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v t e

The Brahma
Brahma
sūtras (Sanskrit: ब्रह्म सूत्र) is a Sanskrit text, attributed to Badarayana, estimated to have been completed in its surviving form some time between 450 BCE and 200 CE.[1][2] The text systematizes and summarizes the philosophical and spiritual ideas in the Upanishads.[3] It is one of the foundational texts of the Vedānta
Vedānta
school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.[3] The Brahma
Brahma
sutras consists of 555 aphoristic verses (sutras) in four chapters.[4] These verses are primarily about the nature of human existence and universe, and ideas about the metaphysical concept of Ultimate Reality called Brahman.[3][5] The first chapter discusses the metaphysics of Absolute Reality, the second chapter reviews and addresses the objections raised by the ideas of competing orthodox schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophies as well as heterodox schools such as Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism,[6] the third chapter discusses epistemology and path to gaining spiritually liberating knowledge, and the last chapter states why such a knowledge is an important human need.[7] The Brahmasutra is one of three most important texts in Vedanta
Vedanta
along with the Principal Upanishads
Upanishads
and the Bhagavad Gita.[8][9] It has been influential to various schools of Indian philosophies, but interpreted differently by the non-dualistic Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
sub-school, the theistic Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
and Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
sub-schools, as well as others.[9] Several commentaries on the Brahma-sutras are lost to history or yet to be found; of the surviving ones, the most well studied commentaries on the Brahmasutra include the bhashya by Adi Shankara,[3] Ramanuja, Madhvacharya, Bhaskara and many others.[10] It is also known as the Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutra
Sutra
(Sanskrit: वेदान्त सूत्र),[3] deriving this name from Vedanta
Vedanta
which literally means the "final aim of the Vedas".[11] Other names for Brahma
Brahma
Sutra is Sariraka Sutra,[note 1] wherein Sariraka means "that which lives in the body (Sarira), or the Self, Soul",[12] and Bhikshu-sutra, which literally means "Sutras for monks or mendicants".[8]

Contents

1 Author and chronology 2 Structure 3 Contents

3.1 Chapter 1: What is Brahman? 3.2 Chapter 2: Review of competing theories 3.3 Chapter 3: The means to spiritual knowledge 3.4 Chapter 4: The benefits of spiritual knowledge

4 Commentaries

4.1 Exegesis 4.2 Translations

5 Influence 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Author and chronology[edit] The Brahma
Brahma
Sutras or Brahmasutra are attributed to Badarayana.[13] In some texts, Badarayana
Badarayana
is also called Vyasa, which literally means "one who arranges".[13] Bādarāyana was the Guru
Guru
(teacher) of Jaimini, the latter credited with authoring Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras of the Mimamsa
Mimamsa
school of Hindu philosophy.[13] This is likely, given that both Badarayana
Badarayana
and Jaimini quote each other as they analyze each other's theories, Badarayana emphasizing knowledge while Jaimini
Jaimini
emphasizes rituals, sometimes agreeing with each other, sometimes disagreeing, often anti-thesis of the other.[14] The Brahma-sutra text is dated to centuries that followed Buddha
Buddha
and Mahavira, because it mentions and critiques the ideas of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
in Chapter 2.[15] The text's relative chronology is also based on the fact that Badarayana
Badarayana
quotes all major known orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy except Nyaya.[15][16] The exact century of its composition or completion in final form is unknown, but scholars such as Lochtefeld suggest that the text was complete sometime between 500 to 200 BCE,[7][17] while Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
and Dasgupta independently suggest the 2nd century BCE as more likely.[1][13] Paul Deussen places it between 200 BCE and 400 CE.[1] Hermann Jacobi in early 20th century suggested that Madhyamaka Buddhist concepts such as Sunyavada, acknowledged in the Brahma-sutras, may be a late invention, and suggests that both Sunyavada and Brahma-sutras may therefore have emerged between 200-450 CE.[1] Daniel Ingalls disagreed with Jacobi chronology in his 1954 paper, critiquing Jacobi's assumptions and interpretation of sutras 2.2.28-32 in dating the entire document, and stating that "the Brahma-sutra could not have been composed later than the start of the common era".[18][19] According to a 2013 review by Andrew Nicholson, the Brahma
Brahma
Sutras were composed over many centuries by multiple authors, and likely complete in the current form between 450 to 400 BCE.[2] The existence of earlier versions of the Brahmasutras, and multiple authors predating Badarayana, is supported by textual evidence.[20] Some scholars, such as Sengaku Mayeda, state Brahmasutra that has survived into the modern times may be the work of multiple authors but those who lived after Badarayana, and that these authors composed the currently surviving Brahmasutra starting about 300 BCE through about 400-450 CE.[21][note 2] Nakamura states that the original version of Brahma
Brahma
sutra is likely very ancient and its inception coincides with the Kalpa Sutras period (1st-millennium BCE).[24] Natalia Isaeva states, "on the whole, scholars are rather unanimous, considering the most probable date for Brahmasutra sometime between the 2nd-century BCE and the 2nd-century CE.[1] Structure[edit] The Brahma
Brahma
Sūtras consist of 555 aphorisms or sūtras, in four chapters (adhyāya), with each chapter divided into four parts (pāda).[4] Each part is further subdivided into sections called Adhikaraņas with sutras.[4] Some scholars, such as Francis Clooney, call the Adhikaraņas as "case studies" with a defined hermeneutic process.[25][26]

Sutras distribution in the Brahma-sutra[27]

Section 1st Pada 2nd Pada 3rd Pada 4th Pada Total

Adhyaya 1 31 32 43 28 134

Adhyaya 2 37 45 53 22 157

Adhyaya 3 27 41 66 52 186

Adhyaya 4 19 21 16 22 78

Total Sutras: 555

Each Adhikaraņa of Brahma-sutra has varying numbers of sutras, and most sections of the text are structured to address the following:[4][28][note 3]

