Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is
the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant
scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field.
The term "botany" comes from the
Ancient Greek word βοτάνη
(botanē) meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder"; βοτάνη is in
turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to
graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of
fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the
study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere
of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays,
botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of
land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants
(including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000
Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early
humans to identify – and later cultivate – edible, medicinal and
poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science.
Medieval physic gardens, often attached to monasteries, contained
plants of medical importance. They were forerunners of the first
botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s
onwards. One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These
gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue
and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy,
and led in 1753 to the binomial system of
Carl Linnaeus that remains
in use to this day.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the
study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell
imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant
chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other
proteins. In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists
exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including
genomics and proteomics and
DNA sequences to classify plants more
Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from
most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include
the study of plant structure, growth and differentiation,
reproduction, biochemistry and primary metabolism, chemical products,
development, diseases, evolutionary relationships, systematics, and
plant taxonomy. Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are
molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and
control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and
tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing
staple foods, materials such as timber, oil, rubber, fibre and drugs,
in modern horticulture, agriculture and forestry, plant propagation,
breeding and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and
raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental
management, and the maintenance of biodiversity.
1.1 Early botany
1.2 Early modern botany
1.3 Late modern botany
2 Scope and importance
2.1 Human nutrition
3.1 Medicine and materials
4.1 Plants, climate and environmental change
5.1 Molecular genetics
Plant anatomy and morphology
9 Systematic botany
10 See also
13 External links
Main article: History of botany
An engraving of the cells of cork, from Robert Hooke's Micrographia,
Botany originated as herbalism, the study and use of plants for their
medicinal properties. Many records of the
Holocene period date
early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago. This
early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites
of human occupation within Tennessee, which make up much of the
Cherokee land today. The early recorded history of botany includes
many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early
botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating
back to before 1100 BC, in archaic Avestan writings, and in
works from China before it was unified in 221 BC.
Modern botany traces its roots back to
Ancient Greece specifically to
Theophrastus (c. 371–287 BC), a student of
Aristotle who invented
and described many of its principles and is widely regarded in the
scientific community as the "Father of Botany". His major works,
Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most
important contributions to botanical science until the Middle Ages,
almost seventeen centuries later.
Another work from
Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany
is De Materia Medica, a five-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine
written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and
pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides.
De Materia Medica
De Materia Medica was widely read
for more than 1,500 years. Important contributions from the
medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture,
Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī's (828–896) the Book of Plants, and Ibn
Bassal's The Classification of Soils. In the early 13th century, Abu
al-Abbas al-Nabati, and
Ibn al-Baitar (d. 1248) wrote on botany in a
systematic and scientific manner.
In the mid-16th century, "botanical gardens" were founded in a number
of Italian universities – the Padua botanical garden in 1545 is
usually considered to be the first which is still in its original
location. These gardens continued the practical value of earlier
"physic gardens", often associated with monasteries, in which plants
were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany
as an academic subject. Lectures were given about the plants grown in
the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens
came much later to northern Europe; the first in England was the
University of Oxford Botanic
Garden in 1621. Throughout this period,
botany remained firmly subordinate to medicine.
Leonhart Fuchs (1501–1566) was one of "the three
German fathers of botany", along with theologian Otto Brunfels
(1489–1534) and physician
Hieronymus Bock (1498–1554) (also called
Hieronymus Tragus). Fuchs and Brunfels broke away from the
tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of
their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification.
Valerius Cordus (1515–1544) authored a botanically and
pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a
pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium in 1546.
Conrad von Gesner
Conrad von Gesner (1516–1565) and herbalist John Gerard
(1545–c. 1611) published herbals covering the medicinal uses of
Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522–1605) was considered the
father of natural history, which included the study of plants. In
1665, using an early microscope,
Robert Hooke discovered
cells, a term he coined, in cork, and a short time later in living
Early modern botany
Taxonomy (biology) § History of taxonomy
Linnaean Garden of Linnaeus' residence in Uppsala, Sweden, was
planted according to his Systema sexuale.
