HOME
The Info List - Brahma Jinalaya


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i)

JAIN TEMPLE, LAKKUNDI

Brahma
Brahma
Jinalaya

BASIC INFORMATION

LOCATION Lakkundi
Lakkundi
, Karnataka
Karnataka

AFFILIATION Jainism
Jainism

DEITY Mahavira
Mahavira

FESTIVALS Mahavir Jayanti

ARCHITECTURAL DESCRIPTION

CREATOR Kalyani Chalukyas

DATE ESTABLISHED mid-11th century

The THE JAIN TEMPLE, LAKKUNDI (or Jain Basadi) is located in the historically important temple town Lakkundi
Lakkundi
in the Gadag District of Karnataka
Karnataka
state, India. Known as Lokkigundi in medieval times, the town was of considerable importance during the 11-12th century A.D. Western Chalukya
Western Chalukya
rule. With the waning of their power, in 1191 A.D., the noted Hoysala empire
Hoysala empire
king Veera Ballala II made this town an important garrison. The temple is protected as a monument of national importance by the Archaeological Survey of India.

CONTENTS

* 1 Temple plan

* 1.1 Sculpture

* 2 Notes * 3 References

TEMPLE PLAN

According to art historian Adam Hardy, the architectural style of the temple can be classified as "Later Chalukya style, mainstream Lakkundi school of mid-11th century with late 11th century superstructure (shikhara )". The temple has single shrine (ekakuta vimana) connected to a closed hall via a vestibule (sukanasi or ardhamantapa) that is connected to an open hall (mantapa ). According to art critic Percy Brown, these units are found commonly in all Western Chalukya
Western Chalukya
temples. The building material is Soap stone , which according to Percy Brown became their standard and gained popularity in later day Hoysala architecture as well. According to art historians Henry Cousens and Om Prakash, the most conspicuous feature of the Western Chalukya temples is the decrease in the size of masonry and the resulting decrease in the overall height of the temples compared to those built by the Badami Chalukyas at Pattadakal . This was a result of a shift in the basic building material, from Sandstone
Sandstone
to the more workable Soapstone (Chloritic Shist). In the coming decades, this transformation was to lead Vesara
Vesara
architecture toward increased ornamentation and articulation.

Cousens categorizes the tower over the shrine as Dravidian (south Indian) but historian Kamath feels it is more Vesara
Vesara
because each tier are encrusted with motifs that make the tower more "curvilinear". According to Cousens, the overall structure with its well proportioned tiers and finial (amalaka, kalasha ) give the superstructure a "majestic" look. Above the cornice are circular niches, each of which holds the image of a Jain saint (Jaina) in relief, with a Kirtimukha decoration above. The walls of the shrine have pilasters , with the spaces between them containing, in relief, pavilions , and miniature decorative towers (aedicula ) on slender half pilasters. Some miniature towers have niches below them. Overall, the decorative ornamentation is taken to a new level compared to earlier temples.

SCULPTURE

There are three notable free standing sculptures in the temple. An image of Mahavira
Mahavira
that is a little over 4 feet tall, made of black polished stone and seated on a "lion throne" (simhaasana) is found outside the temple. Cousens feels it may have been taken out and left there. The saint has an attendant on either side, holding a chowri (a type of brush) in one hand a fruit in another. An exceptionally well rendered image of the god Brahma
Brahma
stands in the inner hall, and that of the goddess Saraswati
Saraswati
stands at the entrance to the vestibule. In each of her four hands she holds an attribute; a ankusa (elephant goad), a petaled flower, a book and a citron . In addition to these sculptures, the relief of a Jaina is carved on to the door lintel of the sanctum and outer hall, and an image of Gajalakshmi ( Lakshmi
Lakshmi
with elephants on either side) exists over entrance to the vestibule.

