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The POINTS OF THE COMPASS, specifically on the compass rose , mark divisions of a compass ; such divisions may be referred to as "winds" or "directions". A compass point allows reference to a specific heading (or course or azimuth ) in a general or colloquial fashion, without having to compute or remember degrees.

A compass is primarily divided into the four cardinal points —north , south , east , and west . These are often further subdivided by the addition of the four intercardinal (or ordinal) directions—northeast (NE) between north and east, southeast (SE), southwest (SW), and northwest (NW)—to indicate the eight principal winds. In meteorological usage, further intermediate points between cardinal and ordinal points, such as north-northeast (NNE) between north and northeast, are added to give the sixteen points of a wind compass . At the most complete division in European tradition, are the full thirty-two points of the mariner\'s compass , which adds points such as north by east (NbE) between north and north-northeast, and northeast by north (NEbN) between north-northeast and northeast.

Although the European nautical tradition retained the term "one point" to describe  1⁄32 of a circle (in such phrases as "two points to starboard"), by the middle of the eighteenth century, the 32-point system was further extended with half- and quarter-points to allow 128 directions to be differentiated. For most applications, the fractional points have been superseded by degrees measured clockwise from North.

In ancient China 24 points of the compass were used, measuring fifteen degrees between points.

CONTENTS

* 1 Compass point names

* 1.1 16-wind compass rose * 1.2 32-wind compass points

* 2 Traditional names * 3 32 cardinal points * 4 Half- and quarter-points * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

COMPASS POINT NAMES

Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see Northeast (other) , Northwest (other) , Southeast (other) and Southwest (other) . A 16-point compass rose

The names of the compass directions in the 32-point wind compass rose follow these rules:

* The cardinal directions are north (N), east (E), south (S), west (W), at 90° angles on the compass rose. * The ordinal (or intercardinal) directions are NORTHEAST (NE), SOUTHEAST (SE), SOUTHWEST (SW) and NORTHWEST (NW), formed by bisecting the angle of the cardinal winds. The name is merely a combination of the cardinals it bisects. * The eight PRINCIPAL WINDS (or MAIN WINDS) are the cardinals and ordinals considered together, that is N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW. Each principal wind is 45° from its neighbour. The principal winds form the basic EIGHT-WIND compass rose.

16-WIND COMPASS ROSE

* The eight HALF-WINDS are the points obtained by bisecting the angles between the principal winds. The half-winds are north-northeast (NNE), east-northeast (ENE), east-southeast (ESE), south-southeast (SSE), south-southwest (SSW), west-southwest (WSW), west-northwest (WNW) and north-northwest (NNW). Notice that the name is constructed simply by combining the names of the principal winds to either side, with the cardinal wind coming first, the ordinal wind second. The eight principal winds and the eight half-winds together yield a 16-WIND COMPASS ROSE, with each compass point at a  22 1⁄2° angle from the next.

32-WIND COMPASS POINTS

A 32-wind compass card, with English names

All of the above named points plus the sixteen QUARTER WINDS listed in the next paragraph define the 32 points of the WIND COMPASS ROSE.

* The sixteen QUARTER WINDS are the direction points obtained by bisecting the angles between the points on a 16-wind compass rose. The sixteen quarter-winds are north by east (NbE), northeast by north (NEbN), northeast by east (NEbE), east by north (EbN) in the first quadrant, east by south (EbS), southeast by east (SEbE), southeast by south (SEbS), south by east (SbE) in the second quadrant, south by west (SbW), southwest by south (SWbS), southwest by west (SWbW), west by south (WbS) in the third quadrant, and finally west by north (WbN), northwest by west (NWbW), northwest by north (NWbN) and north by west (NbW) in the fourth quadrant.

The name of a quarter-wind is "X by Y", where X is a principal wind and Y is a cardinal wind. As a mnemonic device, it is useful to think of "X by Y" as a shortcut for the phrase "one quarter wind _from_ X _towards_ Y", where a "quarter" is  11 1⁄4°, X is the nearest principal wind, and Y the next (more distant) cardinal wind. So "northeast by east" means "one quarter from NE towards E", "southwest by south" means "one quarter from SW towards S". The eight principal winds, eight half-winds and sixteen quarter winds together yield a 32-WIND COMPASS ROSE, with each compass direction point at  11 1⁄4° angle from the next. In the mariner's exercise of BOXING THE COMPASS, all thirty-two points of the compass are named in clockwise order.