During the 18th century, systems of plant identification were
developed comparable to dichotomous keys, where unidentified plants
are placed into taxonomic groups (e.g. family, genus and species) by
making a series of choices between pairs of characters. The choice and
sequence of the characters may be artificial in keys designed purely
for identification (diagnostic keys) or more closely related to the
natural or phyletic order of the taxa in synoptic keys. By the
18th century, new plants for study were arriving in Europe in
increasing numbers from newly discovered countries and the European
colonies worldwide. In 1753 Carl von Linné (Carl Linnaeus) published
Species Plantarum, a hierarchical classification of plant species
that remains the reference point for modern botanical nomenclature.
This established a standardised binomial or two-part naming scheme
where the first name represented the genus and the second identified
the species within the genus. For the purposes of identification,
Linnaeus's Systema Sexuale classified plants into 24 groups according
to the number of their male sexual organs. The 24th group,
Cryptogamia, included all plants with concealed reproductive parts,
mosses, liverworts, ferns, algae and fungi.
Increasing knowledge of plant anatomy, morphology and life cycles led
to the realisation that there were more natural affinities between
plants than the artificial sexual system of Linnaeus. Adanson (1763),
de Jussieu (1789), and Candolle (1819) all proposed various
alternative natural systems of classification that grouped plants
using a wider range of shared characters and were widely followed. The
Candollean system reflected his ideas of the progression of
morphological complexity and the later classification by Bentham and
Hooker, which was influential until the mid-19th century, was
influenced by Candolle's approach. Darwin's publication of the Origin
Species in 1859 and his concept of common descent required
modifications to the
Candollean system to reflect evolutionary
relationships as distinct from mere morphological similarity.
Botany was greatly stimulated by the appearance of the first "modern"
textbook, Matthias Schleiden's Grundzüge der Wissenschaftlichen
Botanik, published in English in 1849 as Principles of Scientific
Botany. Schleiden was a microscopist and an early plant anatomist
who co-founded the cell theory with
Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow
and was among the first to grasp the significance of the cell nucleus
that had been described by Robert Brown in 1831. In 1855, Adolf
Fick formulated Fick's laws that enabled the calculation of the rates
of molecular diffusion in biological systems.
Echeveria glauca in a Connecticut greenhouse.
Botany uses Latin names
for identification, here, the specific name glauca means blue.
Late modern botany
Micropropagation of transgenic plants
Building upon the gene-chromosome theory of heredity that originated
Gregor Mendel (1822–1884),
August Weismann (1834–1914) proved
that inheritance only takes place through gametes. No other cells can
pass on inherited characters. The work of Katherine Esau
(1898–1997) on plant anatomy is still a major foundation of modern
botany. Her books
Seed Plants have been
key plant structural biology texts for more than half a
The discipline of plant ecology was pioneered in the late 19th century
by botanists such as Eugenius Warming, who produced the hypothesis
that plants form communities, and his mentor and successor Christen C.
Raunkiær whose system for describing plant life forms is still in use
today. The concept that the composition of plant communities such as
temperate broadleaf forest changes by a process of ecological
succession was developed by Henry Chandler Cowles,
Arthur Tansley and
Frederic Clements. Clements is credited with the idea of climax
vegetation as the most complex vegetation that an environment can
support and Tansley introduced the concept of ecosystems to
biology. Building on the extensive earlier work of
Alphonse de Candolle,
Nikolai Vavilov (1887–1943) produced accounts
of the biogeography, centres of origin, and evolutionary history of
Particularly since the mid-1960s there have been advances in
understanding of the physics of plant physiological processes such as
transpiration (the transport of water within plant tissues), the
temperature dependence of rates of water evaporation from the leaf
surface and the molecular diffusion of water vapour and carbon dioxide
through stomatal apertures. These developments, coupled with new
methods for measuring the size of stomatal apertures, and the rate of
photosynthesis have enabled precise description of the rates of gas
exchange between plants and the atmosphere. Innovations in
statistical analysis by Ronald Fisher,
Frank Yates and others at
Rothamsted Experimental Station facilitated rational experimental
design and data analysis in botanical research. The discovery and
identification of the auxin plant hormones by
Kenneth V. Thimann in
1948 enabled regulation of plant growth by externally applied
Frederick Campion Steward pioneered techniques of
micropropagation and plant tissue culture controlled by plant
hormones. The synthetic auxin
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or
2,4-D was one of the first commercial synthetic herbicides.