Vishaya (विषय): subject, issue or topic Vismaya (विस्मय): doubt, uncertainty or perplexity Purva-paksha (पूर्वपक्ष): prima facie view, or prior art and arguments Siddhanta (सिद्धान्त): theory and arguments presented, proposed doctrine, or conclusions Sangati (सङ्गति): connection between sections, synthesis, or coming together of knowledge

The Brahmasutra text has 189 Adhikaranas.[31][note 4] Each section (case study) in the text opens with the Mukhya (chief, main) sutra that states the purpose of that section, and the various sections of the Brahma-sutras include Vishaya-Vakyas (cite the text sources and evidence they use).[4] Sutras were meant to assist the memory of the student who had gone through long discussions with his guru, as memory aids or clues and maximum thoughts were compressed in a few words which were unambiguous, giving the essence of the arguments on the topic.[32] The Sutras of the text, states Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
in his commentary, are structured like a string that ties together the Vedanta
Vedanta
texts like a garland of flowers.[4] Contents[edit] The Brahmasutra, states Sengaku Mayeda, distills and consolidates the extensive teachings found in a variety of Upanishads
Upanishads
of Hinduism, summarizing, arranging, unifying and systematizing the Upanishadic theories.[21] Prior to the creation of the Brahmasutras, the Vedic literature had grown into an enormous collection of ideas and practices, ranging from practical rituals (karma-kanda) to abstract philosophy (jnana-kanda).[21][33] Different and conflicting theories on metaphysical problems, diverse mutually contradicting unsystematized teachings on rituals and philosophies multiplied in the four Vedas, creating the need for consolidated and systematized content summary of the Sruti.[21][33] This was achieved by Jaimini's Mimamsa-sutra which focussed on externalized rituals as the spiritual path, while Badarayana's Brahma-sutra focussed on internalized philosophy as the spiritual path.[21][33]

The opening sutra

अथातो ब्रह्मजिज्ञासा Then therefore the enquiry into Brahman

Brahma
Brahma
sutra 1.1.1[34][35]

The text reviews and critiques most major orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy as well as all heterodox Indian philosophies such as Buddhism, with the exception of Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga
Yoga
philosophies which it holds in high regards and recurrently refers to them in all its four chapters, adding in sutras 2.1.3 and 4.2.21 that Yoga
Yoga
and Samkhya
Samkhya
are similar.[36] The text cites and quotes from the ten Principal Upanishads
Upanishads
often, the Kaushitaki Upanishad
Kaushitaki Upanishad
and the Shvetashvatara Upanishad
Upanishad
in several sutras, but also mentions Upanishads
Upanishads
now unknown and lost.[36] The contents of the text also acknowledge and analyze the various Vedic schools, and mentions the existence of multiple, diverging versions of the same underlying text.[37] The sutras of the Brahmasutra are aphorisms, which Paul Deussen
Paul Deussen
states to be "threads stretched out in weaving to form the basis of the web", and intelligible "when the woof is added" with a commentary.[38] Chapter 1: What is Brahman?[edit] The first chapter is regarded in Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition as Samanvaya (Harmony), because it distills, synchronizes and brings into a harmonious whole the seemingly diverse and conflicting passages in various Sruti
Sruti
texts.[39][40] It consists of 134 sutras, with eleven Adhikaranas in the first Pada, seven Adhikaranas in second, fourteen Adhikaranas in third, and eight in the fourth Pada.[41] The different sub-schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
have interpreted the sutras in the last Pada differently, and some count only seven Adhikaranas in the fourth Pada.[41]

Perception, Inference and Word

शब्द इतिचेन्नातः प्रभवात्प्रत्यक्षानुमानाभ्याम् If it be said that a contradiction will result in regard to Word (Vedas), we say that it is not so because the origination of everything is from perception and inference. Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
commentary: "Perception means Sruti; for its validity it is not dependent on anything else; inference is Smriti".

Brahma
Brahma
sutra 1.3.28[42]

