BOUDICA or BOUDICCA (/ˈbuːdᵻkə/ , Latinised as BOADICEA or
BOUDICEA /boʊdᵻˈsiːə/ , and known in Welsh as BUDDUG ) was a
queen of the British Celtic
Iceni tribe who led an uprising against
the occupying forces of the
Roman Empire in AD 60 or 61, and died
shortly after its failure.
Prasutagus , ruled as a nominally independent ally
of Rome and left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and the Roman
emperor in his will. However, when he died, his will was ignored, and
the kingdom was annexed. According to
Boudica was flogged
and her daughters raped .
Cassius Dio provides an alternative
explanation for Boudica's response, saying that previous imperial
donations to influential Britons were confiscated and the Roman
financier and philosopher Seneca called in the loans he had forced on
the reluctant Britons.
In AD 60 or 61, when the Roman governor
Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was
campaigning on the island of
Anglesey off the northwest coast of Wales
Boudica led the
Iceni , the
Trinovantes , and others in revolt.
Colchester ), earlier the capital
Trinovantes but at that time a _colonia _, a settlement for
discharged Roman soldiers and site of a temple to the former Emperor
Claudius . Upon hearing of the revolt,
Suetonius hurried to
London ), the 20-year-old commercial settlement that was the
rebels' next target. The Romans, having concluded that they lacked
sufficient numbers to defend the settlement, evacuated and abandoned
Boudica led 100,000 Iceni, Trinovantes, and others to fight
Legio IX _Hispana_ , and burned and destroyed
Londinium and Verulamium
St Albans ).
An estimated 70,000–80,000 Romans and British were killed in the
three cities by those led by Boudica. Suetonius, meanwhile, regrouped
his forces in the West Midlands , and, despite being heavily
outnumbered, defeated the Britons in the
Battle of Watling Street .
The crisis caused
Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from
Britain, but Suetonius' eventual victory over
Boudica confirmed Roman
control of the province.
Boudica then either killed herself to avoid
capture, or died of illness. The extant sources,
Tacitus and Cassius
Dio , differ.
Interest in these events revived in the
English Renaissance and led
to Boudica's fame in the
Victorian era .
Boudica has remained an
important cultural symbol in the
United Kingdom . The absence of
native British literature during the early part of the first
millennium means that knowledge of Boudica's rebellion comes solely
from the writings of the Romans.
* 1 Name
* 2 History
* 2.1 Background
* 2.2 Boudica\'s uprising
* 2.3 Romans rally
* 2.4 Location of her defeat
* 2.5 Historical sources
* 3 Cultural depictions
Boudica and King\'s Cross
* 3.2 History and literature
* 3.3 Art
* 3.4 Audio dramas
* 3.5 Comics
* 3.6 Films
* 3.7 Games
* 3.8 Multimedia fiction
* 3.9 Music
* 3.10 Novels
* 3.11 Statue
* 3.12.1 Series
* 3.12.2 Episodes
* 3.13 Other cultural references
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 Further reading
* 7 External links
Boudica has been known by several versions of her name. Raphael
Holinshed calls her VOADICIA, while
Edmund Spenser calls her BUNDUCA,
a version of the name that was used in the popular Jacobean play
Bonduca _, in 1612.
William Cowper 's poem, _Boadicea, an ode_
(1782) popularised an alternative version of the name. From the 19th
century and much of the late 20th century, BOADICEA was the most
common version of the name, which is probably derived from a
mistranscription when a manuscript of
Tacitus was copied in the Middle
Her name was clearly spelled BOUDICCA in the best manuscripts of
Tacitus, but also Βουδουικα, Βουνδουικα, and
Βοδουικα in the (later and probably secondary) epitome of
Cassius Dio .
Kenneth Jackson concludes, based on later development of Welsh and
Irish, that the name derives from the Proto-Celtic feminine adjective
_*boudīkā_, "victorious", that in turn is derived from the Celtic
word _*boudā_, "victory" (cf. Irish _bua_ (Classical Irish _buadh_),
_Buaidheach_, Welsh _buddugoliaeth_), and that the correct spelling of
the name in
Common Brittonic (the British Celtic language) is
_Boudica_, pronounced . The Gaulish version is attested in
inscriptions as BOUDIGA in
Bordeaux , BOUDICA in
Lusitania , and
The closest English equivalent to the vowel in the first syllable is
the _ow_ in "bow-and-arrow". The modern English pronunciation is
/ˈbuːdɪkə/ , and it has been suggested that the most comparable
English name, in meaning only, would be "Victoria".