20th century developments in plant biochemistry have been driven by
modern techniques of organic chemical analysis, such as spectroscopy,
chromatography and electrophoresis. With the rise of the related
molecular-scale biological approaches of molecular biology, genomics,
proteomics and metabolomics, the relationship between the plant genome
and most aspects of the biochemistry, physiology, morphology and
behaviour of plants can be subjected to detailed experimental
analysis. The concept originally stated by
Gottlieb Haberlandt in
1902 that all plant cells are totipotent and can be grown in vitro
ultimately enabled the use of genetic engineering experimentally to
knock out a gene or genes responsible for a specific trait, or to add
genes such as GFP that report when a gene of interest is being
expressed. These technologies enable the biotechnological use of whole
plants or plant cell cultures grown in bioreactors to synthesise
pesticides, antibiotics or other pharmaceuticals, as well as the
practical application of genetically modified crops designed for
traits such as improved yield.
Modern morphology recognises a continuum between the major
morphological categories of root, stem (caulome), leaf (phyllome) and
trichome. Furthermore, it emphasises structural dynamics.
Modern systematics aims to reflect and discover phylogenetic
relationships between plants. Modern Molecular
phylogenetics largely ignores morphological characters, relying on DNA
sequences as data. Molecular analysis of
DNA sequences from most
families of flowering plants enabled the
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group to
publish in 1998 a phylogeny of flowering plants, answering many of the
questions about relationships among angiosperm families and
species. The theoretical possibility of a practical method for
identification of plant species and commercial varieties by DNA
barcoding is the subject of active current research.
Scope and importance
Botany involves the recording and description of plants, such as this
herbarium specimen of the lady fern Athyrium filix-femina.
The study of plants is vital because they underpin almost all animal
life on Earth by generating a large proportion of the oxygen and food
that provide humans and other organisms with aerobic respiration with
the chemical energy they need to exist. Plants, algae and
cyanobacteria are the major groups of organisms that carry out
photosynthesis, a process that uses the energy of sunlight to convert
water and carbon dioxide into sugars that can be used both as a
source of chemical energy and of organic molecules that are used in
the structural components of cells. As a by-product of
photosynthesis, plants release oxygen into the atmosphere, a gas that
is required by nearly all living things to carry out cellular
respiration. In addition, they are influential in the global carbon
and water cycles and plant roots bind and stabilise soils, preventing
soil erosion. Plants are crucial to the future of human society as
they provide food, oxygen, medicine, and products for people, as well
as creating and preserving soil.
Historically, all living things were classified as either animals or
plants and botany covered the study of all organisms not
considered animals. Botanists examine both the internal functions
and processes within plant organelles, cells, tissues, whole plants,
plant populations and plant communities. At each of these levels, a
botanist may be concerned with the classification (taxonomy),
phylogeny and evolution, structure (anatomy and morphology), or
function (physiology) of plant life.
The strictest definition of "plant" includes only the "land plants" or
embryophytes, which include seed plants (gymnosperms, including the
pines, and flowering plants) and the free-sporing cryptogams including
ferns, clubmosses, liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
multicellular eukaryotes descended from an ancestor that obtained its
energy from sunlight by photosynthesis. They have life cycles with
alternating haploid and diploid phases. The sexual haploid phase of
embryophytes, known as the gametophyte, nurtures the developing
diploid embryo sporophyte within its tissues for at least part of its
life, even in the seed plants, where the gametophyte itself is
nurtured by its parent sporophyte. Other groups of organisms that
were previously studied by botanists include bacteria (now studied in
bacteriology), fungi (mycology) – including lichen-forming fungi
(lichenology), non-chlorophyte algae (phycology), and viruses
(virology). However, attention is still given to these groups by
botanists, and fungi (including lichens) and photosynthetic protists
are usually covered in introductory botany courses.
Palaeobotanists study ancient plants in the fossil record to provide
information about the evolutionary history of plants. Cyanobacteria,
the first oxygen-releasing photosynthetic organisms on Earth, are
thought to have given rise to the ancestor of plants by entering into
an endosymbiotic relationship with an early eukaryote, ultimately
becoming the chloroplasts in plant cells. The new photosynthetic
plants (along with their algal relatives) accelerated the rise in
atmospheric oxygen started by the cyanobacteria, changing the ancient
oxygen-free, reducing, atmosphere to one in which free oxygen has been
abundant for more than 2 billion years.