This Brahmasutra chapter asserts that all the Upanishads
Upanishads
primarily aim and coherently describe the knowledge and meditation of Brahman, the ultimate reality.[43] Brahman
Brahman
is the source from which the world came into existence, in whom it inheres and to which it returns. The only source for the knowledge of this Brahman
Brahman
is the Sruti
Sruti
or the Upanishads.[44] The sutras 1.1.5-11 quotes the Samkhya
Samkhya
school's view that the Principle of the world is unconscious, and instead asserts that the Principle of the world is conscious and the Brahman
Brahman
itself. The remaining sutras in Pada 1.1, all sutras of 1.2 and 1.3 assert that Brahman
Brahman
is the primary focus of the Upanishads, is various aspects of empirical reality, quoting various verses in support, from Taittiriya Upanishad, Chandogya Upanishad, Kaushitaki Upanishad, Mundaka Upanishad, Katha Upanishad, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
and Prashna Upanishad.[45][46] The first chapter in sutras 1.4.1-15 presents the Samkhya
Samkhya
theories on Prakriti, and presents its arguments that these are inconsistent and misinterpretation of the Katha, Brihadaranyaka, Shvetashvatara and Taittiriya Upanishad.[45] Sutras 1.4.23 through 1.4.27 state that Brahman
Brahman
is the efficient cause and the material cause of the world.[45] The last sutra of the first chapter states that the arguments on the refutation of Samkhya
Samkhya
theories also apply to the atomists ( Vaisheshika school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy).[45] Chapter 2: Review of competing theories[edit] Second chapter (Avirodha: non-conflict, non-contradiction): discusses and refutes the possible objections to Vedānta
Vedānta
philosophy, and states that the central themes of Vedanta
Vedanta
are consistent across the various Vedic texts.[4] The Brahma
Brahma
sutra states, examines and dismisses the refutations raised by other schools of thoughts, those now classified under Hinduism, Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism.[47] The second chapter consists of 157 sutras, with thirteen Adhikaranas in the first Pada, eight in second, seventeen Adhikaranas in third, and nine in the fourth Pada.[48] The second Brahmasutra chapter has been variously interpreted by various monist, theistic and other sub-schools of Vedanta.[43][49] The Advaita school for example, states Francis Clooney, asserts that the "identity of Atman and Brahman" based Advaita system is the coherent system while other systems conflict with the Upanishads, or are internally inconsistent, or incoherent with observed reality and cosmos.[43] The theistic sub-schools interpret the text to be stating that Atman is different than Brahman, and thereafter each explains how other systems conflict with the Upanishads
Upanishads
or are incoherent.[49] The Pada 2.1 opens with Adhikarana on Samkhya
Samkhya
and Vaisheshika schools arguments that Smritis should be a basis for examining the concept of Brahman, and their objections to the Vedanta
Vedanta
theory of reflection. The Brahmasutra asserts in 2.1.13 through 2.1.20 that the subject and object are one in Brahman, that agrees with Samkhya
Samkhya
there is an identity in cause and effect, adding that the Brahman
Brahman
and the empirical world are therefore one.[50] The sutras 2.1.21 through 2.1.36 present the problem of evil, offering its own doctrine to address it, asserting that Brahman
Brahman
is neither unjust nor cruel, and that inequality and evil exists in the world because of will, choices and circumstances created by actions of living beings over time.[51] The sutras in Pada 2.1 are variously interpreted by Advaita, Dvaita, Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
and other sub-schools of Vedanta.[51][52][53] The monist Advaita school holds that ignorance or Avidya (wrong knowledge) is the root of "problem of evil"; in contrast, dualistic Vedanta schools hold karma and samsara to be the root.[54][note 5] The atomistic physico-theological theories of Vaisheshika and Samkhya school are the focus of the first seventeen sutras of Pada 2.2.[55] The theories of Buddhism
Buddhism
are refuted in sutras 2.2.18 through 2.2.32,[note 6] while the theories of Jainism
Jainism
are analyzed by the text in sutras 2.2.33 through 2.2.36.[6][57] The theories of other orthodox traditions are discussed in 2.2.37 through 2.2.45.[58] Ramanuja
Ramanuja
and Shankara disagree in their formulation as well as critique of then extant orthodox traditions, in their respective commentaries, but both agree that the theory on emergence of Pradyumna (intellect) in the competing orthodox system is the primary flaw.[59] The first eight case studies in the third Pada of chapter 2 discuss whether the world has an origin or not, whether the universe is co-eternal with Brahman
Brahman
or is an effect of Brahman
Brahman
(interpreted as dualistic God in theistic sub-schools of Vedanta), and whether the universe refunds into Brahman
Brahman
periodically.[60] The last nine Adhikaranas of the third Pada discuss the nature of soul, whether it is eternal, is soul an agent, soul's relationship to Brahman, and states its proof that the soul exists and is immortal.[61][62] The last Pada of the second chapter extracts and summarizes the theories of human body, sensory organs, action organs and their relationship to Prana (vital breath) in the various Vedic Brahmanas and Upanishads.[63][64] The Brahma-sutra states that the organs inside a living being are independent principles, in the seventh and eighth Adhikarana of the fourth Pada.[64][65] The various sub-schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
interpret the sutras in the fourth Pada differently.[64] Chapter 3: The means to spiritual knowledge[edit]

The Vedanta
Vedanta
texts, state sutras 3.1.1-4 and 3.3.5-19 of Brahmasutra, describe different forms of meditation. These should be combined, merged into one and practiced, because there is nondifference of their basic import, that of Self, mind, knowledge and a state.[66][67]

Third chapter (Sādhana: the means): describes the process by which ultimate emancipation can be achieved. The topics discussed are diverse.[68] The third chapter is the longest and consists of 186 sutras, with six Adhikaranas in its first Pada, eight in second, thirty six in third, and fourteen Adhikaranas in the fourth Pada.[69] The third Brahmasutra chapter focuses on the nature of spiritual knowledge and epistemic paths to it.[43] The theory of death and rebirth,[70] karma and importance of conduct and free will,[71] and the connection between Atman (Self, Soul) and the Brahman
Brahman
are discussed in sections 3.1 and 3.2 of the text.[43][72]

अपि संराधने प्रत्यक्षानुमानाभ्याम् And ( Brahman
Brahman
is apprehended) in perfect meditation also, according to perception (Sruti, Pratyakṣa) and inference (Smriti, Anumāṇa).

प्रकाशवच्चावैशेष्यं प्रकाशश्च कर्मण्यभ्यासात् And as is the case of (physical) light and the like, there is the non-distinction (of two Selves), the light (Self) by its activity, on account of repeated declarations (in the Scripture).

अतोऽनन्तेन तथा हि लिङ्गम् Therefore (the individual soul enters into unity) with the infinite (the highest Self), for thus (is the scriptural) indication.

—  Brahma
Brahma
sutra 3.2.24 - 3.2.26, [73][74]

Sections 3.3 and 3.4 describe the need for self-study, reflection of texts read, meditation,[75] steps as one makes progress and the role of sannyasa (monk, mendicant) in the pursuit of spiritual knowledge.[43]

Meditation

The third pada, states George Thibaut, opens a new section and theme in chapter 3 of the Brahma-sutras, asserting that meditation is central to the Vedic texts, and summarizing the Vedic theories, from different Shakha (Vedic schools), on "how the individual soul is enabled by meditation on Brahman
Brahman
to obtain final release".[76] These sutras constitute a significant part of the text, extensively refer to the oldest Upanishads, and their commentaries by different Vedanta sub-schools have been extensive, signifying the large historic tradition around meditation, and acceptance of Yoga-sutras teachings in Vedanta.[77][78] Meditation is defined in Vedanta
Vedanta
texts commenting on the Sutras, states Klaus Witz, as "a continuous succession of comparable basic conceptions, beliefs, not interspersed with dissimilar ones, which proceeds according to the scriptures and relates to an object enjoined in the scriptures".[77] It is described by Vedantins as a practice of concentrating on an object of meditation, states Witz, a state of "absorption or immersion into essentially a single thought" and "concentrating on it, excluding conventional notions, till one if as completely identified with it as with one's body".[77] While this practice is discussed in Vedic texts, their formulations were differently described by different Vedic schools. The Brahma-sutra, in Adhikaranas of third and fourth pada, states Thibaut, assert that there is no contradiction in these teachings and that "the different Upanishads
Upanishads
have to be viewed as teaching the same matter, and therefore the ideas must be combined in one meditation".[76]