The title of the Alfred Hitchcock 1959 movie, _ North by Northwest ,_ is actually _not_ a direction point on the 32-wind compass, but the film contains a reference to Northwest Airlines . Similarly, the names of the two film festivals South by Southwest and North by Northeast are not 32-wind compass points; a quarter wind whose name contains both a cardinal and an ordinal direction is named with the ordinal direction first.

TRADITIONAL NAMES

The traditional compass rose of eight winds (and its 16-wind and 32-wind derivatives) was invented by seafarers in the Mediterranean Sea during the Middle Ages (the ancient Greco-Roman 12 classical compass winds have little to do with them). The traditional mariner's wind names were expressed in Italian – or, more precisely, the Italianate Mediterranean lingua franca common among sailors in the 13th and 14th centuries, that was principally composed of Genoese (Ligurian ), mixed with Venetian , Sicilian , Provençal , Catalan , Greek and Arabic terms from around the Mediterranean basin. 32-wind compass with traditional names (and traditional colour code).

This Italianate patois was used to designate the names of the principal winds on the compass rose found in mariner compasses and portolan charts of the 14th and 15th centuries. The "traditional" names of the eight principal winds are:

* (N) – _Tramontana_ * (NE) – _Greco_ (or _Bora _ in some Venetian sources) * (E) – _Levante_ (sometimes _Oriente_) * (SE) – _Scirocco_ (or _Exaloc_ in Catalan) * (S) – _Ostro_ (or _Mezzogiorno_ in Venetian) * (SW) – _Libeccio_ (or _Garbino_, _Eissalot_ in Provençal) * (W) – _Ponente_ (or _Zephyrus_ in Greek) * (NW) – _Maestro_ (or _Mistral_ in Provençal)

Local spelling variations are far more numerous than listed, e.g. Tramutana, Gregale, Grecho, Sirocco, Xaloc, Lebeg, Libezo, Leveche, Mezzodi, Migjorn, Magistro, Mestre, etc. Traditional compass roses will typically have the initials T, G, L, S, O, L, P, and M on the main points. Portolan charts also colour-coded the compass winds: black for the eight principal winds, green for the eight half-winds and red for the sixteen quarter-winds.

In the English compass, all wind names are constructed on the basis of the cardinal four names (N, E, S, W). In the traditional compass, one needs to memorize eight basic names – one for each of the eight principal winds (N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW.) While there are more names to memorize, the payoff is that the name construction rules for the 32-wind compass are more straightforward. The half-winds are just a combination of the two principal winds it bisects, with the shortest name usually coming first (e.g. NNE is "Greco-Tramontana", ENE is "Greco-Levante", SSE is "Ostro-Scirocco", etc.). The quarter winds are expressed with an Italian phrase, "_Quarto di_ X _verso_ Y" (one quarter from X towards Y, pronounced ) or "X _al_ Y" (X to Y) or "X _per_ Y" (X by Y). There are no irregularities to trip over: the nearest principal wind always comes first, the more distant one second, e.g. North-by-east is "_Quarto di Tramontana verso Greco_", northeast-by-north "_Quarto di Greco verso Tramontana_". The names are perfectly symmetric.

