BOULDER (/ˈboʊldər/ ) is the home rule municipality that is the
county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County , and
the 11th most populous municipality in the
U.S. state of
Boulder is famous for its colorful Western history , being a choice
destination for hippies in the late 1960s, and as home of the main
campus of the University of
* 1 History * 2 Demographics
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Climate
* 4 Politics and government
* 5 Culture
* 5.1 Outdoor sports
* 5.3 Music
Conference on World Affairs
* 6 Top rankings
* 7 Education
* 7.1 Public schools * 7.2 Charter schools * 7.3 Private schools * 7.4 Colleges and universities * 7.5 Science institutes
* 8 Economy and industry
* 9 Transportation
* 9.1 Mass transit
* 9.1.1 Future transit plans
* 9.2 Cycling * 9.3 Airport
* 10 Growth management
* 10.1 Wildlife protection
* 11 Media
* 12 Notable people
* 13 Shopping
See also: Timeline of Boulder,
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (August 2016)
Panorama print of Boulder, 1900
On November 7, 1861, legislation was passed making way for the state university to be located in Boulder, and on September 20, 1875, the first cornerstone was laid for the first building (Old Main Building) on the CU campus. The university officially opened on September 5, 1877.
Boulder adopted an anti-saloon ordinance in 1907. Statewide
prohibition started in
EST. 2016 108,090
U.S. Decennial Census
As of the census of 2010, there were 97,385 people, 41,302 households, and 16,694 families residing in the city. The population density is 3,942.7 inhabitants per square mile (1,524.0/km²). There were 43,479 housing units at an average density of 1,760.3 per square mile (680.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 88.0% White, 0.9% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 4.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.2% some other race, and 2.6% from two or more races. 8.7% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 41,302 households, out of which 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% were headed by married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.6% were non-families. 35.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.1% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16, and the average family size was 2.84.
Boulder's population is younger than the national average, largely due to the presence of university students. The median age at the 2010 census was 28.7 years compared to the U.S. median of 37.2 years. In Boulder, 13.9% of the residents were younger than the age of 18, 29.1% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 8.9% were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females there were 105.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and older, there were 106.2 males.
In 2011 the estimated median household income in Boulder was $57,112, and the median family income was $113,681. Male full-time workers had a median income of $71,993 versus $47,574 for females. The per capita income for the city was $37,600. 24.8% of the population and 7.6% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 17.4% of those under the age of 18 and 6.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
Boulder housing tends to be priced higher than surrounding areas. For the 2nd quarter of 2006, the median single-family home in Boulder sold for $548,000 and the median attached dwelling (condo or town home) sold for $262,000. According to the National Association of Realtors, during the same period the median value of one-family homes nationwide was $227,500. The median price of a home exceeded $1,000,000 dollars in July 2016.
Boulder's iconic rock formations, the Flatirons
The city of Boulder is in Boulder Valley where the Rocky Mountains meet the Great Plains . West of the city are slabs of sedimentary stone tilted up on the foothills, known as the Flatirons . The Flatirons are a widely recognized symbol of Boulder.
The primary water flow through the city is Boulder Creek . The creek was named well ahead of the city's founding, for all of the large granite boulders that have cascaded into the creek over the eons. It is from Boulder Creek that Boulder city is believed to have taken its name. Boulder Creek has significant water flow, derived primarily from snow melt and minor springs west of the city. The creek is a tributary of the South Platte River .
According to the
The 40th parallel (40 degrees north latitude) runs through Boulder and can be easily recognized as Baseline Road today.
Boulder lies in a wide basin beneath Flagstaff Mountain just a few miles east of the continental divide and about 25 miles (40 km) northwest of Denver. Arapahoe Glacier provides water for the city, along with Boulder Creek, which flows through the center of the city.
CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )
J F M A M J J A S O N D
0.7 47 22 0.8 48 23 2.1 56 29 2.7 63 36 2.8 72 44 2.2 82 51 1.8 88 57 1.9 85 56 1.6 78 48 1.6 66 38 1.3 54 29 0.9 45 21
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
J F M A M J J A S O N D
18 8 −5 21 9 −5 54 13 −2 69 17 2 71 22 6 56 28 11 45 31 14 49 30 13 41 25 9 40 19 3 34 12 −2 23 7 −6
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Autumn in Boulder brings many sunny days Snowfall is common in Boulder throughout the winter
Boulder has a temperate climate typical for much of the state and receives many sunny or mostly sunny days each year. The city is commonly claimed to be semi-arid, but under the Köppen climate classification , the city has a hot-summer humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa). Winter conditions range from generally mild to the occasional bitterly cold, with highs averaging in the mid to upper 40s °F (7–9 °C). There are 4.6 nights annually when the temperature reaches 0 °F (−18 °C). Because of orographic lift , the mountains to the west often dry out the air passing over the Front Range , often shielding the city from precipitation in winter, though heavy falls may occur. Snowfall averages 88 inches (220 cm) per season, but snow depth is usually shallow; a strong warming sun due to the high elevation can quickly melt snow cover during the day, and Chinook winds bring rapid warm-ups throughout the winter months. Summers are very warm and dry, with 30 days reaching 90 °F (32 °C) or above. Diurnal temperature variation is typically large year-round due to the high-elevation dry climate. Daytime highs are generally cooler than most other Front Range cities with similar elevations. However, Boulder's nighttime lows, particularly during winter, are some of the mildest in the state. Daily average temperatures remain above 32 °F (0 °C) year-round.
The highest recorded temperature of 104 °F (40 °C) occurred most recently within the city on June 25, 2012. The lowest temperature recorded in Boulder was −33 °F (−36 °C) on January 17, 1930. The lowest maximum temperature in Boulder, −12 °F (−24 °C), was on February 4, 1989. In contrast, on June 24, 1954, Boulder's overnight low temperature did not drop below 80 °F (27 °C).
CLIMATE DATA FOR BOULDER, COLORADO (1981–2010 NORMALS)
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 74 (23) 79 (26) 90 (32) 88 (31) 95 (35) 104 (40) 104 (40) 102 (39) 100 (38) 92 (33) 79 (26) 76 (24) 104 (40)
AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 46.9 (8.3) 48.3 (9.1) 56.0 (13.3) 63.3 (17.4) 72.2 (22.3) 81.6 (27.6) 87.7 (30.9) 85.3 (29.6) 77.7 (25.4) 65.8 (18.8) 53.7 (12.1) 45.3 (7.4) 65.3 (18.5)
AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 22.2 (−5.4) 23.1 (−4.9) 29.2 (−1.6) 35.6 (2) 43.5 (6.4) 51.3 (10.7) 57.3 (14.1) 56.1 (13.4) 48.0 (8.9) 37.8 (3.2) 28.5 (−1.9) 21.3 (−5.9) 37.8 (3.2)
RECORD LOW °F (°C) −33 (−36) −28 (−33) −13 (−25) −3 (−19) 17 (−8) 20 (−7) 40 (4) 40 (4) 15 (−9) −2 (−19) −12 (−24) −24 (−31) −33 (−36)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 0.71 (18) 0.84 (21.3) 2.12 (53.8) 2.70 (68.6) 2.81 (71.4) 2.20 (55.9) 1.79 (45.5) 1.91 (48.5) 1.63 (41.4) 1.56 (39.6) 1.34 (34) .90 (22.9) 20.51 (521)
AVERAGE SNOWFALL INCHES (CM) 11.6 (29.5) 11.6 (29.5) 17.2 (43.7) 11.4 (29) 0.7 (1.8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.4 (3.6) 5.6 (14.2) 14.2 (36.1) 13.9 (35.3) 87.6 (222.5)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 5.3 6.4 8.4 10.0 12.1 10.4 10.4 10.8 8.3 7.2 5.9 5.7 101.0
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 0.1 IN) 5.2 6.3 6.4 4.2 0.6 0 0 0 0.5 1.8 4.8 5.4 35.2
Source: NOAA (extremes 1893–present)
POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT
Boulder is a home rule municipality , being self-governing under
Article XX of the Constitution of the State of
Politically, Boulder is one of the most liberal and Democratic cities in Colorado. As of April 2012 , registered voters in Boulder County , which includes Boulder's more conservative suburbs, were 41% Democratic, 20% Republican, 1% in other parties, and 38% unaffiliated. To residents and detractors alike, the city of Boulder is often referred to as the "People's Republic of Boulder."