Iceni territory in eastern England; modern county
borders are shown.
Cassius Dio agree that
Boudica was of royal descent. Dio
describes her as "possessed of greater intelligence than often belongs
to women." He also describes her as tall, with tawny hair hanging down
to below her waist, a harsh voice and a piercing glare. He notes that
she habitually wore a large golden necklace (perhaps a torc ), a
colourful tunic, and a thick cloak fastened by a brooch .
Boudicca’s husband, Prasutagus, was the king of the Iceni, a people
who inhabited roughly what is now
Norfolk . The
voluntarily allied with Rome following Claudius's conquest of southern
Britain in AD 43.They were proud of their independence, and had
revolted in AD 47 when the then Roman governor Publius Ostorius
Scapula planned to disarm all the peoples in the area of Britain under
Roman control following a number of local uprisings. Ostorius defeated
them and went on to put down other uprisings around Britain. The
Iceni remained independent.
Tacitus first mentioned
Prasutagus when he
wrote about Boudica’s rebellion. We do not know whether he became
the king after the mentioned defeat of the Iceni. The client
relationship with Rome ended after the end of the rebellion.
Tacitus wrote "The Icenian king Prasutagus, celebrated for his long
prosperity, had named the emperor his heir, together with his two
daughters; an act of deference which he thought would place his
kingdom and household beyond the risk of injury. The result was
contrary — so much so that his kingdom was pillaged by centurions,
his household by slaves; as though they had been prizes of war." He
Boudica was lashed and her two daughters were raped and
that the estates of the leading
Iceni men were confiscated.
Cassius Dio wrote: "An excuse for the war was found in the
confiscation of the sums of money that
Claudius had given to the
foremost Britons; for these sums, as Decianus Catus , the procurator
of the island maintained, were to be paid back." He also said that
another reason was "the fact that Seneca , in the hope of receiving a
good rate of interest, had lent to the islanders 40,000,000 sesterces
that they did not want, and had afterwards called in this loan all at
once and had resorted to severe measures in exacting it."
Tacitus did not say why Prasutagus' naming the emperor as his heir as
well as his daughters was meant to avert the risk of injury. He did
not explain why the Romans pillaged the kingdom, why they took the
lands of the chiefs or why
Boudica was flogged and her daughters were
Cassius Dio did not mention any of this. He said that the cause
of the rebellion was the decision of the procurator of Britain (the
chief financial officer) and Seneca (an advisor of the emperor Nero)
to call in Prasutagus' debts and the harsh measures which were taken
to collect them.
Tacitus does not mention these events. However, he
wrote: "Alarmed by this disaster and by the fury of the province which
he had goaded into war by his rapacity, the procurator Catus crossed
over into Gaul."
It has to be noted that this was happening while the governor of
Suetonius Paulinus, was away fighting in North Wales.
We do not know whether he approved of these actions. We do not know
who the centurions who pillaged the kingdom were and who sent them.
The text of
Cassius Dio seems to suggest that Seneca, who was a
private citizen, was responsible for the violence. It is unlikely that
a legion was sent to the land of the
Iceni as two of them were
fighting at the island of
Anglesey and the other two were stationed at
Tacitus said that "It was against the veterans that
their hatred was most intense. For these new settlers in the colony of
Camulodunum drove people out of their houses, ejected them from their
farms, called them captives and slaves ...."
In AD 60 or 61, while the current governor, Gaius
, was leading a campaign against the island of Mona (modern
in the north of Wales, which was a refuge for British rebels and a
stronghold of the druids , the
Iceni conspired with their neighbours
the Trinovantes, amongst others, to revolt.
Boudica was chosen as
Tacitus records that she addressed her army with these
words, " It is not as a woman descended from noble ancestry, but as
one of the people that I am avenging lost freedom, my scourged body,
the outraged chastity of my daughters," and concluded " This is a
woman's resolve; as for men, they may live and be slaves." According
to Tacitus, they drew inspiration from the example of
Arminius , the
prince of the
Cherusci who had driven the Romans out of Germany in AD
9, and their own ancestors who had driven
Julius Caesar from Britain.