32 CARDINAL POINTS

A 32-point compass rose

# COMPASS POINT ABBREVIATION TRADITIONAL WIND POINT MINIMUM Middle azimuth MAXIMUM

1 North N _Tramontana _ 354.38° 0.00° 5.62°

2 North by east NbE _Quarto di Tramontana verso Greco_ 5.63° 11.25° 16.87°

3 North-northeast NNE _Greco-Tramontana_ 16.88° 22.50° 28.12°

4 Northeast by north NEbN _Quarto di Greco verso Tramontana_ 28.13° 33.75° 39.37°

5 Northeast NE _Greco _ 39.38° 45.00° 50.62°

6 Northeast by east NEbE _Quarto di Greco verso Levante_ 50.63° 56.25° 61.87°

7 East-northeast ENE _Greco-Levante_ 61.88° 67.50° 73.12°

8 East by north EbN _Quarto di Levante verso Greco_ 73.13° 78.75° 84.37°

9 East E _Levante _ 84.38° 90.00° 95.62°

10 East by south EbS _Quarto di Levante verso Scirocco_ 95.63° 101.25° 106.87°

11 East-southeast ESE _Levante-Scirocco_ 106.88° 112.50° 118.12°

12 Southeast by east SEbE _Quarto di Scirocco verso Levante_ 118.13° 123.75° 129.37°

13 Southeast SE _Scirocco _ 129.38° 135.00° 140.62°

14 Southeast by south SEbS _Quarto di Scirocco verso Ostro_ 140.63° 146.25° 151.87°

15 South-southeast SSE _Ostro-Scirocco_ 151.88° 157.50° 163.12°

16 South by east SbE _Quarto di Ostro verso Scirocco_ 163.13° 168.75° 174.37°

17 South S _ Ostro _ 174.38° 180.00° 185.62°

18 South by west SbW _Quarto di Ostro verso Libeccio_ 185.63° 191.25° 196.87°

19 South-southwest SSW _Ostro-Libeccio_ 196.88° 202.50° 208.12°

20 Southwest by south SWbS _Quarto di Libeccio verso Ostro_ 208.13° 213.75° 219.37°

21 Southwest SW _ Libeccio _ 219.38° 225.00° 230.62°

22 Southwest by west SWbW _Quarto di Libeccio verso Ponente_ 230.63° 236.25° 241.87°

23 West-southwest WSW _Ponente-Libeccio_ 241.88° 247.50° 253.12°

24 West by south WbS _Quarto di Ponente verso Libeccio_ 253.13° 258.75° 264.37°

25 West W _ Ponente _ 264.38° 270.00° 275.62°

26 West by north WbN _Quarto di Ponente verso Maestro_ 275.63° 281.25° 286.87°

27 West-northwest WNW _Maestro-Ponente_ 286.88° 292.50° 298.12°

28 Northwest by west NWbW _Quarto di Maestro verso Ponente_ 298.13° 303.75° 309.37°

29 Northwest NW _Maestro _ 309.38° 315.00° 320.62°

30 Northwest by north NWbN _Quarto di Maestro verso Tramontana_ 320.63° 326.25° 331.87°

31 North-northwest NNW _Maestro-Tramontana_ 331.88° 337.50° 343.12°

32 North by west NbW _Quarto di Tramontana verso Maestro_ 343.13° 348.75° 354.37°

HALF- AND QUARTER-POINTS

Compass Rose from "American Practical Navigator" 1916

By at least the middle of the eighteenth century the 32-point system had been further extended with the use of half- and quarter-points to give a total of 128 directions. These fractional points are named by appending, for example 1/4east, 1/2east, or 3/4east to the name of one of the 32 points. Each of the 96 fractional points can be named in two ways, depending of which of the two adjoining whole points is used, for example, N3/4E is equivalent to NbE1/4N. Either form is easily understood but differing conventions as to correct usage developed in different countries and organisations.

The table below shows how each of the 128 directions are named. The first two columns give the number of points and degrees clockwise from north. The third gives the equivalent bearing to the nearest degree from north or south towards east or west. The "CW" column gives the fractional-point bearings increasing in the clockwise direction and "CCW" counter clockwise. The final three columns show three common naming conventions: No "by" avoids the use of "by" with fractional points; "USN" the system used by US Navy; and "RN" the Royal Navy. The colour coding illustrates where each of the three naming systems matches the "CW" and "CCW" columns.

Compass roses very rarely named the fractional points and only showed small, unlabelled markers as a guide for helmsmen.