Among the important botanical questions of the 21st century are the
role of plants as primary producers in the global cycling of life's
basic ingredients: energy, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and water, and
ways that our plant stewardship can help address the global
environmental issues of resource management, conservation, human food
security, biologically invasive organisms, carbon sequestration,
climate change, and sustainability.
Further information: Human nutrition
The food we eat comes directly or indirectly from plants such as rice.
Virtually all staple foods come either directly from primary
production by plants, or indirectly from animals that eat them.
Plants and other photosynthetic organisms are at the base of most food
chains because they use the energy from the sun and nutrients from the
soil and atmosphere, converting them into a form that can be used by
animals. This is what ecologists call the first trophic level. The
modern forms of the major staple foods, such as maize, rice, wheat and
other cereal grasses, pulses, bananas and plantains, as well as
flax and cotton grown for their fibres, are the outcome of prehistoric
selection over thousands of years from among wild ancestral plants
with the most desirable characteristics.
Botanists study how plants produce food and how to increase yields,
for example through plant breeding, making their work important to
mankind's ability to feed the world and provide food security for
future generations. Botanists also study weeds, which are a
considerable problem in agriculture, and the biology and control of
plant pathogens in agriculture and natural ecosystems. Ethnobotany
is the study of the relationships between plants and people. When
applied to the investigation of historical plant–people
relationships ethnobotany may be referred to as archaeobotany or
palaeoethnobotany. Some of the earliest plant-people relationships
arose between the indigenous people of Canada in identifying edible
plants from inedible plants. This relationship the indigenous
people had with plants was recorded by ethnobotanists.
Plant biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes used by
plants. Some of these processes are used in their primary metabolism
like the photosynthetic
Calvin cycle and crassulacean acid
metabolism. Others make specialised materials like the cellulose
and lignin used to build their bodies, and secondary products like
resins and aroma compounds.
Plants make various photosynthetic pigments, some of which can be seen
here through paper chromatography.
Plants and various other groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes
collectively known as "algae" have unique organelles known as
chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are thought to be descended from
cyanobacteria that formed endosymbiotic relationships with ancient
plant and algal ancestors. Chloroplasts and cyanobacteria contain the
blue-green pigment chlorophyll a.
Chlorophyll a (as well as its
plant and green algal-specific cousin chlorophyll b)[a] absorbs light
in the blue-violet and orange/red parts of the spectrum while
reflecting and transmitting the green light that we see as the
characteristic colour of these organisms. The energy in the red and
blue light that these pigments absorb is used by chloroplasts to make
energy-rich carbon compounds from carbon dioxide and water by oxygenic
photosynthesis, a process that generates molecular oxygen (O2) as a
Calvin cycle (Interactive diagram) The
Calvin cycle incorporates
carbon dioxide into sugar molecules.
Edit · Source image
The light energy captured by chlorophyll a is initially in the form of
electrons (and later a proton gradient) that's used to make molecules
of ATP and
NADPH which temporarily store and transport energy. Their
energy is used in the light-independent reactions of the Calvin cycle
by the enzyme rubisco to produce molecules of the 3-carbon sugar
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P).
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is the
first product of photosynthesis and the raw material from which
glucose and almost all other organic molecules of biological origin
are synthesised. Some of the glucose is converted to starch which is
stored in the chloroplast.
Starch is the characteristic energy
store of most land plants and algae, while inulin, a polymer of
fructose is used for the same purpose in the sunflower family
Asteraceae. Some of the glucose is converted to sucrose (common table
sugar) for export to the rest of the plant.
Unlike in animals (which lack chloroplasts), plants and their
eukaryote relatives have delegated many biochemical roles to their
chloroplasts, including synthesising all their fatty acids,
and most amino acids. The fatty acids that chloroplasts make are
used for many things, such as providing material to build cell
membranes out of and making the polymer cutin which is found in the
plant cuticle that protects land plants from drying out. 
