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Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
(/ˌbrɑːməˈtʃɑːrjə/; Devanagari: ब्रह्मचर्य) is a concept within Indian religions that literally means "going after Brahman"[1]. In one context, brahmacharya is the first of four ashrama (age-based stages) of a human life, with grihastha (householder), vanaprastha (forest dweller), and sannyasa (renunciation) being the other three asramas. The brahmacharya (bachelor student) stage of life - from childhood up to twenty-five years of age - was focused on education and included the practice of celibacy.[2] In this context, it connotes chastity during the student stage of life for the purposes of learning from a guru (teacher), and during later stages of life for the purposes of attaining spiritual liberation (Sanskrit: moksha).[3][4] In another context, brahmacharya is the virtue of celibacy when unmarried and fidelity when married.[5][6] It represents a virtuous lifestyle that also includes simple living, meditation and other behaviors.[7][8] In the Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist monastic traditions, brahmacharya implies, among other things, the mandatory renunciation of sex and marriage.[9] It is considered necessary for a monk's spiritual practice.[10] Western notions of the religious life as practiced in monastic settings mirror these characteristics.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
as Asrama stage of life 4 Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
as a virtue 5 Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
in Jainism 6 Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
among religious movements

6.1 Brahma
Brahma
Kumaris 6.2 International Society for Krishna
Krishna
Consciousness 6.3 Ashrams and Mathas

7 Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
among Sramanic traditions 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology[edit] The word brahmacharya stems from two Sanskrit
Sanskrit
roots:

Brahma
Brahma
(ब्रह्म, shortened from Brahman), connotes "the one self-existent Spirit, the Absolute Reality, Universal Self, Personal God, or the sacred knowledge".[11][12] charya (चर्य), which means "occupation with, engaging, proceeding, behaviour, conduct, to follow, going after".[13] This is often translated as activity, mode of behaviour, a "virtuous" way of life.

The word brahmacharya thus literally means a lifestyle adopted to seek and understand Brahman
Brahman
– the Ultimate Reality.[14] As Gonda explains, it means "devoting oneself to Brahman".[15] In ancient and medieval era Indian texts, the term brahmacharya is a concept with a more complex meaning indicating an overall lifestyle conducive to the pursuit of sacred knowledge and spiritual liberation.[7] Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
is a means, not an end. It usually includes cleanliness, ahimsa, simple living, studies, meditation, and voluntary restraints on certain foods, intoxicants, and behaviors (including sexual behavior).[7][8] History[edit] The Vedas
Vedas
discuss Brahmacharya, both in the context of lifestyle and stage of one's life. Rig Veda, for example, in Book 10 Chapter 136, mentions knowledge seekers as those with Kesin (long haired) and soil-colored clothes (yellow, orange, saffron) engaged in the affairs of Mananat (mind, meditation).[16] Rigveda, however, refers to these people as Muni and Vati. The Atharva Veda, completed by about 1000 BC, has more explicit discussion of Brahmacharya, in Book XI Chapter 5.[17] This Chapter of Atharva Veda
Atharva Veda
describes Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
as that which leads to one's second birth (mind, Self-awareness), with Hymn 11.5.3 painting a symbolic picture that when a teacher accepts a Brahmachari, the student becomes his embryo.[17] The concept and practice of Brahmacarya is extensively found among the older strata of the Mukhya Upanishads
Upanishads
in Hinduism. The 8th century BC text Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
describes in Book 8, activities and lifestyle that is Brahmacharya:[18]

Now what people call yajña (sacrifice) is really Brahmacharya, for only by means of Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
does the knower attain that world (of Brahman). And what people call Ishta (worship) is really Brahmacharya, for only worshipping by means of Brahmacarya does one attain the Atman (the liberated Self). Now, what people call the Sattrayana (sacrificial session) is really Brahmacharya, for only by means of Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
does one obtain one's salvation from Sat (Being). And what people call the Mauna (vow of silence) is really Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
for only through Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
does one understand the Atman and then meditate. Now, what people call a Anasakayana (vow of fasting) is really Brahmacharya, for this Atman never perishes which one attains by means of Brahmacharya. And what people call the Aranyayana (life of a hermit) is really Brahmacharya, for the world of Brahman
Brahman
belongs to those who by means of Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
attain the seas Ara and Nya in the world of Brahman. For them there is freedom in all the worlds. — Chandogya Upanishad, VIII.5.1 - VIII.5.4[18][19]