128 Quarter-Points POINTS DEGREES BEARING CW CCW NO "BY" USN RN

0 0° 0′ 0″ N N

1/4 2° 48′ 45″ N 3° E N1/4E NbE3/4N N1/4E N1/4E N1/4E

1/2 5° 37′ 30″ N 6° E N1/2E NbE1/2N N1/2E N1/2E N1/2E

3/4 8° 26′ 15″ N 8° E N3/4E NbE1/4N N3/4E N3/4E N3/4E

1 11° 15′ 0″ N 11° E NbE

11/4 14° 3′ 45″ N 14° E NbE1/4E NNE3/4N NNE3/4N NbE1/4E NbE1/4E

11/2 16° 52′ 30″ N 17° E NbE1/2E NNE1/2N NNE1/2N NbE1/2E NbE1/2E

13/4 19° 41′ 15″ N 20° E NbE3/4E NNE1/4N NNE1/4N NbE3/4E NbE3/4E

2 22° 30′ 0″ N 23° E NNE

21/4 25° 18′ 45″ N 25° E NNE1/4E NEbN3/4N NNE1/4E NNE1/4E NNE1/4E

21/2 28° 7′ 30″ N 28° E NNE1/2E NEbN1/2N NNE1/2E NNE1/2E NNE1/2E

23/4 30° 56′ 15″ N 31° E NNE3/4E NEbN1/4N NNE3/4E NNE3/4E NNE3/4E

3 33° 45′ 0″ N 34° E NEbN

31/4 36° 33′ 45″ N 37° E NEbN1/4E NE3/4N NE3/4N NE3/4N NE3/4N

31/2 39° 22′ 30″ N 39° E NEbN1/2E NE1/2N NE1/2N NE1/2N NE1/2N

33/4 42° 11′ 15″ N 42° E NEbN3/4E NE1/4N NE1/4N NE1/4N NE1/4N

4 45° 0′ 0″ N 45° E NE

41/4 47° 48′ 45″ N 48° E NE1/4E NEbE3/4N NE1/4E NE1/4E NE1/4E

41/2 50° 37′ 30″ N 51° E NE1/2E NEbE1/2N NE1/2E NE1/2E NE1/2E

43/4 53° 26′ 15″ N 53° E NE3/4E NEbE1/4N NE3/4E NE3/4E NE3/4E

5 56° 15′ 0″ N 56° E NEbE

51/4 59° 3′ 45″ N 59° E NEbE1/4E ENE3/4N ENE3/4N NEbE1/4E NEbE1/4E

51/2 61° 52′ 30″ N 62° E NEbE1/2E ENE1/2N ENE1/2N NEbE1/2E NEbE1/2E

53/4 64° 41′ 15″ N 65° E NEbE3/4E ENE1/4N ENE1/4N NEbE3/4E NEbE3/4E

6 67° 30′ 0″ N 68° E ENE

61/4 70° 18′ 45″ N 70° E ENE1/4E EbN3/4N ENE1/4E ENE1/4E EbN3/4N

61/2 73° 7′ 30″ N 73° E ENE1/2E EbN1/2N ENE1/2E ENE1/2E EbN1/2N

63/4 75° 56′ 15″ N 76° E ENE3/4E EbN1/4N ENE3/4E ENE3/4E EbN1/4N

7 78° 45′ 0″ N 79° E EbN

71/4 81° 33′ 45″ N 82° E EbN1/4E E3/4N E3/4N E3/4N E3/4N

71/2 84° 22′ 30″ N 84° E EbN1/2E E1/2N E1/2N E1/2N E1/2N

73/4 87° 11′ 15″ N 87° E EbN3/4E E1/4N E1/4N E1/4N E1/4N

8 90° 0′ 0″ E E

81/4 92° 48′ 45″ S 87° E E1/4S EbS3/4E E1/4S E1/4S E1/4S

81/2 95° 37′ 30″ S 84° E E1/2S EbS1/2E E1/2S E1/2S E1/2S

83/4 98° 26′ 15″ S 82° E E3/4S EbS1/4E E3/4S E3/4S E3/4S

9 101° 15′ 0″ S 79° E EbS

91/4 104° 3′ 45″ S 76° E EbS1/4S ESE3/4E ESE3/4E ESE3/4E EbS1/4S

91/2 106° 52′ 30″ S 73° E EbS1/2S ESE1/2E ESE1/2E ESE1/2E EbS1/2S

93/4 109° 41′ 15″ S 70° E EbS3/4S ESE1/4E ESE1/4E ESE1/4E EbS3/4S

10 112° 30′ 0″ S 68° E ESE

101/4 115° 18′ 45″ S 65° E ESE1/4S SEbE3/4E ESE1/4S SEbE3/4E SEbE3/4E

101/2 118° 7′ 30″ S 62° E ESE1/2S SEbE1/2E ESE1/2S SEbE1/2E SEbE1/2E

103/4 120° 56′ 15″ S 59° E ESE3/4S SEbE1/4E ESE3/4S SEbE1/4E SEbE1/4E

11 123° 45′ 0″ S 56° E SEbE

111/4 126° 33′ 45″ S 53° E SEbE1/4S SE3/4E SE3/4E SE3/4E SE3/4E