सैव हि सत्यादयः For the True are so on (in different texts), are one and the same knowledge. —  Brahma
Brahma
sutra 3.3.38, [79][80]

The most referred to texts in these sections are the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the Chandogya Upanishad, the Kaushitaki Upanishad, the Katha Upanishad, and the non-Upanishadic parts of Shatapatha Brahmana and Aitereya Aranyaka.[76] The topic of meditation, state the Brahma-sutras, is the spiritual knowledge of Brahman; the object of this knowledge, states Thibaut, is " Brahman
Brahman
viewed as the inner Self of all".[81] The Brahma
Brahma
Sutras, in addition to recommending meditation, suggest that rituals and rites are unnecessary because it is knowledge that achieves the purpose.[82]

And for this very reason there is no need of the lighting of the fire and so on. —  Brahma
Brahma
sutra 3.4.25, [82][83]

In sutras 3.4.26 and 3.4.27, the text adds that rituals, however, can spiritually prepare a mind, remove impurities within, empower calmness and distractions from sensory pursuits, and therefore assist in its ability to meditate and gain the ultimate knowledge.[84] The text also discusses, in sutras 3.4.28 to 3.4.31 whether there are restrictions on food (meat) one can ingest, during the spiritual journey. The sutras, translates Thibaut, derive from the Vedic texts that there is "a prohibition of doing harm to any living creature", however, the scriptures state, "only in danger of life, in cases of highest need, food of any kind is permitted to be eaten".[85][86] The last three sutras of the chapter 3 assert that a person, pursuing means to spiritual knowledge, should seek a childlike state of innocence, a psychological state that is free of anger, self centeredness, pride and arrogance.[87] The text declares that according to the Vedic literature knowledge is possible in this life, that one is one's own obstruction in this journey, that liberation and freedom is the fruit of knowledge.[88][87] Chapter 4: The benefits of spiritual knowledge[edit] Fourth chapter (Phala: the fruit): talks of the state that is achieved in final emancipation. This is the shortest chapter with 78 sutras and 38 adhikaranas.[68] The last chapter contains fourteen Adhikaranas in its first Pada, eleven in second, six in third, and seven Adhikaranas in the fourth.[89] The last chapter of the Brahmasutra discusses the need and fruits of self-knowledge, the state of freedom and liberation.[43] The opening sutras of chapter 4 continue the discussion of meditation as means to knowledge, with sutra 4.1.3 summarizing it to be the state where the person accepts, "I am Brahman, not another being" (Adi Shankara), as "Thou indeed I am, O holy divinity, and I indeed thou art, O holy divinity" (Jabalas), and "God is to be contemplated as the Self" and the individual is as the body of God (Ramanuja).[90][91][92]

On the Soul's having attained the Highest light, there is manifestation of its real nature, as we infer from the word own. The Self whose true nature has manifested itself is released; according to the promise (made by scripture). The light into which the soul enters is the Self, owing to the subject-matter of the chapter. The released soul abides in non-division from the highest Self (Brahman), because that is seen.

—  Brahma
Brahma
sutra 4.4.1 - 4.4.4, [93][94]

The liberated soul, asserts the Brahma-sutra, is of the nature of Brahman, with inner power and knowledge, free from evil, free from grief, free from suffering, one of bliss and "for such there is freedom in all worlds".[94][95] Commentaries[edit] Numerous commentaries have been written on the Brahma-sutra text, but many such as that of Bodhayana,[note 7] Upavarsa,[note 8] and eighteen out of twenty one mentioned by Narayana in Madhvavijaya-bhava-prakashika are considered lost.[97] Of the surviving commentaries, the earliest extant one is by Adi Shankara.[97] The diversity of Brahma-sutra commentaries by various sub-schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
(see table) attests to the central importance of the Upanishads, that the text summarizes.[97]

Some commentaries on Brahma-sutra

Scholar Century School Theme/Influence[97][100]

Shankara[101] 8th-century Advaita Idealist Monism

Bhaskara,[102] Yadava Prakasha[103] 10th-century Bhedabheda Bhakti
Bhakti
movement

Ramanuja[104] 11th-century Vishishtadvaita Qualified Advaita Vaishnavism[105]

Madhva, also known as Purnaprajna and Ananda Teertha[106] 13th-century Dvaita Dualism

Nimbarka[107] 13th-century[108] Dvaitadvaita Differential monism

Srikantha[109] 13th-century Kashmir/Pashupata Shaivism Theistic Monism Saiva Siddhanta[110][111]

Vallabha[112] 16th-century Shuddhadvaita Pure non-dualism

Shuka[113] 16th-century Bhedavada Revised dualism

Baladeva Vidyabhushana 16th-Century Acintyabhedābheda (Gaudiya Vaishnavism)