A hymn in another early Upanishad, the Mundaka Upanishad
Upanishad
in Book 3, Chapter 1 similarly states,

सत्येन लभ्यस्तपसा ह्येष आत्मा सम्यग्ज्ञानेन ब्रह्मचर्येण नित्यम् । Through continuous pursuit of Satya
Satya
(truthfulness), Tapas (perseverance, austerity), Samyajñāna (correct knowledge), and Brahmacharya, one attains Atman (the Self, soul). — Mundaka Upanishad, III.1.5[20]

The Vedas
Vedas
and early Upanishadic texts of Hinduism
Hinduism
in their discussion of Brahmacharya, make no mention of the age of the student at the start of Brahmacharya,[21] nor any restraint on sexual activity. One of the earliest discussion and contrasting viewpoints on sexual intercourse during Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
is in section 11.5.4 of Satpatha Brahamana. The verses 11.5.4.16 and 11.5.4.17 present two different viewpoints on sexual activity, one against and one as a choice.[22] Similarly, in verse 11.5.4.18, the Satapatha Brahamana presents contrasting viewpoints on an eating restraint for the Brahmachari.[22] Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
as Asrama stage of life[edit] Main article: Ashrama (stage) Historically brahmacarya referred to a stage of life (asrama) within the Vedic ashram system. Ancient Hindu
Hindu
culture divided the human lifespan into four stages: Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha
Vanaprastha
and Sannyasa. Brahamacharya asrama occupied the first 20–25 years of life roughly corresponding to adolescence.[23][24] Upon the child's Upanayanam,[25] the young person would begin a life of study in the Gurukula
Gurukula
(the household of the Guru) dedicated to learning all aspects of dharma that is the "principles of righteous living". Dharma comprised personal responsibilities towards himself, family, society, humanity and God which included the environment, earth and nature. This educational period started when the child was five to eight years old and lasted until the age of 14 to 20 years.[26] During this stage of life, the traditional vedic sciences and various sastras[27] were studied along with the religious texts contained within the Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads.[28][29] This stage of life was characterized by the practice of celibacy. Naradaparivrajaka Upanishad
Upanishad
suggests that Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
(student) stage of life should extend from the age a child is ready to receive teachings from a guru, and continue for a period of twelve years.[30] The graduation from Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
stage of life was marked by the Samavartanam
Samavartanam
ceremony.[31] The graduate was then ready to either start Grihastha
Grihastha
(householder) stage of life, or wait, or pursue a life of Sannyasa
Sannyasa
and solitude like Rishis in forest.[2] Vyasa
Vyasa
in Chapter 234 of Shanti Parva in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
praises Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
as an important stage of life necessary for learning, then adds Grihastha stage as the root of society and important to an individual's success.[32]

Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
for girls

The Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads
Upanishads
do not restrict the student stage of life to males.[33] Atharva Veda, for example, states[33][34]

ब्रह्मचर्येण कन्या युवानं विन्दते पतिम् A youthful Kanya (कन्या, girl) who graduates from Brahmacharya, obtains a suitable husband. — Atharva Veda, 11.5.18[34]