In 1974, the Boulder
Trailheads for many popular hikes are located at Chautauqua park.
Boulder is surrounded by thousands of acres of recreational open space, conservation easements, and nature preserves. Almost 60 percent, 35,584 acres (144.00 km2), of open space totaling 61,529 acres (249.00 km2) is open to the public.
Rock climbing is found near the small unincorporated community of Eldorado Springs , south of Boulder. There are also climbing routes available in the city open space, including climbing routes of varying difficulty on the Flatirons themselves (traditional protection). Boulder Canyon (sport), directly west of downtown Boulder, also has many routes. All three of these areas are affected by seasonal closures for wildlife.
USA Rugby , the national governing body for rugby in the United States , is headquartered in Boulder.
Boulder has hosted a 10 km road run, the Bolder Boulder , on Memorial Day , every year since 1979. The race involves over 50,000 runners, joggers, walkers, and wheelchair racers, making it one of the largest road races in the world. It has the largest non-marathon prize purse in road racing. The race culminates at Folsom Field with a Memorial Day Tribute. The 2007 race featured over 54,000 runners, walkers, and wheelchair racers, making it the largest race in the US in which all participants are timed and the fifth largest road race in the world.
Founded in 1958, the
Boulder Philharmonic Orchestra
CONFERENCE ON WORLD AFFAIRS
Conference on World Affairs
The internationally syndicated radio program e
POLAR BEAR PLUNGE
Beginning in 1983, hundreds of people head to the Boulder Reservoir on New Year's Day to take part in the annual polar bear plunge . With rescue teams standing by, participants use a variety of techniques to plunge themselves into the freezing reservoir. Once the plunge is complete, swimmers retreat to hot tubs on the reservoir beach to revive themselves from the cold.
NAKED PUMPKIN RUN
Starting in 1998, dozens of people have taken part in a
For several years on April 20, thousands of people gathered on the CU Boulder campus to celebrate 420 and smoke marijuana at and before 4:20 pm. The 2010 head count was officially between 8,000 and 15,000 with some discrepancy between the local papers and the University administrators (who have been thought to have been attempting to downplay the event). Eleven citations were given out whereas the year before there were only two. 2011 was the last year of mass 420 partying at CU as the university, in 2012, took a hard stance against 420 activities, closing the campus to visitors for the day, using smelly fish fertilizer to discourage gathering at the Norlin Quad, and having out-of-town law enforcement agencies help secure the campus. In 2013, April 20 fell on a Saturday; the university continued the 420 party ban and, again, closed the campus to visitors. In 2015 the government conceded and once again opened the park to visitors on April 20.
BOULDER CRUISER RIDE
The Boulder Cruiser Ride is a weekly bicycle ride in Boulder Colorado. The Boulder Cruiser Ride grew from a group of friends and friends of friends riding bicycles around Boulder into "an all out public mob". Some enthusiasts gather wearing costumes and decorating their bikes; themes are an integral part of the cruiser tradition. Boulder Police began following the cruiser ride as it gained in popularity. Issues with underage drinking, reckless bicycle riding, and other nuisance complaints led organizers to drop the cruiser ride as a public event. Returning to an underground format, where enthusiasts must become part of the social network before gaining access to event sites, the Boulder Cruiser Ride has continued as a local tradition. On May 30, 2013 over 400 riders attended the Thursday night Cruiser Ride in honor of "Big Boy", an elk that was shot and killed on New Year's Day by an on duty Boulder Police officer.
Boulder has gathered many top rankings in recent years for health, well-being, quality of life, education and art. The partial list below shows some of the nominations.
* The 10 Happiest Cities – No. 1 – Moneywatch.bnet.com
* Top Brainiest Cities – No. 1 – Portfolio.com
* Ten Best Cities for the Next Decade – No. 4 – Kiplinger's
Personal Finance magazine
* Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index – No. 1 – USA Today
* Best Cities to Raise an Outdoor Kid – No. 1 – Backpacker
* America's Top 25 Towns to Live Well – No. 1 – Forbes.com
* Top 10 Healthiest Cities to Live and Retire – No. 6 – AARP
* Top 10 Cities for Artists – No. 8 – Business Week
* Lesser-Known LGBT Family-Friendly Cities – No. 1 –
* America's Foodiest
Boulder Valley School District
Charter schools (receiving public funding but under private management) within the city of Boulder include Preparatory High School (9–12), Summit Middle School (6–8), and Horizons Alternative School (K–8).