Plants synthesise a number of unique polymers like the polysaccharide
molecules cellulose, pectin and xyloglucan from which the land
plant cell wall is constructed. Vascular land plants make lignin,
a polymer used to strengthen the secondary cell walls of xylem
tracheids and vessels to keep them from collapsing when a plant sucks
water through them under water stress.
Lignin is also used in other
cell types like sclerenchyma fibres that provide structural support
for a plant and is a major constituent of wood.
Sporopollenin is a
chemically resistant polymer found in the outer cell walls of spores
and pollen of land plants responsible for the survival of early land
plant spores and the pollen of seed plants in the fossil record. It is
widely regarded as a marker for the start of land plant evolution
Ordovician period. The concentration of carbon dioxide
in the atmosphere today is much lower than it was when plants emerged
onto land during the
Silurian periods. Many monocots
like maize and the pineapple and some dicots like the
since independently evolved pathways like Crassulacean acid
metabolism and the
C4 carbon fixation
C4 carbon fixation pathway for photosynthesis which
avoid the losses resulting from photorespiration in the more common C3
carbon fixation pathway. These biochemical strategies are unique to
Medicine and materials
Tapping a rubber tree in Thailand
Phytochemistry is a branch of plant biochemistry primarily concerned
with the chemical substances produced by plants during secondary
metabolism. Some of these compounds are toxins such as the
alkaloid coniine from hemlock. Others, such as the essential oils
peppermint oil and lemon oil are useful for their aroma, as
flavourings and spices (e.g., capsaicin), and in medicine as
pharmaceuticals as in opium from opium poppies. Many medicinal and
recreational drugs, such as tetrahydrocannabinol (active ingredient in
cannabis), caffeine, morphine and nicotine come directly from plants.
Others are simple derivatives of botanical natural products. For
example, the pain killer aspirin is the acetyl ester of salicylic
acid, originally isolated from the bark of willow trees, and a
wide range of opiate painkillers like heroin are obtained by chemical
modification of morphine obtained from the opium poppy. Popular
stimulants come from plants, such as caffeine from coffee, tea and
chocolate, and nicotine from tobacco. Most alcoholic beverages come
from fermentation of carbohydrate-rich plant products such as barley
(beer), rice (sake) and grapes (wine). Native Americans have used
various plants as ways of treating illness or disease for thousands of
years. This knowledge Native Americans have on plants has been
recorded by enthnobotanists and then in turn has been used by
pharmaceutical companies as a way of drug discovery.
Plants can synthesise useful coloured dyes and pigments such as the
anthocyanins responsible for the red colour of red wine, yellow weld
and blue woad used together to produce Lincoln green, indoxyl, source
of the blue dye indigo traditionally used to dye denim and the
artist's pigments gamboge and rose madder. Sugar, starch, cotton,
linen, hemp, some types of rope, wood and particle boards, papyrus and
paper, vegetable oils, wax, and natural rubber are examples of
commercially important materials made from plant tissues or their
secondary products. Charcoal, a pure form of carbon made by pyrolysis
of wood, has a long history as a metal-smelting fuel, as a filter
material and adsorbent and as an artist's material and is one of the
three ingredients of gunpowder. Cellulose, the world's most abundant
organic polymer, can be converted into energy, fuels, materials
and chemical feedstock. Products made from cellulose include rayon and
cellophane, wallpaper paste, biobutanol and gun cotton. Sugarcane,
rapeseed and soy are some of the plants with a highly fermentable
sugar or oil content that are used as sources of biofuels, important
alternatives to fossil fuels, such as biodiesel. Sweetgrass was
used by NativeAmericanse to ward of bugs like mosquitoes. These
bug repelling properties of sweetgrass were later found by the
American Chemical Society
American Chemical Society in the molecules phytol and coumarin.
Parker Method also called the loop method for analyzing vegetation,
useful for quantitatively measuring species and cover over time and
changes from grazing, wildfires and invasive species. Demonstrated by
American botanist Thayne Tuason and an assistant.