Inconceivable Oneness and Difference

Exegesis[edit] The sutras in the text can be, and have been read in different ways.[39] Some commentators read each line separately, while others sometimes read two as one treating some sutras as contextually connected.[39] Creative readers have read the last word of a sutra as the starting word for the next, some treat a given verse as Purva-paksha (prior art, or opposing viewpoint) while others read the same verse as Siddhanta (proposed doctrine, or conclusion).[39] For example, states Gregory Darling, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
in his commentary on sutra 4.3.14 considers saguna Brahman
Brahman
mentioned therein as Purva-paksha, but acknowledges that some scholars interpret this sutra as a Siddhanta.[39] Translations[edit] The Brahma
Brahma
Sutra
Sutra
has been translated into German by Paul Deussen, and in English by George Thibaut.[114] The Thibaut translation is, state De Bary and Embree, "probably the best complete translation in English".[114] Influence[edit] The text is part of the Prasthanatrayi, or the three starting points for the Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.[8] The Brahma
Brahma
sutras constitute the Nyāya prasthāna (न्याय प्रस्थान) or "starting point of reasoning canonical base", while the Principal Upanishads
Upanishads
constitute the Sruti
Sruti
prasthāna or "starting point of heard scriptures", and the Bhagavad Gita constitutes the Smriti
Smriti
prasthāna or the "starting point of remembered canonical base".[8] The Brahma
Brahma
sutras they are also referred to as the Yukti prasthāna, since Yukti (युक्ति) also means reasoning or logic.[citation needed] The nature and influence of Brahma-sutra, states Paul Deussen, "stands to the Upanishad's in the same relation as the Christian Dogmatics to the New Testament: it investigates their teaching about God, the world, the soul, in its conditions of wandering and of deliverance, removes apparent contradictions of the doctrines, binds them systematically together, and is specially concerned to defend them against the attacks of the opponents".[115] The Vedas, according to Vedanta, consists of two parts, states Deussen, which show "far reaching analogy with the Old and New Testaments", a Part of Works (karma-kanda) which includes the benedictory mantras, sacrifices and ceremonies like the Old Testament, and a Part of Knowledge (jnana-kanda) which focuses on metaphysical questions about the world, creator, soul, theology, morals and virtues like the New Testament.[115] The respective influence of the two documents, of the New Testament on Christianity, and the Brahma-sutra on Hinduism
Hinduism
has been very significant.[115] This analogy of influence has many common elements but, states Arvind Sharma, there are differences in the role and influence of New Testament in Christianity and the Brahma-sutra in the Hindu
Hindu
traditions, because in Hinduism texts were never considered as closed, the means and the meaning of soteriology differed, and a diversity of ideas on duality and monism as well as God was accepted.[116] The impact of Brahma-sutra text on Vedanta, and in turn Hinduism, has been historic and central, states Nakamura:[117]

The prevalence of Vedanta
Vedanta
thought is found not only in philosophical writings but also in various forms of (Hindu) literature, such as the epics, lyric poetry, drama and so forth. What is especially worthy of attention is that the Hindu
Hindu
religious sects, the common faith of the Indian populace, looked to Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy for the theoretical foundations for their theology. The influence of Vedanta
Vedanta
is prominent in the sacred literatures of Hinduism, such as the various Puranas, Samhitas, Agamas and Tantras. Many commentaries on the fundamental scripture of Vedanta, the Brahmasutra, were written by the founders or leading scholars of the various sects of Hinduism, and they are transmitted to this day as documents indispensable in the respective sectarian traditions. The majority of the traditional and conservative scholars in India today, called Pandits, are students of Vedanta, and an overwhelming number belong to the lineage of Shankara – five sixths of all Pandits, according to some authorities. —  Hajime Nakamura (2004), A History of Early Vedānta
Vedānta
Philosophy, Volume 2[117]

Frithjof Schuon
Frithjof Schuon
states the role of Brahmasutra in Hinduism
Hinduism
as follows,

The Vedanta
Vedanta
contained in the Upanishads, then formulated in the Brahma Sutra, and finally commented and explained by Shankara, is an invaluable key for discovering the deepest meaning of all the religious doctrines and for realizing that the Sanatana Dharma secretly penetrates all the forms of traditional spirituality. —  Frithjof Schuon
Frithjof Schuon
(1975), One of the Great Lights of the World[118][119]

See also[edit]

Prasthanatrayi

Notes[edit]

^ The name Sariraka Sutras is found, for example, in the works of Adi Shankara.[8] ^ Belvalkar suggests that there once existed Brahma-sutra style texts for all major Upanishads
Upanishads
and Hindu
Hindu
texts, such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
and the Bhagavad Gita.[22] The currently surviving version of Brahmasutra is a composite version, states Belvakar, with the oldest layer consisting of Chandogya-Brahmasutra; the second layer that consolidated various Brahmasutras into one document and added the Smritis-padas and Tarka-padas; and the third stratum of the text was chronologically added last, defending the Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy from the new theories from opposing heterodox schools of Indian philosophies.[22] About 15 sutras of the Brahmasutra may be very late insertions, states Belvalkar.[22] J. A. B. van Buitenen, wrote in 1956, that Belvakar theory is plausible, but difficult to prove.[23] ^ The earliest known roots of this methodology is described in Jaimini's texts on Purva-Mimamsa.[4][29][30] ^ The monist, theist and other sub-traditions of Vedanta
Vedanta
count the number of Adhikaranas differently. For example, Ramanuja
Ramanuja
counts sutras 2.2.28 to 2.2.32 as two Adhikaranas, while others count it as one. Thus, the total number of Adhikaranas in the Brahma
Brahma
sutra text varies slightly from 189 in some Vedanta
Vedanta
sub-schools. See page li in Thibaut's Introduction.[31] ^ Stephen Kaplan writes (abridged): "Avidya is the fundamental existential problem and the fundamental philosophical/theological problem within Advaita Vedanta. It is the cause of the evil that exists within the world. Remove ignorance and one will realize that atman is Brahman. It is also the crucial philosophical issue within Advaita thought. Advaita need not explain why a perfect deity was motivated to create the world, nor why an all-loving God created a world with evil. Ultimately, for Advaita, there is no creation, nor any God who creates the world. The highest truth is Brahman, one without a second, the true self, atman."[54] ^ The sutras 2.2.18 to 2.2.27 state and refute the 'persistence of subject and substance' theory, and sutras 2.2.28 to 2.2.32 state and refute the 'everything is void' theory of Buddhism. However, the arguments offered by monist and theistic sub-schools of Vedanta differ, particularly those of Shankara, Madhva and Ramanuja, with the latter two also refuting the arguments of Shankara in this section.[6] For a sutra by sutra analysis, by the three scholars, see Gregory Darling.[56] ^ Bodhayana's commentary on Brahma-sutra, along with those of Tanka, Dramida, Bhartriprapanca, Bhartrimitra, Bhartrihari (5th-century[96]), Brahmadatta and Shrivatsanka are mentioned by 12th-century Ramanuja and 11th-century Yamunacharya's Siddhitraya, all of these commentaries likely much older than Adi Shankara's commentary.[97][98] ^ Upavarsa is a revered scholar whose commentary on Brahma-sutra was possibly the earliest, and one who is revered by different and antagonistic sub-schools of Vedanta; he is mentioned by Shankara, Bhaskara and even by scholars of non- Vedanta
Vedanta
schools of Hindu philosophies.[99]

