Officially a condominium of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, it was formed in 1999 to reflect Brčko and the surrounding areas' multi-ethnic nature and special status within the newly-independent Bosnia. In reality, it functions as a local self-government area, much like the other municipalities in the country.
The seat of the district is the city of Brčko.
The Brčko District was established after an arbitration process undertaken by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to the Dayton Peace Accords however, the process could only arbitrate the disputed portion of the Inter-Entity Boundary Line (IEBL). The Brčko District was formed of the entire territory of the former Brčko municipality, of which 48% (including Brčko city) was in the new formed Republika Srpska, while 52% was in the old Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Since the end of the Bosnian War, the European Union (EU) has maintained a diplomatic peace-keeping presence in the area.
Brčko was the only element in the Dayton Peace Agreement which was not finalized. The arbitration agreement was finalized in March 1999 resulting in a "district" as mentioned above which was to be administrated by an American Principal Deputy High Representative who is also ex officio the Brčko International Supervisor.
In 2006, under the Supervisory Order, all "Entity legislation in Brčko District and the IEBL" was abolished. The ruling made by the Brčko Supervisor Susan Johnson abolishes all Entity Laws in the District, as well as abolishing the Entity Border Line. The ruling makes the Laws of the District and the Laws of the State of Bosnia and Herzegovina (including the laws of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina) paramount within the District.
Following a Peace Implementation Council (PIC) meeting on 23 May 2012, it was decided to suspend, not terminate, the mandate of the Brčko International Supervisor. The Brčko Arbitral Tribunal, together with the suspended Brčko Supervision, continues to exist.
The first Brčko International Supervisor arrived in April 1997. Prior to that time, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) had a modest office headed by Randolph Hampton. During the interim time before the District of Brčko could be represented post arbitration agreement, local elections were held, and humanitarian relief was provided with cooperation from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and ECHO. The District became known as a center for different state-building programs run by foreign governments, particularly the United States.
According to 1961 census Municipality of Brčko had 62,952 inhabitants, including:
According to 1971 census Municipality of Brčko had 74,771 inhabitants, including:
According to 1981 census Municipality of Brčko had 82,768 inhabitants, including:
According to 1991 census Municipality of Brčko had 87,627 inhabitants, including:
According to 2013 census Municipality of Brčko had 83,416 inhabitants, including:
There are 29 seats in the Assembly of the Brčko District. The seats are divided as follows:
|Brčko||Serb Democratic Party—National Democratic Movement||5,908||15.06||5|
|Alliance of Independent Social Democrats||5,512||14.05||4|
|Party of Democratic Action||4,989||12.72||4|
|Croatian Democratic Union||3,940||10.04||3|
|Brčko Democratic Movement||3,247||8.28||2|
|Party of Democratic Progress—Progressive Srpska||2,754||7.02||2|
|Croatian Peasant Party of Stjepan Radić||2,335||5.95||2|
|Union for a Better Future of BiH||2,049||5.22||2|
|Social Democratic Party||2,045||5.21||3|
|Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina||1,780||4.54||1|
|Minority candidate Ćazim Dačaj||(384)||–||1|
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