111/2 129° 22′ 30″ S 51° E SEbE1/2S SE1/2E SE1/2E SE1/2E SE1/2E

113/4 132° 11′ 15″ S 48° E SEbE3/4S SE1/4E SE1/4E SE1/4E SE1/4E

12 135° 0′ 0″ S 45° E SE

121/4 137° 48′ 45″ S 42° E SE1/4S SEbS3/4E SE1/4S SE1/4S SE1/4S

121/2 140° 37′ 30″ S 39° E SE1/2S SEbS1/2E SE1/2S SE1/2S SE1/2S

123/4 143° 26′ 15″ S 37° E SE3/4S SEbS1/4E SE3/4S SE3/4S SE3/4S

13 146° 15′ 0″ S 34° E SEbS

131/4 149° 3′ 45″ S 31° E SEbS1/4S SSE3/4E SSE3/4E SSE3/4E SSE3/4E

131/2 151° 52′ 30″ S 28° E SEbS1/2S SSE1/2E SSE1/2E SSE1/2E SSE1/2E

133/4 154° 41′ 15″ S 25° E SEbS3/4S SSE1/4E SSE1/4E SSE1/4E SSE1/4E

14 157° 30′ 0″ S 23° E SSE

141/4 160° 18′ 45″ S 20° E SSE1/4S SbE3/4E SSE1/4S SbE3/4E SbE3/4E

141/2 163° 7′ 30″ S 17° E SSE1/2S SbE1/2E SSE1/2S SbE1/2E SbE1/2E

143/4 165° 56′ 15″ S 14° E SSE3/4S SbE1/4E SSE3/4S SbE1/4E SbE1/4E

15 168° 45′ 0″ S 11° E SbE

151/4 171° 33′ 45″ S 8° E SbE1/4S S3/4E S3/4E S3/4E S3/4E

151/2 174° 22′ 30″ S 6° E SbE1/2S S1/2E S1/2E S1/2E S1/2E

153/4 177° 11′ 15″ S 3° E SbE3/4S S1/4E S1/4E S1/4E S1/4E

16 180° 0′ 0″ S S

161/4 182° 48′ 45″ S 3° W S1/4W SbW3/4S S1/4W S1/4W S1/4W

161/2 185° 37′ 30″ S 6° W S1/2W SbW1/2S S1/2W S1/2W S1/2W

163/4 188° 26′ 15″ S 8° W S3/4W SbW1/4S S3/4W S3/4W S3/4W

17 191° 15′ 0″ S 11° W SbW

171/4 194° 3′ 45″ S 14° W SbW1/4W SSW3/4S SSW3/4S SbW1/4W SbW1/4W

171/2 196° 52′ 30″ S 17° W SbW1/2W SSW1/2S SSW1/2S SbW1/2W SbW1/2W

173/4 199° 41′ 15″ S 20° W SbW3/4W SSW1/4S SSW1/4S SbW3/4W SbW3/4W

18 202° 30′ 0″ S 23° W SSW

181/4 205° 18′ 45″ S 25° W SSW1/4W SWbS3/4S SSW1/4W SSW1/4W SSW1/4W

181/2 208° 7′ 30″ S 28° W SSW1/2W SWbS1/2S SSW1/2W SSW1/2W SSW1/2W

183/4 210° 56′ 15″ S 31° W SSW3/4W SWbS1/4S SSW3/4W SSW3/4W SSW3/4W

19 213° 45′ 0″ S 34° W SWbS

191/4 216° 33′ 45″ S 37° W SWbS1/4W SW3/4S SW3/4S SW3/4S SW3/4S

191/2 219° 22′ 30″ S 39° W SWbS1/2W SW1/2S SW1/2S SW1/2S SW1/2S

193/4 222° 11′ 15″ S 42° W SWbS3/4W SW1/4S SW1/4S SW1/4S SW1/4S

20 225° 0′ 0″ S 45° W SW

201/4 227° 48′ 45″ S 48° W SW1/4W SWbW3/4S SW1/4W SW1/4W SW1/4W

201/2 230° 37′ 30″ S 51° W SW1/2W SWbW1/2S SW1/2W SW1/2W SW1/2W

203/4 233° 26′ 15″ S 53° W SW3/4W SWbW1/4S SW3/4W SW3/4W SW3/4W

21 236° 15′ 0″ S 56° W SWbW

211/4 239° 3′ 45″ S 59° W SWbW1/4W WSW3/4S WSW3/4S SWbW1/4W SWbW1/4W

211/2 241° 52′ 30″ S 62° W SWbW1/2W WSW1/2S WSW1/2S SWbW1/2W SWbW1/2W

213/4 244° 41′ 15″ S 65° W SWbW3/4W WSW1/4S WSW1/4S SWbW3/4W SWbW3/4W

22 247° 30′ 0″ S 68° W WSW

221/4 250° 18′ 45″ S 70° W WSW1/4W WbS3/4S WSW1/4W WSW1/4W WbS3/4S

221/2 253° 7′ 30″ S 73° W WSW1/2W WbS1/2S WSW1/2W WSW1/2W WbS1/2S