References[edit]

^ a b c d e NV Isaeva (1992), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-1281-7, page 36 ^ a b Andrew J. Nicholson (2013). Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History. Columbia University Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-231-14987-7. , Quote: "From a historical perspective, the Brahmasutras are best understood as a group of sutras composed by multiple authors over the course of hundreds of years, most likely composed in its current form between 400 and 450 BCE." ^ a b c d e James Lochtefeld, Brahman, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823931798, page 124 ^ a b c d e f g h Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 23–24.  ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. p. 21.  ^ a b c Gregory Darling (2007), An Evaluation of the Vedāntic Critique of Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803633, pages 161-164 ^ a b James Lochtefeld, Brahman, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823931798, page 746 ^ a b c d e NV Isaeva (1992), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-1281-7, page 35 with footnote 30 ^ a b Vedanta
Vedanta
Hindu
Hindu
Philosophy Encyclopædia Britannica (2013) ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 26–27.  ^ Paul Deussen, The System of the Vedanta: According to Badarayana's Brahma-Sutras and Shankara's Commentary thereon, Translator: Charles Johnston, ISBN 978-1519117786, pages 3-4 ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. p. 22 with footnote 2.  ^ a b c d Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. p. 22 with footnote 3 and 4.  ^ Paul Deussen, The System of the Vedanta: According to Badarayana's Brahma-Sutras and Shankara's Commentary thereon, Translator: Charles Johnston, ISBN 978-1519117786, page 20 ^ a b Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. p. 22 with footnote 6.  ^ Paul Deussen, The System of the Vedanta: According to Badarayana's Brahma-Sutras and Shankara's Commentary thereon, Translator: Charles Johnston, ISBN 978-1519117786, page 21 ^ Klaus K Klostermaier (2010), A Survey of Hinduism, Third Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791470824, page 501 ^ Daniel Ingalls (1954), Sankara's Arguments Against the Buddhists, Philosophy East and West, Volume 3, Number 4, page 299 ^ Gregory Darling (2007), An Evaluation of the Vedāntic Critique of Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803633, pages 6-7 ^ Klaus K. Klostermaier (2007). A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition. State University of New York Press. p. 354. ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4.  ^ a b c d e Śaṅkarācārya; Sengaku Mayeda (2006), A Thousand Teachings: The Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-8120827714, page 12 ^ a b c SK Belvalkar (1936), Dṛṣṭāntas in The Brahmasūtras, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, pages 30-31 ^ J.A.B. van Buitenen (1956), Ramanuja's Vedārthasaṃgraha, Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute, OCLC 1541182, page 28 ^ Klaus Witz (1998), The Supreme Wisdom of the Upaniṣads: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120815735, page 53 with footnote 118 ^ Francis Clooney (1998), Scholasticism: Cross-Cultural and Comparative Perspectives (Editor: Jose Ignacio Cabezon), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791437780, pages 178-179 ^ Krishna
Krishna
Roy (2011), Phenomenology and Indian Philosophy (Editors: DP Chattopadhyaya, LE Embree and J Mohanty), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438436586, page 293-294 ^ SK Belvalkar (1936), Dṛṣṭāntas in The Brahmasūtras, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, pages 28-32 ^ Gregory Darling (2007), An Evaluation of the Vedāntic Critique of Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803633, pages 7-8 ^ Francis X Clooney (1997), What's a God? The Quest for the Right Understanding of devatā in Brāhmaṇical Ritual Theory (Mīmāṃsā), International Journal of Hindu
Hindu
Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, pages 337-385 ^ Peter M Scharf (1996), The Denotation of Generic Terms in Ancient Indian Philosophy: Grammar, Nyāya, and Mīmāṃsā, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, Vol. 86, No. 3, pages i-x ^ a b George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 1, The Sacred Books of the East at Google Books, Volume 34 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages xxxii-lxxvi ^ Sutras were memory clues[1] ^ a b c Paul Deussen, The System of the Vedanta: According to Badarayana's Brahma-Sutras and Shankara's Commentary thereon, Translator: Charles Johnston, ISBN 978-1519117786, pages 19-25, 6-12 ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. p. 227.  Original Sanskrit: Brahma
Brahma
sutra Bhasya Adi Shankara, Archive 2 ^ George Adams (1993), The Structure and Meaning of Bādarāyaṇa's Brahma
Brahma
Sūtras, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120809314, page 38 ^ a b Paul Deussen, The System of the Vedanta: According to Badarayana's Brahma-Sutras and Shankara's Commentary thereon, Translator: Charles Johnston, ISBN 978-1519117786, pages 22-23 ^ Paul Deussen, The System of the Vedanta: According to Badarayana's Brahma-Sutras and Shankara's Commentary thereon, Translator: Charles Johnston, ISBN 978-1519117786, page 24 ^ Paul Deussen, The System of the Vedanta: According to Badarayana's Brahma-Sutras and Shankara's Commentary thereon, Translator: Charles Johnston, ISBN 978-1519117786, page 26 ^ a b c d e Gregory Darling (2007), An Evaluation of the Vedāntic Critique of Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803633, page 8 ^ Jose Pereira (1986), Bādarāyana: Creator of Systematic Theology, Religious Studies (Cambridge University Press), Volume 22, Issue 2, pages 193-204 ^ a b George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 1, The Sacred Books of the East at Google Books, Volume 34 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages xxxii-xlvi ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 301–302 with footnotes.  Original Sanskrit: Brahma
Brahma
sutra Bhasya Adi Shankara, Archive 2 ^ a b c d e f g Francis X Clooney (1993), Theology After Vedanta: An Experiment in Comparative Theology, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791413654, pages 68-71 ^ Harshananda, Swami (2009), The Six Systems of Hindu
Hindu
Philosophy, A Primer, p.73 ^ a b c d Paul Deussen, The System of the Vedanta: According to Badarayana's Brahma-Sutras and Shankara's Commentary thereon, Translator: Charles Johnston, ISBN 978-1519117786, pages 39-40 ^ Brahma
Brahma
sutra Bhasya Adi Shankara, Archive 2 ^ Harshananda, Swami (2009), The Six Systems of Hindu
Hindu
Philosophy, A Primer, p.75 ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 1, The Sacred Books of the East at Google Books, Volume 34 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages xlvii-lix ^ a b Śaṅkarācārya; Sengaku Mayeda (2006), A Thousand Teachings: The Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-8120827714, pages 12-13 ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 345–354 with footnotes.  ^ a b Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 354–365 with footnotes.  ^ S Biderman (1982), A 'Constitutive' God: An Indian Suggestion, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 32, No. 4, pages 425-437 ^ AL Herman (1971), Indian Theodicy: Śaṁkara and Rāmānuja on Brahma
Brahma
Sūtra
Sūtra
II. 1. 32-36, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 21, No. 3, pages 265-281 ^ a b Stephen Kaplan (2007), Vidyā and Avidyā: Simultaneous and Coterminous?: A Holographic Model to Illuminate the Advaita Debate, Philosophy East and West, Volume 57, Number 2, pages 178-203 ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 366–377 with footnotes.  ^ Gregory Darling (2007), An Evaluation of the Vedāntic Critique of Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803633, pages 165-368 ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 378–390 with footnotes.  ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 391–396 with footnotes.  ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 1, The Sacred Books of the East at Google Books, Volume 34 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, page li ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 397–403.  ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 403–422.  ^ Paul Deussen