*

Old Kannada inscription dated 1172 A.D. at Jain temple
Jain temple
in Lakkundi
Lakkundi

*

Jaina image in sanctum, doorpost and lintel decoration at Jain Temple in Lakkundi
Lakkundi
*

Chaturmukha, a four-faced Brahma
Brahma
image at Jain Temple in Lakkundi
Lakkundi
, 11th century CE *

Kirtimukha wall relief at Jain temple
Jain temple
in Lakkundi
Lakkundi

NOTES

* ^ A B Cousens (1926), p.77 * ^ "Alphabetical List of Monuments - Karnataka
Karnataka
-Dharwad, Dharwad Circle, Karnataka". Archaeological Survey of India, Government of India. Indira Gandhi National Center for the Arts. Retrieved 7 April 2013. * ^ Hardy (1995), p. 335 * ^ Brown in Kamath (2001), pp.115-117 * ^ Prakash (2005), p.178 * ^ Kamath (2001), p.117 * ^ Cousens (1926), p.78 * ^ Cousens (1926), pp.78-79

REFERENCES

* Cousens, Henry (1996) . The Chalukyan Architecture of Kanarese Districts. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. OCLC
OCLC
37526233 . * Foekema, Gerard (2003) . Architecture decorated with architecture: Later medieval temples of Karnataka, 1000–1300 AD. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-215-1089-9 . * Kamath, Suryanath U. (2001) . A concise history of Karnataka: from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 80905179 . OCLC
OCLC
7796041 . * Adam Hardy, Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation: The Karṇāṭa Drāviḍa Tradition, 7th to 13th Centuries, Abhinav, 1995 ISBN 81-7017-312-4 . * Om Prakash, Cultural History Of India, New Age International, 2005, New Delhi, ISBN 81-224-1587-3 . * "Alphabetical List of Monuments - Karnataka
Karnataka
- Dharwad, Dharwad Circle, Karnataka". Archaeological Survey of India, Government of India. Indira Gandhi National Center for the Arts. Retrieved 8 April 2013.

* v * t * e

Jain temples in India

See also : Jain temples in North America

BIHAR

* Pawapuri
Pawapuri
* Statue of Vasupujya

DELHI

* Sri Digambar Jain Lal Mandir * Naya Mandir
Naya Mandir
* Ahinsa Sthal

GUJARAT

* Bhadreshwar Jain Temple * Girnar * Hutheesing * Palitana * Shankheshwar * Taranga

JHARKHAND

* Shikharji

KARNATAKA

* Badami cave temples
Badami cave temples
* Dharmasthala Temple
Dharmasthala Temple
* Jain Temple, Lakkundi * Panchakuta Basadi, Kambadahalli * Saavira Kambada Basadi * Sankighatta * Shravanabelagola

KERALA

* Anantnath Swami Temple * Jain temple, Alleppey * Jain Temple, Kidanganad * Jainimedu Jain temple * Kattil Madam Temple

MADHYA PRADESH

* Bawangaja
Bawangaja
* Jain temples of Khajuraho * Kanch Mandir * Sonagiri * Bibrod Tirth

MAHARASHTRA

* Gajpanth
Gajpanth
* Kumbhoj
Kumbhoj
* Statue of Ahimsa

NAGALAND

* Dimapur Jain Temple

ODISHA

* Digambara Jaina Temple, Khandagiri * Parsvanath Jain Temple-I * Parsvanath Jain Temple-II
Parsvanath Jain Temple-II

RAJASTHAN

* Ajmer Jain temple
Ajmer Jain temple
* Nareli Jain Temple * Padampura * Sanghiji * Shri Mahavirji * Tijara Jain temple

TAMIL NADU

* Arahanthgiri Jain Math * Alagramam Jain Temple * Kalugumalai Jain Beds * Mannargudi Mallinatha Swamy Jain Temple * Mel Sithamur Jain Math * Thirakoil
Thirakoil