Plant ecology is the science of the functional relationships between
plants and their habitats—the environments where they complete their
Plant ecologists study the composition of local and
regional floras, their biodiversity, genetic diversity and fitness,
the adaptation of plants to their environment, and their competitive
or mutualistic interactions with other species. Some ecologists
even rely on empirical data from indigenous people that is gathered by
ethnobotanists. This information can relay a great deal of
information on how the land once was thousands of years ago and how it
has changed over that time. The goals of plant ecology are to
understand the causes of their distribution patterns, productivity,
environmental impact, evolution, and responses to environmental
Plants depend on certain edaphic (soil) and climatic factors in their
environment but can modify these factors too. For example, they can
change their environment's albedo, increase runoff interception,
stabilise mineral soils and develop their organic content, and affect
local temperature. Plants compete with other organisms in their
ecosystem for resources. They interact with their neighbours
at a variety of spatial scales in groups, populations and communities
that collectively constitute vegetation. Regions with characteristic
vegetation types and dominant plants as well as similar abiotic and
biotic factors, climate, and geography make up biomes like tundra or
The nodules of Medicago italica contain the nitrogen fixing bacterium
Sinorhizobium meliloti. The plant provides the bacteria with nutrients
and an anaerobic environment, and the bacteria fix nitrogen for the
Herbivores eat plants, but plants can defend themselves and some
species are parasitic or even carnivorous. Other organisms form
mutually beneficial relationships with plants. For example,
mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia provide plants with nutrients in
exchange for food, ants are recruited by ant plants to provide
protection, honey bees, bats and other animals pollinate
flowers and humans and other animals act as dispersal
vectors to spread spores and seeds.
Plants, climate and environmental change
Plant responses to climate and other environmental changes can inform
our understanding of how these changes affect ecosystem function and
productivity. For example, plant phenology can be a useful proxy for
temperature in historical climatology, and the biological impact of
climate change and global warming. Palynology, the analysis of fossil
pollen deposits in sediments from thousands or millions of years ago
allows the reconstruction of past climates. Estimates of
atmospheric CO2 concentrations since the
Palaeozoic have been obtained
from stomatal densities and the leaf shapes and sizes of ancient land
Ozone depletion can expose plants to higher levels of
ultraviolet radiation-B (UV-B), resulting in lower growth rates.
Moreover, information from studies of community ecology, plant
systematics, and taxonomy is essential to understanding vegetation
change, habitat destruction and species extinction.
Punnett square depicting a cross between two pea plants heterozygous
for purple (B) and white (b) blossoms
Inheritance in plants follows the same fundamental principles of
genetics as in other multicellular organisms.
Gregor Mendel discovered
the genetic laws of inheritance by studying inherited traits such as
shape in Pisum sativum (peas). What Mendel learned from studying
plants has had far reaching benefits outside of botany. Similarly,
"jumping genes" were discovered by
Barbara McClintock while she was
studying maize. Nevertheless, there are some distinctive genetic
differences between plants and other organisms.
Species boundaries in plants may be weaker than in animals, and cross
species hybrids are often possible. A familiar example is peppermint,
Mentha × piperita, a sterile hybrid between
Mentha aquatica and
spearmint, Mentha spicata. The many cultivated varieties of wheat
are the result of multiple inter- and intra-specific crosses between
wild species and their hybrids.
Angiosperms with monoecious
flowers often have self-incompatibility mechanisms that operate
between the pollen and stigma so that the pollen either fails to reach
the stigma or fails to germinate and produce male gametes. This
is one of several methods used by plants to promote outcrossing.
In many land plants the male and female gametes are produced by
separate individuals. These species are said to be dioecious when
referring to vascular plant sporophytes and dioicous when referring to
Unlike in higher animals, where parthenogenesis is rare, asexual
reproduction may occur in plants by several different mechanisms. The
formation of stem tubers in potato is one example. Particularly in
arctic or alpine habitats, where opportunities for fertilisation of
flowers by animals are rare, plantlets or bulbs, may develop instead
of flowers, replacing sexual reproduction with asexual reproduction
and giving rise to clonal populations genetically identical to the
parent. This is one of several types of apomixis that occur in plants.
Apomixis can also happen in a seed, producing a seed that contains an
embryo genetically identical to the parent.