Paul Deussen
(1993), The System of the Vedanta: According to Badarayana's Brahma-Sutras and Shankara's Commentary thereon, Translator: Charles Johnston, ISBN 978-1519117786, pages 285-354 ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 1, The Sacred Books of the East at Google Books, Volume 34 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages lix ^ a b c George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 2, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 38 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages 74-100 ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. p. 429.  ^ Klaus Witz (1998), The Supreme Wisdom of the Upaniṣads: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120815735, pages 210-212 ^ Michael Comans (1993), The question of the importance of Samadhi
Samadhi
in modern and classical Advaita Vedanta, Philosophy East & West, Volume 43, Number 1, pages 19-38 ^ a b Harshananda, Swami (2009), The Six Systems of Hindu
Hindu
Philosophy, A Primer, p.77 ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 1, The Sacred Books of the East at Google Books, Volume 34 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages lix-lxxvi ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 2, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 38 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages 100-132 ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 2, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 38 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages 112-121 ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 2, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 38 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages 133-183 ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 457–460.  ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 2, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 38 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages 171-173 ^ Klaus Witz (1998), The Supreme Wisdom of the Upaniṣads: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120815735, pages 209-216 ^ a b c George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 1, The Sacred Books of the East at Google Books, Volume 34 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages lxvi-lxxv ^ a b c Klaus Witz (1998), The Supreme Wisdom of the Upaniṣads: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120815735, pages 198-200; See also, Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 528–529.  ^ Francis X Clooney (1993), Theology After Vedanta: An Experiment in Comparative Theology, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791413654, pages 70-72 ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 2, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 38 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages 245-246 ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. p. 490.  ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 1, The Sacred Books of the East at Google Books, Volume 34 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages lxxii-lxxiii ^ a b George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 2, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 38 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, page 306 ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. p. 512.  ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 2, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 38 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages 307-309 ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 2, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 38 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages 309-312 ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 514–515.  ^ a b Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 522–524.  ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 2, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 38 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages 325-330 ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 1, The Sacred Books of the East at Google Books, Volume 34 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages lxxvi-lxxxv ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 525–526.  ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 2, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 38 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages 337-340 ^ Paul Deussen, The System of the Vedanta: According to Badarayana's Brahma-Sutras and Shankara's Commentary thereon, Translator: Charles Johnston, ISBN 978-1519117786, pages 401-417 ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 2, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 38 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages 405-408 ^ a b Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 553–555.  ^ George Thibaut, Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 2, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 38 (Editor: Max Muller), Oxford University Press, pages 407-411 ^ Hajime Nakamura (2004), A History of Early Vedānta
Vedānta
Philosophy, Part 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120819634, page 25 ^ a b c d e Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 26–27.  ^ Hajime Nakamura (2004), A History of Early Vedānta
Vedānta
Philosophy, Part 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120819634, pages 5-6, 61-63 ^ Hajime Nakamura (2004), A History of Early Vedānta
Vedānta
Philosophy, Part 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120819634, pages 29-37, 46-48 ^ Steven Katz (2000), Mysticism and Sacred Scripture, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195097030, page 12 ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 28–39.  ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 39–45.  ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 45–46.  ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 47–60.  ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. p. 57.  ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 61–66.  ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 78–82.  ^ P. T. Raju (1985). Structural Depths of Indian Thought. State University of New York Press. p. 506. ISBN 978-0-88706-139-4.  ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 66–78.  ^ K Sivaraman (2001), Śaivism in Philosophical Perspective, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120817715, pages 33-36, 472-499 ^ Gavin Flood (1989), Shared Realities and Symbolic Forms in Kashmir Śaivism, Numen, Vol. 36, Fasc. 2, pages 225-247 ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
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Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 88–93.  ^ Radhakrishna, Sarvepalli (1960). Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life. pp. 93–94.  ^ a b William Theodore De Bary and Ainslie Embree (2013), A Guide to Oriental Classics, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231066754, page 97 ^ a b c Paul Deussen, The System of the Vedanta: According to Badarayana's Brahma-Sutras and Shankara's Commentary thereon, Translator: Charles Johnston, ISBN 978-1519117786, pages 20-21 ^ Arvind Sharma
Arvind Sharma
(1995), The Philosophy of Religion and Advaita Vedanta, Penn State University Press, ISBN 978-0271028323, pages 62-71 ^ a b Hajime Nakamura (2004), A History of Early Vedānta
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Philosophy, Part 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120819634, page 3 ^ F Schuon (1975), One of the Great Lights of the World, in Spiritual Perspectives, Essays in Mysticism and Metaphysics
Metaphysics
(Editor: TMP Mahadevan), Arnold Heineman, ISBN , page 91 ^ Klaus Witz (1998), The Supreme Wisdom of the Upaniṣads: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120815735, page 11