No age restrictions

Gonda[15] states that there were no age restrictions for the start of Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
in ancient India. Not only young men, but older people resorted to student stage of life, and sought teachers who were authoritative in certain subjects.[15] The Chandogya Upanishad, in Section 5.11, describes "wealthy and learned householders" becoming Brahmacharis (students) with Rishi
Rishi
Kaikeya, to gain knowledge about Atman (Soul, inner Self) and Brahman
Brahman
(Ultimate Reality).[35][36] Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
as a virtue[edit] Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
is traditionally regarded as one of the five yamas in Yoga, as declared in verse 2.30 of Patanjali's Yoga
Yoga
Sutras.[37] It is a form of self-restraint regarded as a virtue, and an observance recommended depending on an individual's context. For a married practitioner it means marital fidelity (not cheating on one's spouse); for a single person it means celibacy.[5][6] Sandilya Upanishad includes brahmacharya as one of ten yamas in Chapter 1, defining it as "refraining from sexual intercourse in all places and in all states in mind, speech or body".[38] Patanjali
Patanjali
in verse 2.38[39] states that the virtue of brahmacharya leads to the profit of virya (वीर्य).[40] This Sanskrit word, virya, has been variously translated as virility and, by Vyasa, as strength and capacity. Vyasa
Vyasa
explains that this virtue promotes other good qualities.[40] Other ancient and medieval era texts of Hinduism
Hinduism
describe the fruits of this virtue differently. For example, Pada Chandrika, Raja Marttanda, Sutrartha Bodhini, Mani Prabha and Yoga
Yoga
Sudhakara each state that brahmacharya must be understood as the voluntary restraint of power.[40] Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
in verses of chapter 8.5 extols brahmacharya as a sacrament and sacrifice which, once perfected, leads to realization of the soul or Self (Atman), and thereafter becomes the habit of experiencing the soul in others and everything.[40][41] Tattva Vaisharadi and Yoga
Yoga
Sarasangraha assert that brahmacharya leads to and increase in jñana-shakti (power of knowledge) and kriya-shakti (power of action).[40] The great epic Mahabharata
Mahabharata
describes the objective of brahmacharya as knowledge of Brahman
Brahman
(Book Five, Udyoga Parva, the Book of Effort).[42] Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
leads one to union with the Supreme Soul or Self (Chapter 43). By subduing desire, the practice of self-restraint enables the student to learn, pay attention in thought, word and deed to the guru (teacher), and discover the truth embodied in the Vedas and Upanishads. According to the epic, the practice of studying and learning requires the "aid of time," as well as personal effort, ability, discussion, and practice, all of which are helped by the virtue of brahmacharya.[42] A brahmacharya should do useful work, and the earnings he obtains should be given away as dakshina ("fee," "gift of thanks") to the guru. The epic declares that brahmacharya is one of twelve virtues, an essential part of angas in yoga and the path of perfecting perseverance and the pursuit of knowledge.[42] Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
in Jainism[edit]

Green colour in the Jain flag
Jain flag
stands for brahmacharya[43]

Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
is one of the five major vows prescribed for the śrāvakā (layman) and ascetics in Jainism. For those Jains who adopt the path of monks, celibacy in action, words and thoughts is expected. For lay Jains who are married, the virtue of brahmacharya requires remaining sexually faithful to one's chosen partner.[44] For lay Jains who are unmarried, chaste living requires Jains to avoid sex before marriage.[45] Uttam Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
(Supreme Celibacy) is one of the ten excellencies of a Digambara
Digambara
monk.[46] Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
is mentioned as one of the das dharma (ten virtues) in ancient Jain texts like Tattvartha Sutra, Sarvārthasiddhi
Sarvārthasiddhi
and Puruşārthasiddhyupāya.[47] Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
among religious movements[edit] In Indian traditions, a Brahmachari is a male and Brahmacharini a female.[48][49] Brahma
Brahma
Kumaris[edit] Among Brahma
Brahma
Kumaris , Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
is practised by married couples and householders too, as a way of formalizing sexual behavior into a conscious, co-creative practice rather than merely an unconscious habit.[50][51][52] International Society for Krishna
Krishna
Consciousness[edit] In ISKCON, a bhakti sect or devotional movement within Hinduism, a male devotee is called brahmachari and female devotee brahmacharini. The unmarried male brahmacharis wear saffron robes, while married male householders wear white robes. Brahmacharinis wear saris of any color. The terms brahmachari and brahmacharini are reserved for those practicing celibacy. Married devotees, in contrast, are called grihastha (householders).[48][53] Ashrams and Mathas[edit] Various Ashrams (आश्रम, hermitage) and Matha
Matha
(मठ, college of ascetics) of various schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
call their male and female initiates as Brahmachari and Brahmacharinis.[54] Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
among Sramanic traditions[edit] Among the sramanic traditions (Buddhism, Jainism, Ājīvika
Ājīvika
and Carvaka schools ), brahmacharya is the term used for a self-imposed practice of celibacy generally considered a prerequisite for spiritual practice. The fourth of the five great vows of Jain monks, for example, is the vow of celibacy, which in this case means a total abstinence from the sensual pleasure of all five senses, including the avoidance of sexual thoughts and desires.[44][55] The yogin who is firmly grounded in the virtue of brahmacharya is said to gain great vitality.[56] See also[edit]

Asceticism Atma Shatkam Monk Yamas Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

References[edit]