Dio says that at the outset
Boudica employed a form of divination ,
releasing a hare from the folds of her dress and interpreting the
direction in which it ran, and invoked
Andraste , a British goddess of
The rebels' first target was
Colchester ), the former
Trinovantian capital and, at that time, a Roman _colonia _. The Roman
veterans who had been settled there mistreated the locals and a temple
to the former emperor
Claudius had been erected there at local
expense, making the city a focus for resentment. The Roman inhabitants
sought reinforcements from the procurator, Catus Decianus, but he sent
only two hundred auxiliary troops . Boudica's army fell on the poorly
defended city and destroyed it, besieging the last defenders in the
temple for two days before it fell. Archaeologists have shown that the
city was methodically demolished. The future governor Quintus
Petillius Cerialis , then commanding the Legio IX _Hispana_ ,
attempted to relieve the city, but suffered an overwhelming defeat .
His infantry was wiped out—only the commander and some of his
The location of this famous destruction of the Legio IX is now
claimed by some to be the village of
Great Wratting , in Suffolk,
which lies in the Stour Valley on the
Icknield Way West of Colchester,
and by a village in Essex. After this defeat,
Catus Decianus fled to
When news of the rebellion reached him,
Suetonius hurried along
Watling Street through hostile territory to Londinium.
Londinium was a
relatively new settlement, founded after the conquest of AD 43, but it
had grown to be a thriving commercial centre with a population of
travellers, traders, and, probably, Roman officials. Suetonius
considered giving battle there, but considering his lack of numbers
and chastened by Petillius's defeat, decided to sacrifice the city to
save the province.
Alarmed by this disaster and by the fury of the province which he had
goaded into war by his rapacity, the procurator Catus crossed over
into Gaul. Suetonius, however, with wonderful resolution, marched
amidst a hostile population to Londinium, which, though
undistinguished by the name of a colony, was much frequented by a
number of merchants and trading vessels. Uncertain whether he should
choose it as a seat of war, as he looked round on his scanty force of
soldiers, and remembered with what a serious warning the rashness of
Petilius had been punished, he resolved to save the province at the
cost of a single town. Nor did the tears and weeping of the people, as
they implored his aid, deter him from giving the signal of departure
and receiving into his army all who would go with him. Those who were
chained to the spot by the weakness of their sex, or the infirmity of
age, or the attractions of the place, were cut off by the enemy.—
Londinium was abandoned to the rebels who burnt it down, slaughtering
anyone who had not evacuated with Suetonius.
Archaeology shows a thick
red layer of burnt debris covering coins and pottery dating before AD
60 within the bounds of Roman Londinium; while Roman-era skulls found
Walbrook in 2013 were potentially linked to victims of the
St Albans ) was next to be destroyed.
In the three settlements destroyed, between seventy and eighty
thousand people are said to have been killed.
Tacitus says that the
Britons had no interest in taking or selling prisoners, only in
slaughter by gibbet , fire, or cross. Dio's account gives more detail;
that the noblest women were impaled on spikes and had their breasts
cut off and sewn to their mouths, "to the accompaniment of sacrifices,
banquets, and wanton behaviour" in sacred places, particularly the
groves of Andraste.
Battle of Watling Street
While Boudica's army continued their assault in
Suetonius regrouped his forces. According to Tacitus, he
amassed a force including his own Legio XIV _Gemina_ , some
_vexillationes_ (detachments) of the XX _Valeria Victrix_ , and any
available auxiliaries. The prefect of Legio II _Augusta_ , Poenius
Postumus , stationed near
Exeter , ignored the call, and a fourth
legion, IX _Hispana_ , had been routed trying to relieve Camulodunum,
but nonetheless the governor was able to call on almost ten thousand
Suetonius took a stand at an unidentified location, probably in the
West Midlands somewhere along the
Roman road now known as Watling
Street , in a defile with a wood behind him — but his men were
heavily outnumbered. Dio says that, even if they were lined up one
deep, they would not have extended the length of Boudica's line. By
now the rebel forces were said to have numbered 230,000. However, this
number should be treated with scepticism — Dio's account is known
only from a late epitome , and ancient sources commonly exaggerate
Boudica exhorted her troops from her chariot , her daughters beside
Tacitus records her giving a short speech in which she presents
herself not as an aristocrat avenging her lost wealth, but as an
ordinary person, avenging her lost freedom, her battered body, and the
abused chastity of her daughters. She said their cause was just, and
the deities were on their side; the one legion that had dared to face
them had been destroyed. She, a woman, was resolved to win or die; if
the men wanted to live in slavery, that was their choice.