A variety of private high schools, middle schools and elementary schools operate in Boulder.
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
Part of the campus at Naropa University
* University of
* Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences
Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA)
* Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy (CASA)
ECONOMY AND INDUSTRY
'The Hill' is one of the centers of off-campus life for students
at the University of
The Boulder MSA had a gross metropolitan product of $18.3 billion in 2010, the 110th largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
In 2007, Boulder became the first city in the USA to levy a carbon tax .
In 2013, Boulder appeared on
Since Boulder has operated under residential growth control
ordinances since 1976, the growth of employment in the city has far
outstripped population growth. Considerable road traffic enters the
city each morning and leaves each afternoon, since many employees live
Longmont , Lafayette , Louisville , Broomfield , Westminster , and
Boulder, Colorado, a city of just over 100,000 people, is located
approximately 30 miles northwest of
Boulder has an extensive bus system operated by the Regional
Transportation District (RTD). The HOP, SKIP, JUMP, Bound, DASH and
Stampede routes run throughout the city and connect to nearby
communities with departures every ten minutes during peak hours,
Monday-Friday. Other routes, such as the 204, 205, 206, 208 and 209
depart every 15 to 30 minutes. Regional routes, traveling between
nearby cities such as
Longmont (BOLT, J), Golden (GS), and Denver
(Flatiron Flyer, a
Bus Rapid Transit
Future Transit Plans
A 41-mile RTD commuter rail route called the Northwest Rail Line is
proposed to run from
These future transit plans, as well as the current Flatiron Flyer Bus
Rapid Transit route, are part of
FasTracks , an RTD transit
improvement plan funded by a 0.4% increase in the sales tax throughout
Boulder, well known for its bicycle culture , boasts hundreds of miles of bicycle-pedestrian paths, lanes, and routes that interconnect to create a renowned network of bikeways usable year-round. Boulder has 74 bike and pedestrian underpasses that facilitate safer and uninterrupted travel throughout much of the city. The city offers a route-finding website that allows users to map personalized bike routes around the city.
In May 2011,
Boulder Municipal Airport is located 3 miles (4.8 km) from central
Boulder, is owned by the
Government preservation of open space around Boulder began with the
Congress of the
Since then, Boulder has adopted a policy of controlled urban expansion. In 1959, city voters approved the "Blue Line" city-charter amendment which restricted city water service to altitudes below 5,750 feet (1,750 m), in an effort to protect the mountain backdrop from development. In 1967, city voters approved a dedicated sales tax for the acquisition of open space in an effort to contain urban sprawl . In 1970, Boulder created a "comprehensive plan" that would dictate future zoning, transportation, and urban planning decisions. Hoping to preserve residents' views of the mountains, in 1972, the city enacted an ordinance limiting the height of newly constructed buildings. A Historic-Preservation Code was passed in 1974, and a residential-growth management ordinance (the Danish Plan) in 1976.
Effective growth management has resulted in rapid appreciation of housing values with the median home price rising 60% over the period 2010 to 2015 to $648,200.
Prairie Dogs enjoy special protection in Boulder.
Under Boulder law, extermination of prairie dogs requires a permit.
Also in 2005, the city experimented with using goats for weed control in environmentally sensitive areas. Goats naturally consume diffuse knapweed and Canada thistle , and although the program was not as effective as it was hoped, goats will still be considered in the future weed control projects. In 2010, goats were used to keep weeds under control at the Boulder Reservoir.
Main article: Media in Boulder,
Boulder's main daily newspaper, the
Daily Camera , was founded in
1890 as the weekly Boulder Camera, and became a daily newspaper the
following year. The
Boulder is part of the
Paladin Press book/video publishers and Soldier of Fortune magazine both have their headquarters in Boulder. Paladin Press was founded in September 1970 by Peder Lund and Robert K. Brown. In 1974, Lund bought out Brown's share of the press, and Brown moved on to found Soldier of Fortune magazine the following year.
Non-commercial community radio station KGNU was founded in 1978 and commercial music station KBCO in 1977. KBCO programs an adult album alternative format and is owned and operated by iHeartMedia . KBCO transmits from atop Eldorado Mountain south of Boulder.