^ James Lochtefeld, "Brahmacharya" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, pp. 120, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 9780823931798 ^ a b RK Sharma (1999), Indian Society, Institutions and Change, ISBN 978-8171566655, page 28 ^ Georg Feuerstein, The Encyclopedia of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra, Shambhala Publications, ISBN 978-1590308790, 2011, pg 76, Quote - " Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
essentially stands for the ideal of chastity" ^ W.J. Johnson (2009), "The chaste and celibate state of a student of the Veda", Oxford Dictionary of Hinduism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-2713223273, pg 62 ^ a b Brahmacharyam Pativratyam cha - Celibacy
Celibacy
and Fidelity
Fidelity
Archived 30 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Himalayan Academy, Gutenberg Archives (2006) ^ a b [a] Louise Taylor (2001), A Woman's Book of Yoga, Tuttle, ISBN 978-0804818292, page 3; [b]Jeffrey Long (2009), Jainism: An Introduction, IB Tauris, ISBN 978-1845116262, page 109; Quote: The fourth vow - brahmacarya - means for laypersons, marital fidelity and pre-marital celibacy; for ascetics, it means absolute celibacy; John Cort explains, " Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
involves having sex only with one's spouse, as well as the avoidance of ardent gazing or lewd gestures (...) - Quoted by Long, ibid, page 101 ^ a b c M Khandelwal (2001), Sexual Fluids, Emotions, Morality - Notes on the Gendering of Brahmacharya, in Celibacy, Culture, and Society: The Anthropology of Sexual Abstinence (Editors: Elisa Sobo and Sandra Bell), University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 978-0299171643, pages 157-174 ^ a b Joseph Alter (2012), Moral Materialism, Penguin, ISBN 978-0143417415, pages 65-67 ^ Carl Olson (2007), Celibacy
Celibacy
and Religious Traditions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195306323, page 227-233 ^ DR Pattanaik (1998), The Holy Refusal, MELUS, Vol. 23, No. 2, 113-127 ^ brahma Monier Williams Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary, Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon, Germany ^ Not to be confused with Brahmā
Brahmā
or Brahmin ^ carya Monier Williams Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary, Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon, Germany ^ Arvind Sharma (2013), Gandhi: A Spiritual Biography, Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0300185966, page 134 ^ a b c Jan Gonda (1965), Change and Continuity in Indian Religion, Mouton & Co, The Hague, pages 284-285, 1965 print: OCLC 817902, Reprinted in 1997: ISBN 978-8121500142 (page number may be different) ^ GS Ghurye (1952), Ascetic Origins, Sociological Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 2, pages 162-184; For original: Rigveda
Rigveda
Wikisource ^ a b For source in Sanskrit: Atharva Veda
Atharva Veda
Wikisource, Hymns 11.5[7].1 - 11.5[7].26; (ब्रह्मचारीष्णंश् चरति रोदसी उभे तस्मिन् देवाः संमनसो भवन्ति स दाधार पृथिवीं दिवं च स आचार्यं तपसा पिपर्ति 1 ब्रह्मचारिणं पितरो देवजनाः पृथग् देवा अनुसंयन्ति सर्वे गन्धर्वा एनम् अन्व् आयन् त्रयस्त्रिंशत् त्रिशताः षट्सहस्राः सर्वान्त् स देवांस् तपसा पिपर्ति 2 आचार्य उपनयमानो ब्रह्मचारिणं कृणुते गर्भम् अन्तः तं रात्रीस् तिस्र उदरे बिभर्ति तं जातं द्रष्टुम् अभिसंयन्ति देवाः 3 (...)) For English translation: Stephen N Hay and William Theodore De Bary (1988), Sources of Indian Tradition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120804678, pages 18-19 ^ a b Translation: S Swahananda (2010), Chandogya Upanishad, Vedanta Press, ISBN 978-8171203307, Book VIII, Chapter 5, verse 1-4 Original: अथ यद्यज्ञ इत्याचक्षते ब्रह्मचर्यमेव तद्ब्रह्मचर्येण ह्येव यो ज्ञाता तं विन्दतेऽथ यदिष्टमित्याचक्षते ब्रह्मचर्यमेव तद्ब्रह्मचर्येण ह्येवेष्ट्वात्मानमनुविन्दते ॥ १ ॥ अथ यत्सत्त्रायणमित्याचक्षते ब्रह्मचर्यमेव तद्ब्रह्मचर्येण ह्येव सत आत्मनस्त्राणं विन्दतेऽथ यन्मौनमित्याचक्षते ब्रह्मचर्यमेव तब्ब्रह्मचर्येण ह्येवात्मानमनुविद्य मनुते ' ॥ २ ॥ अथ यदनाशकायनमित्याचक्षते ब्रह्मचर्यमेव तदेष ह्यात्मा न नश्यति यं ब्रह्मचर्येणानुविन्दतेऽथ यदरण्यायनमित्याचक्षते ब्रह्मचर्यमेव तदरश्च ह वै ण्यश्चार्णवौ ब्रह्मलोके तृतीयस्यामितो दिवि तदैरं मदीयँ सरस्तदश्वत्थः सोमसवनस्तदपराजिता पूर्ब्रह्मणः प्रभुविमितँ हिरण्मयम् ॥ ३ ॥ तद्य एवैतवरं च ण्यं चार्णवौ ब्रह्मलोके ब्रह्मचर्येणानुविन्दन्ति तेषामेवैष ब्रह्मलोकस्तेषाँ सर्वेषु लोकेषु कामचारो भवति ॥ ४ ॥ ^ G. Jha (1942), The Chāndogyopaniṣad: A Treatise on Vedānta Philosophy, Oritental Book Agency, University of California Archives, OCLC 7733219 ^ MP Pandit (1969), Mundaka Upanishad
Upanishad
3.1.5, Gleanings from the Upanishads, OCLC 81579, University of Virginia Archives, pages 11-12 ^ Some recent Upanishads
Upanishads
do, see for example Naradaparivrajaka Upanishad
Upanishad
mentioned below ^ a b Julius Eggeling, Satapatha Brahmana
Brahmana
Madhyandina School version, Clarendon Press, Oxford, page 90 ^ Manusmriti
Manusmriti
suggests the Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