However, the lack of manoeuvrability of the British forces, combined
with lack of open-field tactics to command these numbers, put them at
a disadvantage to the Romans, who were skilled at open combat due to
their superior equipment and discipline. Also, the narrowness of the
field meant that
Boudica could put forth only as many troops as the
Romans could at a given time.
First, the Romans stood their ground and used volleys of _pila _
(heavy javelins) to kill thousands of Britons who were rushing toward
the Roman lines. The Roman soldiers, who had now used up their _pila_,
were then able to engage Boudica's second wave in the open. As the
Romans advanced in a wedge formation, the Britons attempted to flee,
but were impeded by the presence of their own families, whom they had
stationed in a ring of wagons at the edge of the battlefield, and were
slaughtered. This is not the first instance of this tactic — the
women of the
Cimbri , in the
Battle of Vercellae against Gaius Marius
, were stationed in a line of wagons and acted as a last line of
Ariovistus of the
Suebi is reported to have done the same
thing in his battle against
Julius Caesar .
Tacitus reports that
"according to one report almost eighty thousand Britons fell" compared
with only four hundred Romans.
Tacitus in his _Annals_,
Boudica poisoned herself,
though in the _Agricola_ which was written almost twenty years prior
he mentions nothing of suicide and attributes the end of the revolt to
_socordia_ ("indolence"); Dio says she fell sick and died and then was
given a lavish burial; though this may be a convenient way to remove
her from the story. Considering Dio must have read Tacitus, it is
worth noting he mentions nothing about suicide (which was also how
Nero ended their lives).
Postumus, on hearing of the Roman victory, fell on his sword. Catus
Decianus , who had fled to Gaul, was replaced by Gaius Julius Alpinus
Suetonius conducted punitive operations, but criticism
by Classicianus led to an investigation headed by
Nero 's freedman
Polyclitus . Fearing Suetonius's actions would provoke further
Nero replaced the governor with the more conciliatory
Publius Petronius Turpilianus . The historian Gaius Suetonius
Tranquillus tells us the crisis had almost persuaded
Nero to abandon
Britain. No historical records tell us what had happened to Boudica's
LOCATION OF HER DEFEAT
The location of Boudica's defeat is unknown. Most historians favour
a site in the West Midlands , somewhere along the
Roman road now known
Watling Street . Kevin K. Carroll suggests a site close to High
Leicestershire , on the junction of
Watling Street and the
Fosse Way , which would have allowed the Legio II _Augusta_ , based at
Exeter , to rendezvous with the rest of Suetonius's forces, had they
not failed to do so.
Mancetter ), near the modern town
Warwickshire , has also been suggested, as has "The
Essex , according to legend. More recently,
a discovery of Roman artefacts in
Kings Norton close to Metchley Camp
has suggested another possibility, and a thorough examination of a
Watling Street between St. Albans, Boudica's last known
location, and the
Fosse Way junction has suggested the Cuttle Mill
Paulerspury in Northamptonshire, which has topography very
closely matching that described by
Tacitus of the scene of the battle.
In 2009 it was suggested that the
Iceni were returning to East Anglia
Icknield Way when they encountered the Roman army in the
Arbury Banks, Hertfordshire . In March 2010, evidence was
published suggesting the site may be located at
Church Stowe ,
Tacitus, the most important Roman historian of this period, took a
particular interest in Britain as his father-in-law Gnaeus Julius
Agricola served there three times (and was the subject of his first
book). Agricola was a military tribune under
Suetonius Paulinus, which
almost certainly gave
Tacitus an eyewitness source for Boudica's
revolt. Cassius Dio's account is only known from an epitome , and his
sources are uncertain. He is generally agreed to have based his
account on that of Tacitus, but he simplifies the sequence of events
and adds details, such as the calling in of loans, that
Gildas , in his 6th century _
De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae _,
may have been alluding to
Boudica when he wrote "A treacherous lioness
butchered the governors who had been left to give fuller voice and
strength to the endeavours of Roman rule".
BOUDICA AND KING\'S CROSS
The area of King\'s Cross,
London was previously a village known as
Battle Bridge which was an ancient crossing of the
River Fleet . The
original name of the bridge was Broad Ford Bridge.
The name "Battle Bridge" led to a tradition that this was the site of
a major battle between the Romans and the
Iceni tribe led by Boudica.