223/4 255° 56′ 15″ S 76° W WSW3/4W WbS1/4S WSW3/4W WSW3/4W WbS1/4S

23 258° 45′ 0″ S 79° W WbS

231/4 261° 33′ 45″ S 82° W WbS1/4W W3/4S W3/4S W3/4S W3/4S

231/2 264° 22′ 30″ S 84° W WbS1/2W W1/2S W1/2S W1/2S W1/2S

233/4 267° 11′ 15″ S 87° W WbS3/4W W1/4S W1/4S W1/4S W1/4S

24 270° 0′ 0″ W W

241/4 272° 48′ 45″ N 87° W W1/4N WbN3/4W W1/4N W1/4N W1/4N

241/2 275° 37′ 30″ N 84° W W1/2N WbN1/2W W1/2N W1/2N W1/2N

243/4 278° 26′ 15″ N 82° W W3/4N WbN1/4W W3/4N W3/4N W3/4N

25 281° 15′ 0″ N 79° W WbN

251/4 284° 3′ 45″ N 76° W WbN1/4N WNW3/4W WNW3/4W WNW3/4W WbN1/4N

251/2 286° 52′ 30″ N 73° W WbN1/2N WNW1/2W WNW1/2W WNW1/2W WbN1/2N

253/4 289° 41′ 15″ N 70° W WbN3/4N WNW1/4W WNW1/4W WNW1/4W WbN3/4N

26 292° 30′ 0″ N 68° W WNW

261/4 295° 18′ 45″ N 65° W WNW1/4N NWbW3/4W WNW1/4N NWbW3/4W NWbW3/4W

261/2 298° 7′ 30″ N 62° W WNW1/2N NWbW1/2W WNW1/2N NWbW1/2W NWbW1/2W

263/4 300° 56′ 15″ N 59° W WNW3/4N NWbW1/4W WNW3/4N NWbW1/4W NWbW1/4W

27 303° 45′ 0″ N 56° W NWbW

271/4 306° 33′ 45″ N 53° W NWbW1/4N NW3/4W NW3/4W NW3/4W NW3/4W

271/2 309° 22′ 30″ N 51° W NWbW1/2N NW1/2W NW1/2W NW1/2W NW1/2W

273/4 312° 11′ 15″ N 48° W NWbW3/4N NW1/4W NW1/4W NW1/4W NW1/4W

28 315° 0′ 0″ N 45° W NW

281/4 317° 48′ 45″ N 42° W NW1/4N NWbN3/4W NW1/4N NW1/4N NW1/4N

281/2 320° 37′ 30″ N 39° W NW1/2N NWbN1/2W NW1/2N NW1/2N NW1/2N

283/4 323° 26′ 15″ N 37° W NW3/4N NWbN1/4W NW3/4N NW3/4N NW3/4N

29 326° 15′ 0″ N 34° W NWbN

291/4 329° 3′ 45″ N 31° W NWbN1/4N NNW3/4W NNW3/4W NNW3/4W NNW3/4W

291/2 331° 52′ 30″ N 28° W NWbN1/2N NNW1/2W NNW1/2W NNW1/2W NNW1/2W

293/4 334° 41′ 15″ N 25° W NWbN3/4N NNW1/4W NNW1/4W NNW1/4W NNW1/4W

30 337° 30′ 0″ N 23° W NNW

301/4 340° 18′ 45″ N 20° W NNW1/4N NbW3/4W NNW1/4N NbW3/4W NbW3/4W

301/2 343° 7′ 30″ N 17° W NNW1/2N NbW1/2W NNW1/2N NbW1/2W NbW1/2W

303/4 345° 56′ 15″ N 14° W NNW3/4N NbW1/4W NNW3/4N NbW1/4W NbW1/4W

31 348° 45′ 0″ N 11° W NbW

311/4 351° 33′ 45″ N 8° W NbW1/4N N3/4W N3/4W N3/4W N3/4W

311/2 354° 22′ 30″ N 6° W NbW1/2N N1/2W N1/2W N1/2W N1/2W

313/4 357° 11′ 15″ N 3° W NbW3/4N N1/4W N1/4W N1/4W N1/4W

32 360° 0′ 0″ N N

SEE ALSO

* Bearing (navigation) * Cardinal direction * Classical compass winds * Compass rose * Course (navigation) * Navigation * Ordinal direction * TVMDC * Wind rose

REFERENCES