ashrama be about 25 years, one fourth of the normal life of human being he estimates to be 100 years. See: RK Sharma (1999), Indian Society, Institutions and Change, ISBN 978-8171566655, page 28 ^ Bodhinatha Veylanswami (2007), What Is Hinduism?, Editors of Hinduism
Hinduism
Today, Himalayan Academy Publishers, ISBN 978-1934145005, page 372 ^ Vivekjivandas, Sadhu. Hinduism: An Introduction – Part 2. (Swaminarayan Aksharpith: Ahmedabad, 2010) p. 113. ISBN 978-81-7526-434-2 ^ Rocher, Ludo. "The Dharmaśāstas". The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism.(Ed.Gavin Flood) (Blackwell Publishing Ltd.: Oxford, 2003) p. 103. ISBN 0-631-21535-2 ^ Stella Kramrisch (1958), Traditions of the Indian Craftsman, The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 71, No. 281, Traditional India: Structure and Change (Jul. - Sep., 1958), pp. 224-230 ^ Samuel Parker (1987), Artistic practice and education in India: A historical overview, Journal of Aesthetic Education, pp 123-141 ^ Misra, R. N. (2011), Silpis in Ancient India: Beyond their Ascribed Locus in Ancient Society, Social Scientist, Vol. 39, No. 7/8, pp 43-54 ^ KN Aiyar (Translator), Narada Parivrajaka Upanishad, Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Archives, page 135 ^ R Pandey (1969), Hindu
Hindu
Saṁskāras: Socio-Religious Study of the Hindu
Hindu
Sacraments (2nd Ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0434-1 ^ KM Ganguli, Moksha
Moksha
dharma parva Shanti Parva, The Mahabharata, pages 248-261 ^ a b S Jain (2003), The Right to Family Planning, in Sacred Rights: The Case for Contraception and Abortion in World Religions (Editor: Daniel C. Maguire), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195160017, page 134, Quote - "The Atharva Veda
Atharva Veda
confirms... a brahmacharini has better prospects of marriage than a girl who is uneducated"; "The Vedic period.... girls, like boys, are also expected to go through the brahmacharya..." ^ a b For source in Sanskrit: Atharva Veda
Atharva Veda
Wikisource, Hymns 11.5[7].1 - 11.5[7].26; For English translation: Stephen N Hay and William Theodore De Bary (1988), Sources of Indian Tradition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120804678, pages 18-19 ^ Patrick Olivelle (1996) (Translator), Upanishads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195124354, pages 143-144 ^ Max Muller, The Sacred Books of the East at Google Books, Volume 43, Clarendon Press, Oxford University, pages 393-394 ^ Original:अहिंसासत्यास्तेय ब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहाः यमाः Source:Āgāśe, K. S. (1904). Pātañjalayogasūtrāṇi. Puṇe: Ānandāśrama. p. 102.  ^ KN Aiyar (Translator), Sandilya Upanishad, Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Archives, page 173 ^ Original: ब्रह्मचर्य प्रतिष्ठायां वीर्यलाभः Source: Yogasutra 2.35-2.39 (in German) ^ a b c d e SV Bharti (2001), Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali: With the Exposition of Vyasa, Motilal Banarsidas, ISBN 978-8120818255, Appendix I, pages 536-539 ^ Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
Book 8, Chapter 5, Jha (Translator), pages 434-440 ^ a b c KM Ganguli (Translator), The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, p. 150, at Google Books, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 43, pages 150-153 ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. iv. ^ a b Pravin Shah, Five Great Vows (Maha-vratas) of Jainism
Jainism
Jainism Literature Center, Harvard University Archives (2009) ^ Brahmacarya, BBC  ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1926, p. 64. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 145-147. ^ a b George Chryssides (2006), The A to Z of New Religious Movements, ISBN 978-0810855885, page 56 ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 79.  ^ Hodgkinson, Liz (2002). Peace and Purity: The Story of the Brahma Kumaris a Spiritual Revolution. HCI. pp. 2–29. ISBN 1-55874-962-4.  ^ Babb, Lawrence A. (1987). Redemptive Encounters: Three Modern Styles in the Hindu
Hindu
Tradition (Comparative Studies in Religion and Society). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-7069-2563-7. "Sexual intercourse is unnecessary for reproduction because the souls that enter the world during the first half of the Cycle are in possession of a special yogic power (yog bal) by which they conceive children" ^ Barrett, David V (2001). The New Believers. Cassell & Co. pp. 265. ISBN 0-304-35592-5. ^ George Chryssides (2011), Historical Dictionary of New Religious Movements, Rowman Littlefield, ISBN 978-0810861947, page 304 ^ Karen Pechilis (2004), The Graceful Guru: Hindu
Hindu
Female Gurus in India and the United States, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195145373, pages 74-101 ^ Robert Kolb (2007), Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-1412916523, page 1207-1208 ^ Georg Feuerstein. Shambhala Encyclopedia of Yoga. p. 61. 

