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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1793 15,964 —    

1800 16,330 +2.3%

1806 17,552 +7.5%

1821 18,910 +7.7%

1831 19,730 +4.3%

1836 25,324 +28.4%

1841 22,826 −9.9%

1846 24,799 +8.6%

1851 25,037 +1.0%

1856 26,799 +7.0%

1861 28,064 +4.7%

1866 30,119 +7.3%

1872 31,312 +4.0%

1876 35,785 +14.3%

1881 40,217 +12.4%

1886 42,829 +6.5%

1891 45,342 +5.9%

1896 43,587 −3.9%

1901 46,551 +6.8%

1906 44,133 −5.2%

1911 45,735 +3.6%

1921 45,942 +0.5%

1926 44,245 −3.7%

1931 45,067 +1.9%

1936 49,263 +9.3%

1946 51,040 +3.6%

1954 53,879 +5.6%

1962 60,632 +12.5%

1968 70,814 +16.8%

1975 77,300 +9.2%

1982 76,432 −1.1%

1990 75,609 −1.1%

1999 72,434 −4.2%

2008 68,980 −4.8%

Bourges
Bourges
(French pronunciation: ​[buʁʒ]) is a city in central France
France
on the Yèvre
Yèvre
river. It is the capital of the department of Cher, and also was the capital of the former province of Berry.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Sights 4 Transport 5 Sport and recreation 6 Colleges and universities 7 Twin towns 8 Events 9 Personalities 10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Bourges The name of the city derives either from the Bituriges, the name of the original inhabitants, or from the Germanic Burg (French: bourg. Spanish: burgo. English, others: burgh, berg, or borough), for "hill/village". The Celts called it Avaricon; Latin-speakers: Avaricum. In the Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
of 58-50 BC, the Gauls practised a scorched earth policy, but the inhabitants of Avaricum
Avaricum
begged not to have their city burned, and it was spared due to its good defences provided by the surrounding marshes and a strong southern wall. Following the siege of Avaricum
Avaricum
in the winter of 52 BC, Julius Caesar's forces destroyed the city and killed all but 800 of its inhabitants. Rome reconstructed Avaricum
Avaricum
as a Roman city, with a monumental gate, aqueducts, thermae and an amphitheatre, reaching a greater size than it would attain during the Middle Ages. The massive walls surrounding the late Roman city, enclosing 40 hectares, were built in part with stone re-used from earlier public buildings. The third-century AD Saint Ursinus, also known as Saint Ursin, is considered[by whom?] the first bishop of the city. Bourges
Bourges
is the seat of an archbishopric. During the 8th century Bourges
Bourges
lay on the northern fringes of the Duchy of Aquitaine and was therefore the first town to come under Frankish attacks when the Franks crossed the Loire. The Frankish Charles Martel
Charles Martel
captured the town in 731, but Duke Odo the Great of Aquitaine immediately re-took it. It remained under the rule of counts who pledged allegiance to the Aquitanian dukes up to the destructive assault by Pepin the Short on independent Aquitaine starting in 760, when Basque troops are found defending the town along with its count. The Gothic Cathedral of Saint Etienne, begun at the end of the twelfth century, ranks as a World Heritage Site. It is considered as one of the earliest examples of the High Gothic
High Gothic
style of the thirteenth century.[1] During the Middle Ages, Bourges
Bourges
served as the capital of the Viscounty of Bourges
Bourges
until 1101. In the fourteenth century it became the capital of the Duchy of Berry. The future king of France, Charles VII (reigned 1422-1461), sought refuge there in the 1420s during the Hundred Years' War. His son, Louis XI, was born there in 1423. In 1438, Charles VII decreed the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. During this period, Bourges was also a major capital of alchemy.[citation needed] The city has a long tradition of art and history. Apart from the cathedral, other sites of importance include the 15th-century Palace of Jacques Cœur
Jacques Cœur
and a sixty-five-hectare district of half-timbered houses and fine town-houses. Geography[edit] Bourges
Bourges
sits at the river junction where the Auron flows into the Yèvre. The disused Canal de Berry
Canal de Berry
follows alongside the course of the Auron through Bourges. Climate[edit]