* ^ David Boardman. _ Graphicacy and Geography Teaching_, 1983. Page 41 "In particular they should learn that wind direction is always stated as the direction from which, and not to which, the wind is blowing. Once children have grasped these eight points they can learn the full sixteen points of the compass." * ^ Evans, Frederick John (1859). "Notes on the Magnetism of Ships". _Pamphlets on British shipping. 1785–1861_. By unknown editor. p. 8 (p. 433 of PDF). ISBN 0-217-85167-3 . A deviation table having been formed by any of the processes now.so generally understood, either on the thirty-two points of the compass, the sixteen intermediate, or the eight principal points CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ _A_ _B_ E. Chambers _Cyclopaedia: or, an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Science_, 5th Ed, 1743, pp. 206–7, "Points _of the Compass_, or _Horizon_, hence 5°37 1/2′ is the distance of the half points and 2°48 3/4′ is the distance of the quarter points. * ^ Compass rose at geography.about.com * ^ Washington Education * ^ George Payn Quackenbos A Natural Philosophy: Embracing the Most Recent Discoveries 1860 "Mentioning the mariner's compass: the points of the compass in their order is called boxing the compass. — The compass box is suspended within a larger box by means of two brass hoops, or gimbals as they are called, supported at opposite ..." * ^ "Wordreference.com\'s entry for \'quarto\'". * ^ "Wordreference.com\'s entry for \'di\'". * ^ "Wordreference.com\'s entry for \'verso\'". * ^ Nathaniel Bowditch, _American Practical Navigator: An Epitome of Navigation and Nautical Astronomy_, 1916, p. 16, "It is the custom in the United States Navy to box _from_ north and south _toward_ east and west, excepting that divisions adjacent to a cardinal or inter-cardinal point are always referred to that point;" * ^ Henry Raper, _The Practice of Navigation and Nautical Astronomy_, 10th Ed., 1870, p. 65, "A _half-point_, which is the middle division between two points, is called after that one of its adjacent points which is either a cardinal point, or is nearest to a cardinal point In naming the half and quarter points it is advisable in some cases to sacrific system to simplicity. Thus, for example, seamen commonly say NNE1/2E instead of NE by N1/2N; "

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Wind Rose (archived) – discusses the origins of the names for compass directions.

* v * t * e

Compass direction

CARDINAL AND ORDINAL DIRECTIONS

* North * Northeast * East * Southeast * South * Southwest * West * Northwest

THE EIGHT PRINCIPAL WINDS

* Tramontane * Gregale * Levant * Sirocco * Ostro * Libeccio * Ponente * Mistral

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