ALSO

* Devanagari
Devanagari
transliteration

* International Alphabet
Alphabet
of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Transliteration * National Library at Kolkata romanization

* Bharati Braille
Bharati Braille
, the unified braille assignments of Indian languages * Indus script – the earliest writing system on the Indian subcontinent * ISCII – the coding scheme specifically designed to represent Indic scripts

REFERENCES

* ^ Trautmann, Thomas R. (2006). Languages and Nations: The Dravidian Proof in Colonial Madras. University of California Press. pp. 65–66. * ^ Coningham, R.A.E.; Allchin, F.R.; Batt, C.M.; Lucy, D. (1996), "Passage to India? Anuradhapura and the Early Use of the Brahmi Script", Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 6 (1): 73–97, doi :10.1017/S0959774300001608 * ^ "Font: Japanese". Monotype Corporation
Monotype Corporation
. Archived from the original on 2007-03-24. Retrieved 2010-02-09. * ^ "Telugu is 2,400 years old, says ASI". The Hindu. 2007-12-20. * ^ "Evolution of Telugu Character Graphs". Engr.mun.ca. Retrieved 2012-06-22.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to BRAHMIC SCRIPTS .

* Online Tool which supports Conversion between various Brahmic Scripts * Windows Indic Script Support * An Introduction to Indic Scripts * South Asian Writing Systems * Enhanced Indic Transliterator Transliterate from romanised script to Indian Languages. * Indian Transliterator A means to transliterate from romanised to Unicode
Unicode
Indian scripts. * Imperial Brahmi Font and Text-Editor * Brahmi Script * Xlit: Tool for Transliteration between English and Indian Languages * Padma: Transformer for Indic Scripts – a Firefox
Firefox
add-on

* v * t * e

Writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing
History of writing
* History of the alphabet
History of the alphabet
* Graphemes * Scripts in Unicode
Unicode

LISTS

* Writing systems * Languages by writing system / by first written account * Undeciphered writing systems * Inventors of writing systems

TYPES

* Featural * Alphabets * Abjads * Alphasyllabaries / Abugidas * Syllabaries * Semi-syllabaries * Ideogrammic * Pictographic * Logographic * Numeral

* v * t * e

Kawi family

MEMBERS

* Balinese * Batak * Baybayin * Buhid * Hanunó\'o * Javanese * Lontara * Sundanese * Rejang * Tagbanwa

RELATED

* Grantha * Vatteluttu
Vatteluttu
* Brahmic family
Brahmic family

* v * t * e

Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing
History of writing
* Grapheme
Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors * constructed

* Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

TYPES

ABJADS

* Numerals

* Aramaic

* Hatran

* Arabic * Pitman shorthand
Pitman shorthand

* Hebrew

* Ashuri * Cursive * Rashi * Solitreo

* Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* Manichaean * Nabataean * Old North Arabian * Pahlavi * Pegon

* Phoenician

* Paleo-Hebrew

* Proto-Sinaitic * Psalter * Punic * Samaritan

* South Arabian

* Zabur * Musnad

* Sogdian

* Syriac

* ʾEsṭrangēlā * Serṭā * Maḏnḥāyā

* Teeline Shorthand * Ugaritic

ABUGIDAS

BRAHMIC

NORTHERN

* Asamiya (Ôxômiya) * Bānglā * Bhaikshuki * Bhujinmol * Brāhmī * Devanāgarī * Dogra * Gujarati * Gupta * Gurmukhī * Kaithi * Kalinga * Khojki * Khotanese * Khudawadi
Khudawadi
* Laṇḍā * Lepcha * Limbu * Mahajani * Marchen * Marchung * Meitei Mayek * Modi * Multani * Nāgarī * Nandinagari
Nandinagari
* Odia * \'Phags-pa * Newar * Pungs-chen * Pungs-chung * Ranjana * Sharada * Saurashtra * Siddhaṃ * Soyombo * Sylheti Nagari * Takri

* Tibetan

* Uchen * Umê

* Tirhuta
Tirhuta
* Tocharian * Zanabazar Square

SOUTHERN

* Ahom * Balinese * Batak * Baybayin * Bhattiprolu * Buhid * Burmese * Chakma * Cham * Grantha * Goykanadi * Hanunó\'o * Javanese * Kadamba * Kannada * Kawi * Khmer * Kulitan * Lanna * Lao * Leke * Lontara * Malayalam

* Maldivian

* Dhives Akuru
Dhives Akuru
* Eveyla Akuru * Thaana
Thaana

* Mon * Old Sundanese * Pallava * Pyu * Rejang * Rencong * Sinhala * Sundanese * Tagbanwa * Tai Le * Tai Tham * Tai Viet * Tamil * Telugu * Thai * Tigalari

* Vatteluttu
Vatteluttu

* Kolezhuthu * Malayanma

* Visayan

OTHERS

* Boyd\'s syllabic shorthand

* Canadian syllabics

* Blackfoot * Déné syllabics

* Fox I * Ge\'ez * Gunjala Gondi * Japanese Braille
Japanese Braille
* Jenticha * Kayah Li * Kharosthi * Mandombe * Masaram Gondi * Meroitic * Miao * Mwangwego * Sorang Sompeng * Pahawh Hmong * Thomas Natural Shorthand

ALPHABETS

LINEAR

* Abkhaz * Adlam * Armenian * Avestan * Avoiuli * Bassa Vah * Borama * Carian * Caucasian Albanian * Coorgi–Cox alphabet
Coorgi–Cox alphabet
* Coptic * Cyrillic * Deseret

* Duployan shorthand

* Chinook writing

* Early Cyrillic * Eclectic shorthand * Elbasan * Etruscan * Evenki * Fox II * Fraser * Gabelsberger shorthand
Gabelsberger shorthand
* Garay

* Georgian

* Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
* Nuskhuri
Nuskhuri
* Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli

* Glagolitic * Gothic * Gregg shorthand
Gregg shorthand
* Greek * Greco-Iberian alphabet
Greco-Iberian alphabet
* Hangul
Hangul
* IPA * Kaddare

* Latin

* Beneventan * Blackletter * Carolingian minuscule *