Climate data for Bourges
Bourges
(1981–2010 averages)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 17.6 (63.7) 22.6 (72.7) 29.4 (84.9) 29.4 (84.9) 32.0 (89.6) 38.0 (100.4) 39.6 (103.3) 39.9 (103.8) 35.1 (95.2) 31.7 (89.1) 23.4 (74.1) 20.0 (68) 39.9 (103.8)

Average high °C (°F) 6.9 (44.4) 8.5 (47.3) 12.5 (54.5) 15.5 (59.9) 19.6 (67.3) 23.1 (73.6) 26.0 (78.8) 25.6 (78.1) 21.8 (71.2) 17.0 (62.6) 10.7 (51.3) 7.4 (45.3) 16.3 (61.3)

Average low °C (°F) 1.1 (34) 1.1 (34) 3.4 (38.1) 5.3 (41.5) 9.2 (48.6) 12.4 (54.3) 14.4 (57.9) 14.1 (57.4) 11.1 (52) 8.3 (46.9) 4.0 (39.2) 1.8 (35.2) 7.2 (45)

Record low °C (°F) −20.4 (−4.7) −16.4 (2.5) −11.3 (11.7) −3.7 (25.3) −2.6 (27.3) 3.4 (38.1) 4.6 (40.3) 4.6 (40.3) 1.8 (35.2) −5.0 (23) −9.1 (15.6) −14.0 (6.8) −20.4 (−4.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 55.2 (2.173) 52.0 (2.047) 53.2 (2.094) 62.4 (2.457) 78.6 (3.094) 60.5 (2.382) 66.1 (2.602) 55.0 (2.165) 59.7 (2.35) 71.7 (2.823) 65.7 (2.587) 67.8 (2.669) 747.9 (29.445)

Average precipitation days 11.6 9.3 10.2 10.6 11.6 8.6 7.9 7.7 8.2 10.4 10.9 11.3 118.2

Average relative humidity (%) 87 82 76 73 76 74 69 71 75 84 87 88 78.5

Mean monthly sunshine hours 67.9 88.6 151.0 175.7 210.0 224.9 239.0 232.7 185.8 124.5 72.2 55.3 1,827.5

Source #1: Météo France[2][3]

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, 1961–1990)[4]

Sights[edit]

Half-timbered houses in Place Gordaine

Its Gothic cathedral (built 1195–1255) was added to the list of the World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1992

Jacques Cœur's palace

Jacques Cœur's palace[5] Lallemant's hotel, from the early French Renaissance[6] The Berry museum, located in the Cujas' hotel[7] The Estève museum, located in the so-called aldermen's hotel[8] The marshes of the Yèvre
Yèvre
and Voiselle rivers were listed in 2003 as a French Natural Monument or Site[9] The ruins of the Gallo-Roman walls The Conservatoire national du Pélargonium

Transport[edit] The railway station Gare de Bourges
Gare de Bourges
offers direct connections to Paris (2 hours), Orléans, Tours, Lyon
Lyon
and several regional destinations. The A71 motorway connects Bourges
Bourges
with Orléans
Orléans
and Clermont-Ferrand. Bourges Airport
Bourges Airport
is a small regional airport. Sport and recreation[edit] Bourges' principal football team are Bourges Football
Bourges Football
18. It is also home to the women's basketball club CJM Bourges
Bourges
Basket, which has won multiple titles in domestic and European basketball. Bourges
Bourges
XV is the premier rugby team in the region, currently playing in French National Division, Federal 3. Colleges and universities[edit]

University of Bourges École des Beaux Arts ([2]) Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Ingénieurs ENSI ([3])

Twin towns[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Bourges
Bourges
is twinned with:

Augsburg, Germany Aveiro, Portugal Forlì, Italy Koszalin, Poland Palencia, Spain Peterborough, United Kingdom[10][11] Yoshkar-Ola, Russia

Events[edit] The Printemps de Bourges
Printemps de Bourges
music festival takes place in Bourges
Bourges
every year. Every summer, and since 2002, « les milles univers » hosts a writing workshop in collaboration with Oulipo.[12] Personalities[edit]

17th-century composer and singer François Bourgoing was born in Bourges. The merchant Jacques Cœur
Jacques Cœur
was born in Bourges. The manuscript illuminator Jean Colombe
Jean Colombe
maintained a workshop in Bourges. John Calvin
John Calvin
was a student in the University of Bourges. The legal expert Jacques Cujas
Jacques Cujas
lived in Bourges
Bourges
during 1555-1557 and 1575-1590. The Impressionist
Impressionist
painter Berthe Morisot
Berthe Morisot
was born in Bourges
Bourges
on 14 January 1841. The Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
sculptor Julien Caussé was born in Bourges
Bourges
in 1869. The philosopher Vladimir Jankélévitch was born on 31 August 1903, in Bourges. The writer and historian Jules Bertaut (1877–1959) was born in Bourges. Béatrice Vialle, aviator. Emmanuel Imorou, footballer. Émilienne Demougeot (1910–1994), historian, was born in Bourges François Jacques (1946–1992), historian, was born in Bourges

See also[edit]

Saint-Benoît-du-Sault Communes of the Cher department

References[edit]

INSEE

^ [1] Destination 360 (Accessed 7 October 2016) Cathedral one of the earliest examples of High Gothic. ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Bourges" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 30, 2015.  ^ "Climat Centre-Val de Loire" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 30, 2015.  ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Bourges
Bourges
(18) - altitude 161m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved December 30, 2015.  ^ Jacques Cœur's palace, visitor centre ^ Lallemant's hotel, visitor centre Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Berry museum, visitor center ^ Estève museum, visitor centre ^ Bourges' marshes, visitor centre ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-11.  ^ Town Twinning –International Links Peterborough
Peterborough
City Council (Retrieved 24 April 2007). ^ Les récréations à Bourges.

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Bourges External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bourges.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bourges.

Official website Bourges, the departement of Cher (French and English) [4] (French and English)