External links[edit]

Translations and transliteration

The Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 1, Translated by George Thibaut (English, 1890, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
Exegesis, Theistic interpretation) The Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Part 2, Translated by George Thibaut (English, 1890, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
Exegesis, Theistic interpretation) The Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutras Translated by George Thibaut (English, 1890, Ramanuja
Ramanuja
Exegesis, Theistic interpretation) Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, The Philosophy of Spiritual Life (English) Translated by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(English, Multiple scholars includes monist and theistic interpretation), - at archive.org Brahma
Brahma
sutra in 10 Indian languages and Roman Transliteration IIT Kanpur

Commentaries

Sri Bhashya - Brahma
Brahma
Sutra
Sutra
Bhashya by Ramanujacharya (Sanskrit) - at archive.org Brahma
Brahma
Sutra
Sutra
Bhashya by Adi Shankaracharya (Sanskrit) - at archive.org Brahmasutra Sankara Bhashya, with Ratna-Prabha of Govindananda, Bhamati of Vachaspati Misra and Nyaya-Nirnaya of Anandagari (Sanskrit) - at archive.org Brahmasutra Sankara Bhashya, with Bhamati of Vachaspati Misra, Kalpataru of Amalananda and Parimala of Appaya Dikshita (Sanskrit) - at archive.org Anubhashya on the Brahma
Brahma
Sutra
Sutra
by Vallabhacharya with Commentaries (4 Volumes Combined) (Sanskrit) - at archive.org Brahmasutra Bhasya of Sri Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
with Glosses (Sanskrit) - at archive.org Vedanta-Parijata-Saurabha of Nimbarka and Vedanta-Kaustubha of Srinivasa (English) - at archive.org

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Āstika

Hindu: Samkhya Nyaya Vaisheshika Yoga Mīmāṃsā Vedanta

Acintya bheda abheda Advaita Bhedabheda Dvaita Dvaitadvaita Shuddhadvaita Vishishtadvaita

Shaiva

Pratyabhijña Pashupata Shaivism Shaiva
Shaiva
Siddhanta

Nāstika

Ājīvika Ajñana Cārvāka Jain

Anekantavada Syādvāda

Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
and Early Buddhist schools

Śūnyatā Madhyamaka Yogacara Sautrāntika Svatantrika

Texts

Abhinavabharati Arthashastra Bhagavad Gita Bhagavata Purana Brahma
Brahma
Sutra Buddhist texts Dharmashastra Hindu
Hindu
texts Jain Agamas Kamasutra Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras

All 108 texts Principal

Nyāya Sūtras Nyayakusumanjali Panchadasi Samkhyapravachana Sutra Shiva
Shiva
Sutras Tarka-Sangraha Tattvacintāmaṇi Upanishads

Minor

Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Vedangas Vedas Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha More...

Philosophers

Avatsara Uddalaka Aruni Gautam Buddha Yajnavalkya Gargi Vachaknavi Buddhaghosa Patanjali Kanada Kapila Brihadratha Ikshvaku Jaimini Vyasa Chanakya Dharmakirti Akshapada Gotama Nagarjuna Padmasambhava Vasubandhu Gaudapada Adi Shankara Vivekananda Dayananda Saraswati Ramanuja Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Raikva Sadananda Sakayanya Satyakama Jabala Madhvacharya Mahavira Guru
Guru
Nanak Vidyaranya More...

Concepts

Abhava Abhasavada Abheda Adarsana Adrishta Advaita Aham Aishvarya Akrodha Aksara Anatta Ananta Anavastha Anupalabdhi Apauruṣheyā Artha Asiddhatva Asatkalpa Ātman Avyakta Brahman Brahmi sthiti Bhuman Bhumika Chaitanya Chidabhasa Cittabhumi Dāna Devatas Dharma Dhi Dravya Dhrti Ekagrata Guṇa Hitā Idam Ikshana Ishvaratva Jivatva Kama Karma Kasaya Kshetrajna Lakshana Mithyatva Mokṣa Nididhyasana Nirvāṇa Niyama Padārtha Paramatman Paramananda Parameshashakti Parinama-vada Pradhana Prajna Prakṛti Pratibimbavada Pratītyasamutpāda Puruṣa Rājamaṇḍala Ṛta Sakshi Samadhi Saṃsāra Sankalpa Satya Satkaryavada Shabda Brahman Sphoṭa Sthiti Śūnyatā Sutram Svātantrya Iccha-mrityu Syādvāda Taijasa Tajjalan Tanmatra Tyāga Uparati Upekkhā Utsaha Vivartavada Viraj Yamas Yoga More...

v t e

Hinduism
Hinduism
topics

Glossary

Philosophy

Concepts

Brahman Om Ishvara Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Niti

Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

Texts

Classification

Śruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Vedanga

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Other

Bhagavad Gita Agamas Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Puranas Minor Upanishads Artha
Artha
Shastra Dharma
Dharma
Shastra

Manusmriti Nāradasmṛti Yājñavalkya Smṛti

Sutras Stotras Subhashita Tantras Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Varnashrama

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

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Hindu
studies Iconography Mythology Nationalism

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Persecution Pilgrimage sites Glossary Hinduism
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by country

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