TELANGANA

* Kulpakji

UTTAR PRADESH

* Jambudweep * Digamber Jain Mandir Hastinapur

WEST BENGAL

* Calcutta Jain Temple

* Category
Category
* Jainism
Jainism
Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Jainism
Jainism
topics

GODS

* Tirthankara
Tirthankara
* Ganadhara
Ganadhara
* Arihant

PHILOSOPHY

* Ethics

* Ahimsa

* Epistemology

* Kevala Jñāna

* Jaina logic

* Anekāntavāda

* Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology

* Siddhashila
Siddhashila
* Naraka * Heavenly beings

* Karma

* Types * Causes

* Gunasthana
Gunasthana

* Dravya
Dravya

* Jīva

* Ajiva
Ajiva

* Pudgala
Pudgala
* Dharma

* Tattva

* Asrava * Bandha * Samvara
Samvara
* Nirjara * Mokṣa

* Death * Saṃsāra * Ratnatraya
Ratnatraya
* Kashaya

BRANCHES

DIGAMBARA

* Mula Sangha

* Balatkara Gana
Balatkara Gana
* Kashtha Sangha

* Taran Panth * Bispanthi
Bispanthi
* Terapanth * Yapaniya
Yapaniya

ŚVēTāMBARA

* Murtipujaka

* Gaccha

* Kharatara * Tapa * Tristutik

* Sthānakavāsī * Terapanth

PRACTICES

* Sallekhana
Sallekhana

* Meditation

* Sāmāyika

* Monasticism * Vegetarianism * Fasting * Rituals

* Festivals

* Paryushana
Paryushana
* Kshamavani * Mahamastakabhisheka

* Upadhan * Tapas * Pratikramana
Pratikramana

LITERATURE

* Agama

* Shatkhandagama * Kasayapahuda
Kasayapahuda

* Mantra

* Namokar Mantra
Namokar Mantra
* Bhaktamara Stotra
Bhaktamara Stotra

* Tattvartha Sutra * Samayasāra * Aptamimamsa
Aptamimamsa
* Kalpa Sūtra
Kalpa Sūtra

SYMBOLS

* Jain flag
Jain flag
* Siddhachakra
Siddhachakra

* Ashtamangala

* Shrivatsa * Nandavarta
Nandavarta

* Auspicious dreams * Swastika
Swastika

ASCETICS

* Digambara
Digambara
monk * Aryika * Kshullak
Kshullak
* Pattavali
Pattavali
* Acharya

SCHOLARS

* Nalini Balbir * Colette Caillat * Chandabai
Chandabai
* John E. Cort * Paul Dundas * Virchand Gandhi
Virchand Gandhi
* Hermann Jacobi * Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
* Padmanabh Jaini * Jeffery D. Long * Hampa Nagarajaiah
Hampa Nagarajaiah
* Claudia Pastorino * Bal Patil * Jinendra Varni * Robert J. Zydenbos

COMMUNITY

* Śrāvaka * Sarak * Tamil

* Organisations

* Digambar Jain Mahasabha * Vishwa Jain Sangathan
Vishwa Jain Sangathan
* JAINA
JAINA

JAINISM IN

INDIA

* Bundelkhand * Delhi * Goa * Gujarat * Haryana

* Karnataka
Karnataka

* North

* Kerala

* Maharashtra

* Mumbai

* Rajasthan * Uttar Pradesh

OVERSEAS

* Canada * Europe * United States * Japan * Singapore * Hong Kong * Pakistan * Belgium * Africa * Southeast Asia * Australia

JAINISM AND

* Buddhism * Hinduism * Islam * Sikhism * Non-creationism

DYNASTIES AND EMPIRES

* Ikshvaku * Maurya * Kalinga * Kadamba * Ganga * Chalukya * Rashtrakuta * Hoysala * Pandayan

RELATED

* History

* Timeline

* Pañca-Parameṣṭhi * Pratima * Śalākāpuruṣa * Tirtha * Samavasarana