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The Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests
is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of Northeastern India, southern Bhutan
Bhutan
and northern Myanmar.

Contents

1 Location and description 2 Flora 3 Fauna 4 Threats and preservation

4.1 Protected areas

5 See also 6 References

Location and description[edit] The ecoregion covers 56,700 square kilometers (21,900 sq mi) and encompasses the alluvial plain of the upper Brahmaputra River
Brahmaputra River
as it moves westward through India's Assam
Assam
state (with small parts of the ecoregion in the states of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
and Nagaland
Nagaland
and also south Bhutan). The valley lies between the Himalayas to the north and the Lushai hills
Lushai hills
to the south and when the river floods during the June to September monsoon it brings up to 300 cm of water onto the plain carrying rich soils to create a fertile environment which has been extensively farmed for thousands of years. Other rivers that water the plains as well as the Brahamaputra include the Manas and the Subansiri.[1] Flora[edit] The extensive farming has meant that the original semi-evergreen forest now exists only in patches. Typical canopy trees include the evergreen Syzygium, Cinnamomum
Cinnamomum
and Magnoliaceae
Magnoliaceae
along with deciduous Terminalia myriocarpa, Terminalia citrina, Terminalia tomentosa, Tetrameles
Tetrameles
species. Understory trees and shrubs include the laurels Phoebe, Machilus, and Actinodaphne, Polyalthias, Aphanamixis, and cultivated Mesua ferrea
Mesua ferrea
and species of mahogany, cashews, nutmegs and magnolias, with bamboos such as Bambusa arundinaria and Melocanna bambusoides. Fauna[edit] Despite the centuries of human clearance and exploitation, the forests and grasslands along the river remain a habitat for a variety of wildlife including tiger (Panthera tigris), clouded leopard (Pardofelis nebulosa), capped langur, (Semnopithecus pileatus), gaur (Bos gaurus), barasingha deer (Cervus duvaucelii), sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee), India's largest population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and the world's largest population of Indian rhinoceros, while Asian black bears live in the higher slopes of the valley sides. Most of these mammals are threatened or endangered species. The Brahmaputra is a natural barrier to the migration of much wildlife and many species, such as the pygmy hog, hispid hare, or the Malayan sun bear, pig-tailed macaque, golden langur, stump-tailed macaque, western hoolock gibbon live on one side of the river only. The area is a meeting point of species of Indian and Malayan origin. The endemic mammals of the valley are the pygmy hog and the hispid hare, both of which inhabit the grasslands of the riverbanks. The valley is home to rich bird life with 370 species of which two are endemic, the Manipur bush quail
Manipur bush quail
(Perdicula manipurensis) and the marsh babbler (Pellorneum palustre) and one, the Bengal florican
Bengal florican
is very rare. Woodland birds like kalij pheasant, great hornbill, rufous necked hornbill, brown hornbill, Oriental pied hornbill, grey hornbill, peacock pheasant and tragopan are quite common. Threats and preservation[edit] This area has been densely populated for centuries and most of the valley has been and still are used for agriculture but some blocks of natural habitat do remain, mainly in national parks the largest of which are Manas, Dibru-Saikhowa and Kaziranga National Parks in India. In Bhutan, these areas are part of Royal Manas National Park. Protected areas[edit] In 1997, the World Wildlife Fund
World Wildlife Fund
identified twelve protected areas in the ecoregion, with a combined area of approximately 2,560 km2, that include 5% of the ecoregion's area.[2]

Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
(190 km2, also includes portions of the Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests
and Himalayan subtropical pine forests) Manas National Park, Assam
Assam
(560 km2) Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam
Assam
(90 km2) Kaziranga National Park, Assam
Assam
(320 km2) Orang National Park, Assam
Assam
(110 km2) Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam
Assam
(170 km2) Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam
Assam
(80 km2) Sonai Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam
Assam
(160 km2) Nameri National Park, Assam
Assam
(90 km2) Dibru-Saikhowa National Park, Assam
Assam
(490 km2) D'Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
(190 km2) Pabha Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam
Assam
(110 km2)

See also[edit]

List of ecoregions in Bhutan List of ecoregions in India

References[edit]

^ a b c d "Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2011-11-26.  ^ Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Island Press; Washington, DC. pp. 298-301

v t e

Ecoregions of India

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

Andaman Islands rain forests Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Malabar Coast moist forests Maldives-Lakshadweep-Chagos Archipelago tropical moist forests Meghalaya subtropical forests Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Nicobar Islands rain forests North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests North Western Ghats montane rain forests Orissa semi-evergreen forests South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests South Western Ghats montane rain forests Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests Chota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests East Deccan dry evergreen forests Kathiarbar-Gir dry deciduous forests Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests Northern dry deciduous forests South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests

Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests

Himalayan subtropical pine forests Northeast India- Myanmar
Myanmar
pine forests

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests Western Himalayan broadleaf forests

Temperate coniferous forests

Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands

Montane grasslands and shrublands

Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows

Flooded grasslands and savannas

Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch
seasonal salt marsh

Deserts and xeric shrublands

Deccan thorn scrub forests Indus Valley desert Northwestern thorn scrub forests Thar desert

Mangrove

Godavari-Krishna mangroves Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves Myanmar
Myanmar
coast mangroves Sundarbans mangroves

Ecoregi

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