KVCU , also known as Radio 1190, is another non-commercial radio station run with the help of university-student volunteers. KVCU started broadcasting in 1998.
See also: List of University of
Notable births in Boulder include:
Chief Niwot or Left Hand, a tribal leader of the Arapaho , lived at the site of Boulder. In 1858, Captain Thomas Aikins and some would-be goldminers camped at present-day Setter's Park—in the midst of Arapaho territory. The chief and his people were camped at Valmont Butte: then and now a sacred site to the tribe. Niwot and his war party rode to the settler's camp whereupon he pronounced his legendary curse:
“ People seeing the beauty of this valley will want to stay, and their staying will be the undoing of the beauty. ”
Albert Allen Bartlett , emeritus professor of physics, frequent
lecturer on the dangers of compound growth, and one of the principal
backers of the Blue Line in the late 1950s. Boulder is also home to
Paul Danish, author of the Danish Plan of residential growth control
and editor and publisher of the former weekly Boulder County newspaper
Bill Bower , the last surviving pilot who took part in the Doolittle Raid , resided in Boulder from 1966 until his death in 2011.
JonBenét Ramsey , when she was murdered in December 1996. The made-for-TV movie Perfect Murder, Perfect Town: JonBenét and the City of Boulder, based on the book of the same title, was released in 2000. It dramatized the investigation into the murder. It was filmed on location in Boulder.
Leon White , a professional wrestler, although not born in Boulder,
he was an offensive lineman for the
Actor Larry Sellers has been living in the town.
Pearl Street Mall in Boulder
One of the most popular sections of Boulder is the famous Pearl Street Mall , home to numerous shops and restaurants. This four-block pedestrian mall is a social hotspot in Boulder, with dozens of restaurants of all kinds and specialty stores that include artisan shops and unique gadget shops. In the summer and on weekends, many street shows and acts can be found throughout the mall, along with street vendors and henna tattoo artists.
Boulder's traditional Downtown area, including the Pearl Street Mall, is in the western part of present-day Boulder. During the 1950s and 1960s, the city grew to the east, since the west side is bounded by the foothills. Downtown is host to a variety of restaurants, bars, and boutique stores. However, it has few grocery, hardware, or department stores and is therefore more of a "shopping destination" than a neighborhood with stores supporting the local population.
South of Pearl Street and adjacent to the CU Boulder campus is another historic shopping center, The Hill . Featuring some of the city's landmark stores and venues, such as Albums on the Hill and the Fox Theatre , The Hill has been the center of college life for many of the nearby sororities and fraternities.
The Twenty Ninth Street retail district opened in October 2006, located in central Boulder on the site of the former Crossroads Mall , east of Downtown.
Near the Pearl Street Mall the Farmers\' Market opens every Saturday morning and Wednesday evening, April through October on 13th Street next to Central Park. The market was started in 1986 by regional farmers.
Boulder has seven official sister cities :
Tajikistan (since May 8, 1987)
* Jalapa , Nicaragua
Landmarks representing Boulder's connection with its various sister
cities can be found throughout the city. Boulder's Sister
More information about Boulder's sister city relationships can be found at Boulder\'s official website.
IN POPULAR CULTURE
1619 Pine Street was used for the external shots of Mindy's
house on the TV show
Mork & Mindy
Woody Allen's film Sleeper (1973) was filmed on location in Boulder.
Some houses and the
Mesa Laboratory of the National Center for
Atmospheric Research , designed by
I. M. Pei
Boulder was a setting for
The television sitcom Mork border:solid #aaa 1px">
* Outline of
* State of
* Boulder County,
Front Range Urban Corridor
* North Central
* ^ "2014 U.S. Gazetteer Files: Places".
* ^ Kaye, Nick (December 23, 2005). "Polar Bear Club Swims: New
Year Parties (Don\'t Hold the Ice)". The New York Times.
* ^ Tidd, Kelly (February 3, 2014). "Boulder Polar Plunge". Your
* ^ "Police squash nude pumpkin run". BBC News. November 1, 2009.
Retrieved December 9, 2010.
* ^ Anas, Brittany (April 20, 2010). "Thousands gather for 4/20
smoke-out on CU-Boulder campus".