The tradition is not supported by any historical evidence and is
rejected by modern historians. However,
Lewis Spence 's 1937 book
_Boadicea — warrior queen of the Britons_ went so far as to include
a map showing the positions of the opposing armies. There is a belief
that she was buried between platforms 9 and 10 in King\'s Cross
station in London, England. There is no evidence for this and it is
probably a post-
World War II
World War II invention.
HISTORY AND LITERATURE
Boudica was forgotten. She makes no appearance in
Bede 's work, the _
Historia Brittonum _, the _
Mabinogion _ or Geoffrey
of Monmouth 's _
History of the Kings of Britain _. But the rediscovery
of the works of
Tacitus during the Renaissance allowed Polydore Vergil
to reintroduce her into British history as "Voadicea" in 1534.
Raphael Holinshed also included her story in his _Chronicles_ (1577),
Tacitus and Dio, and inspired Shakespeare\'s younger
Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher to write a play,
Bonduca _, in 1610.
William Cowper wrote a popular poem, "Boadicea,
an ode", in 1782.
It was in the
Victorian era that Boudica's fame took on legendary
Queen Victoria came to be seen as Boudica's "namesake",
their names being identical in meaning. Victoria's
Poet Laureate ,
Alfred, Lord Tennyson , wrote a poem, "Boadicea", and several ships
were named after her.
* The artwork _
The Dinner Party _ by Judy Chicago features a place
setting for Boudica.
* The Artwork Boadicea Haranguing the Britons by H.C Selous.
Courtesy of the Mansell Collection.
Big Finish Productions _
Doctor Who _ audio play _The Wrath of
Iceni _ (2012), starring
Tom Baker , takes place during Boudica's
uprising against the Romans.
Boudica is portrayed by British actress
Ella Kenion .
* Heirloom Audio Productions' audio theater adaption of G.A. Henty's
novel, _Beric the Briton_, starring
Brian Blessed , Brian Cox , and
John Rhys-Davies features Queen Boadicea during the first portion of
the drama. Her character is played by British actress , Honeysuckle
She has also appeared in several comic book series, including:
* _Sláine _, which featured two runs, titled "Demon Killer" and
"Queen of Witches" giving a free interpretation of Boudica's story
DC Comics character
Boodikka , a member of the Green Lantern
Corps , was named after Boudica.
Boudica has been the subject of multiple films:
* _Boadicea _ (1927) is a feature film, wherein she was portrayed by
Phyllis Neilson-Terry ,
The Viking Queen _ (1967) is a
Hammer Films adventure movie set
in ancient Britain, in which the role of Queen Salina is based upon
the historical figure of Boudica.
* In 1980, an hour long BBC documentary film by Michael Wood
(historian) entitled "In Search of Boadicea"
Boudica _ (2003; _Warrior Queen_ in the US) is a UK TV film
written by Andrew Davies and starring
Alex Kingston as Boudica.
* A History Channel documentary production is entitled _Warrior
Queen Boudica_ (2006).
* In _
Civilization II _, _Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword _ and
_Civilization V: Gods ">_ Detail of
Thomas Thornycroft 's Boadicea_
Boadicea and Her Daughters _, a statue of the queen in her war
chariot (anachronistically furnished with scythes after the Persian
fashion) was executed by
Thomas Thornycroft over the 1850s and 1860s
with the encouragement of Prince Albert , who lent his horses for use
as models. Thornycroft exhibited the head separately in 1864. It was
cast in bronze in 1902, 17 years after Thornycroft's death, by his son
Sir John , who presented it to the
London County Council . They
erected it on a plinth on the
Victoria Embankment next to Westminster
Bridge and the Houses of Parliament , inscribed with the following
lines from Cowper's poem:
Regions Caesar never knew
Thy posterity shall sway.
Ironically, the great anti-imperialist rebel was now identified with
the head of the
British Empire , and her statue stood guard over the
city she razed to the ground.
* Boudicca is a character in the animated series _Gargoyles _.
* She was the subject of a 1978 British TV series, _
Warrior Queen _,
Siân Phillips as Boudica.
* In _
The Vicar of Dibley _, the vicar Geraldine Grainger gives her
true given name as "Boadicea" which is implied to be a homage to
Boudica. This form of the name was preferred in much of the 20th
Jennifer Ward-Lealand portrayed
Boudica in an episode of _Xena:
Warrior Princess _ titled "The Deliverer" (1997).
* In July 2008, the British television series _
dedicated an hour to
Boudica in the episode named "The Eternal Fire".
Various female politicians, including former
Prime Minister of New
Helen Clark , have been called Boadicea.