v t e

Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

v t e

Communes of the Cher department

Achères Ainay-le-Vieil Les Aix-d'Angillon Allogny Allouis Annoix Apremont-sur-Allier Arçay Arcomps Ardenais Argent-sur-Sauldre Argenvières Arpheuilles Assigny Aubigny-sur-Nère Aubinges Augy-sur-Aubois Avord Azy Bannay Bannegon Barlieu Baugy Beddes Beffes Belleville-sur-Loire Bengy-sur-Craon Berry-Bouy Bessais-le-Fromental Blancafort Blet Boulleret Bourges Bouzais Brécy Brinay Brinon-sur-Sauldre Bruère-Allichamps Bué Bussy La Celette La Celle La Celle-Condé Cerbois Chalivoy-Milon Chambon La Chapelle-d'Angillon La Chapelle-Hugon La Chapelle-Montlinard La Chapelle-Saint-Ursin La Chapelotte Charenton-du-Cher Charentonnay Charly Chârost Chassy Châteaumeillant Châteauneuf-sur-Cher Le Châtelet Chaumont Chaumoux-Marcilly Le Chautay Chavannes Chéry Chezal-Benoît Civray Clémont Cogny Colombiers Concressault Contres Cornusse Corquoy Couargues Cours-les-Barres Coust Couy Crézançay-sur-Cher Crézancy-en-Sancerre Croisy Crosses Cuffy Culan Dampierre-en-Crot Dampierre-en-Graçay Drevant Dun-sur-Auron Ennordres Épineuil-le-Fleuriel Étréchy Farges-Allichamps Farges-en-Septaine Faverdines Feux Flavigny Foëcy Fussy Gardefort Garigny Genouilly Germigny-l'Exempt Givardon Graçay Groises Gron Grossouvre La Groutte La Guerche-sur-l'Aubois Henrichemont Herry Humbligny Ids-Saint-Roch Ignol Ineuil Ivoy-le-Pré Jalognes Jars Jouet-sur-l'Aubois Jussy-Champagne Jussy-le-Chaudrier Lantan Lapan Laverdines Lazenay Léré Levet Lignières Limeux Lissay-Lochy Loye-sur-Arnon Lugny-Bourbonnais Lugny-Champagne Lunery Lury-sur-Arnon Maisonnais Marçais Mareuil-sur-Arnon Marmagne Marseilles-lès-Aubigny Massay Mehun-sur-Yèvre Meillant Menetou-Couture Menetou-Râtel Menetou-Salon Ménétréol-sous-Sancerre Ménétréol-sur-Sauldre Méreau Méry-ès-Bois Méry-sur-Cher Montigny Montlouis Morlac Mornay-Berry Mornay-sur-Allier Morogues Morthomiers Moulins-sur-Yèvre Nançay Nérondes Neuilly-en-Dun Neuilly-en-Sancerre Neuvy-Deux-Clochers Neuvy-le-Barrois Neuvy-sur-Barangeon Nohant-en-Goût Nohant-en-Graçay Le Noyer Nozières Oizon Orcenais Orval Osmery Osmoy Ourouer-les-Bourdelins Parassy Parnay La Perche Pigny Plaimpied-Givaudins Plou Poisieux Le Pondy Précy Presly Preuilly Préveranges Primelles Quantilly Quincy Raymond Reigny Rezay Rians Sagonne Saint-Aignan-des-Noyers Saint-Amand-Montrond Saint-Ambroix Saint-Baudel Saint-Bouize Saint-Caprais Saint-Céols Saint-Christophe-le-Chaudry Saint-Denis-de-Palin Saint-Doulchard Sainte-Gemme-en-Sancerrois Saint-Éloy-de-Gy Sainte-Lunaise Sainte-Montaine Sainte-Solange Sainte-Thorette Saint-Florent-sur-Cher Saint-Georges-de-Poisieux Saint-Georges-sur-la-Prée Saint-Georges-sur-Moulon Saint-Germain-des-Bois Saint-Germain-du-Puy Saint-Hilaire-de-Court Saint-Hilaire-de-Gondilly Saint-Hilaire-en-Lignières Saint-Jeanvrin Saint-Just Saint-Laurent Saint-Léger-le-Petit Saint-Loup-des-Chaumes Saint-Martin-d'Auxigny Saint-Martin-des-Champs Saint-Maur Saint-Michel-de-Volangis Saint-Outrille Saint-Palais Saint-Pierre-les-Bois Saint-Pierre-les-Étieux Saint-Priest-la-Marche Saint-Satur Saint-Saturnin Saint-Symphorien Saint-Vitte Saligny-le-Vif Sancergues Sancerre Sancoins Santranges Saugy Saulzais-le-Potier Savigny-en-Sancerre Savigny-en-Septaine Senneçay Sens-Beaujeu Serruelles Sévry Sidiailles Soulangis Soye-en-Septaine Le Subdray Subligny Sury-en-Vaux Sury-ès-Bois Sury-près-Léré Tendron Thaumiers Thauvenay Thénioux Thou Torteron Touchay Trouy Uzay-le-Venon Vailly-sur-Sauldre Vallenay Vasselay Veaugues Venesmes Verdigny Vereaux Vernais Verneuil Vesdun Vierzon Vignoux-sous-les-Aix Vignoux-sur-Barangeon Villabon Villecelin Villegenon Villeneuve-sur-Cher Villequiers Vinon Vorly Vornay Vouzeron

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 135399156 LCCN: n50052205 GND: 4088156-8 SUDOC: 026586541 BNF:

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