Sources[edit]

Jain, Champat Rai (1926), Sannyasa
Sannyasa
Dharma, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Jain, Vijay K. (2012), Acharya Amritchandra's Purushartha Siddhyupaya: Realization of the Pure Self, With Hindi and English Translation, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-4-5, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. 

Further reading[edit]

Carl Olson, Celibacy
Celibacy
and Religious Traditions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195306323 Elisabeth Haich, Sexual Energy and Yoga. Aurora Press, ISBN 978-0943358031 (1982) Stuart Sovatsky: "Eros, Consciousness and Kundalini: Tantric Celibacy and the Mysteries of Eros". Inner Traditions, Rochester, VT. (1999) Swami Narayanananda: The Way to Peace, Power and Long Life. N.U. Yoga Trust, Denmark, 2001 (1st ed. 1945) Swami Narayanananda: Brahmacharya, Its Necessity and Practice for Boys and Girls. N.U. Yoga
Yoga
Trust, Denmark, 2001 (1st ed. 1960)

External links[edit]

Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
Hi Jeevan Hain PDF (Hindi) Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
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Brahmacharya
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Shakti
By Swami Rama
Rama
Tirtha PDF (Hindi) Nakedness, Nonviolence, and Brahmacharya: Gandhi's Experiments in Celibate Sexuality Vinay Lal (2000), Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 9, No. 1/2, pp. 105–136 Seminal Truth: A Modern Science of Male Celibacy
Celibacy
in North India Joseph S. Alter, Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 11, No. 3 (Sep., 1997), pp. 275–298 Ritual, knowledge, and being: initiation and Veda study in ancient India, Brian Smith (1986), Numen, 33(1): 65-89. Renunciation in the Religious Traditions of South Asia Richard Burghart (1983), Man, 18(4): 635-653. Brahmacharya
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