Martha Howe-Douglas and
Lorna Watson played
Boudica in _Horrible
Kirsty Mitchell played
Boudica in an episode of the History
Barbarians Rising _ series titled "Revenge" (2016). The
Boudica as dying in battle after being run through by
a Roman soldier, and one of her daughters being killed by a cavalryman
, though the website for the series notes Tacitus' version of her
* The series _
History Bites _ dedicated a 2002 episode to Boudica,
titled _Xena's Evil Sister_. In it,
Janet van de Graaf ) and
a "Louise" (a fictionalized version of one of her daughters, played by
Teresa Pavlinek ) are depicted as rampaging across Britain in a parody
of the 1991 film _
Thelma and Louise _, climaxing with
Louise suicidally driving their chariot off a cliff after being
surrounded by Roman legions.
OTHER CULTURAL REFERENCES
* In 2003, a long terminal repeat retrotransposon from the genome of
the human blood fluke _
Schistosoma mansoni_ was named "Boudicca".
The Boudicca retrotransposon, a high-copy retroviral-like element, was
the first mobile genetic element of this type to be discovered in _S.
* In September 2017 Shakepeare\'s Globe in
London will present a new
play by Tristan Bernays .
Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd
List of women warriors in folklore
Women in ancient warfare
* ^ John Davies (1993). _A History of Wales_. London, UK: Penguin.
p. 28. ISBN 0-14-014581-8 .
* ^ Fraser, Antonia (1990). _The Warrior Queens_. Penguin books
Canada Ltd,20801 John street,markham,Ontario L3R 1B4: Penguin books.
p. 3.4. ISBN 0 14008517 3 .
* ^ "iam primum uxor eius Boudicca verberibus adfecta et filiae
stupro violatae sunt" Tacitus, Annales 14.31
* ^ Cassius Dio,
Epitome of Book LXII , 2
* ^ _A_ _B_ Richard Hingley and Christina Unwin (15 June 2006).
_Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen_ (New ed.). Hambledon Continuum. pp.
44, 61. ISBN 978-1-85285-516-1 . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter
* ^ N. Davies (2008). _The Isles: A History_. p. 93.
* ^ S. Dando-Collins (2012). _Legions of Rome: The definitive
history of every Roman legion_.
* ^ _A_ _B_
Tacitus , _Annals _ 14.33
* ^ Tacitus, _Agricola _ 14-16; _Annals_ 14:29-39
Cassius Dio , _Roman History_ 62:1-12
* ^ _The Gentleman\'s Magazine_. W. Pickering. 1854. pp. 541–.
* ^ _A_ _B_
Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher , _Bonduca_
* ^ _A_ _B_
William Cowper , _Boadicea, an ode_
* ^ _A_ _B_ Graham Webster (1978). _Boudica: The British Revolt
against Rome AD 60_.
Guy de la Bédoyère . _The Roman Army in Britain_. Archived
from the original on 10 March 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2005.
* ^ Kenneth Jackson (1979). "Queen Boudica?". _Britannia_. 10: 255.
doi :10.2307/526060 .
* ^ Boudicca. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1).
Random House, Inc. (Retrieved 20 December 2007).
* ^ Sir John Rhys (1908). _Early Britain, Celtic Britain_. General
Literature Committee: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (Great
Britain). p. 284. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
* ^ Peter Keegan. "Boudica, Cartimandua, Messalina and Agrippina
the Younger. Independent Women of Power and the Gendered Rhetoric of
Roman History". _academia.edu_. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
* ^ The term _xanthotrichos_ translated in this passage as
red–brown or tawny can also mean auburn, or a shade _short_ of
brown, but most translators now agree a colour in between light and
browny red — TAWNY — Carolyn D. Williams (2009). _
Boudica and her
stories: narrative transformations of a warrior queen_. University of
Delaware Press. p. 62.
* ^ Tacitus, _The Annals_, 12.31-32
* ^ "Boudica". _penelope.uchicago.edu_. Retrieved 2016-10-14.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Tacitus, _The Annals_, 14.31
* ^ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_, 62.2
* ^ Tacitus, _The Annals_, 14.32
* ^ _A_ _B_ Tacitus, Publius, Cornelius, The Annals, Book 14,
* ^ Tacitus, _Agricola_ 15
* ^ Jason Burke (3 December 2000). "Dig uncovers Boudicca\'s brutal
The Observer _. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
* ^ "Haverhill From the Iron Age to 1899". St. Edmundsbury Borough
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