Most sexually reproducing organisms are diploid, with paired
chromosomes, but doubling of their chromosome number may occur due to
errors in cytokinesis. This can occur early in development to produce
an autopolyploid or partly autopolyploid organism, or during normal
processes of cellular differentiation to produce some cell types that
are polyploid (endopolyploidy), or during gamete formation. An
allopolyploid plant may result from a hybridisation event between two
different species. Both autopolyploid and allopolyploid plants can
often reproduce normally, but may be unable to cross-breed
successfully with the parent population because there is a mismatch in
chromosome numbers. These plants that are reproductively isolated from
the parent species but live within the same geographical area, may be
sufficiently successful to form a new species. Some otherwise
sterile plant polyploids can still reproduce vegetatively or by seed
apomixis, forming clonal populations of identical individuals.
Durum wheat is a fertile tetraploid allopolyploid, while bread wheat
is a fertile hexaploid. The commercial banana is an example of a
sterile, seedless triploid hybrid. Common dandelion is a triploid that
produces viable seeds by apomictic seed.
As in other eukaryotes, the inheritance of endosymbiotic organelles
like mitochondria and chloroplasts in plants is non-Mendelian.
Chloroplasts are inherited through the male parent in gymnosperms but
often through the female parent in flowering plants.
Further information: Molecular genetics
Thale cress, Arabidopsis thaliana, the first plant to have its genome
sequenced, remains the most important model organism.
A considerable amount of new knowledge about plant function comes from
studies of the molecular genetics of model plants such as the Thale
cress, Arabidopsis thaliana, a weedy species in the mustard family
(Brassicaceae). The genome or hereditary information contained in
the genes of this species is encoded by about 135 million base pairs
of DNA, forming one of the smallest genomes among flowering plants.
Arabidopsis was the first plant to have its genome sequenced, in
2000. The sequencing of some other relatively small genomes, of
rice (Oryza sativa) and Brachypodium distachyon, has made
them important model species for understanding the genetics, cellular
and molecular biology of cereals, grasses and monocots generally.
Model plants such as
Arabidopsis thaliana are used for studying the
molecular biology of plant cells and the chloroplast. Ideally, these
organisms have small genomes that are well known or completely
sequenced, small stature and short generation times. Corn has been
used to study mechanisms of photosynthesis and phloem loading of sugar
in C4 plants. The single celled green alga Chlamydomonas
reinhardtii, while not an embryophyte itself, contains a
green-pigmented chloroplast related to that of land plants, making it
useful for study. A red alga
Cyanidioschyzon merolae has also
been used to study some basic chloroplast functions.
Spinach, peas, soybeans and a moss
Physcomitrella patens are
commonly used to study plant cell biology.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil rhizosphere bacterium, can attach to
plant cells and infect them with a callus-inducing
Ti plasmid by
horizontal gene transfer, causing a callus infection called crown gall
disease. Schell and Van Montagu (1977) hypothesised that the Ti
plasmid could be a natural vector for introducing the Nif gene
responsible for nitrogen fixation in the root nodules of legumes and
other plant species. Today, genetic modification of the Ti
plasmid is one of the main techniques for introduction of transgenes
to plants and the creation of genetically modified crops.
Main article: Epigenetics
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that
cannot be explained by changes in the underlying
DNA sequence but
cause the organism's genes to behave (or "express themselves")
differently. One example of epigenetic change is the marking of
the genes by
DNA methylation which determines whether they will be
expressed or not.
Gene expression can also be controlled by repressor
proteins that attach to silencer regions of the
DNA and prevent that
region of the
DNA code from being expressed. Epigenetic marks may be
added or removed from the
DNA during programmed stages of development
of the plant, and are responsible, for example, for the differences
between anthers, petals and normal leaves, despite the fact that they
all have the same underlying genetic code. Epigenetic changes may be
temporary or may remain through successive cell divisions for the
remainder of the cell's life. Some epigenetic changes have been shown
to be heritable, while others are reset in the germ cells.
Epigenetic changes in eukaryotic biology serve to regulate the process
of cellular differentiation. During morphogenesis, totipotent stem
cells become the various pluripotent cell lines of the embryo, which
in turn become fully differentiated cells. A single fertilised egg
cell, the zygote, gives rise to the many different plant cell types
including parenchyma, xylem vessel elements, phloem sieve tubes, guard
cells of the epidermis, etc. as it continues to divide. The process
results from the epigenetic activation of some genes and inhibition of
Unlike animals, many plant cells, particularly those of the
parenchyma, do not terminally differentiate, remaining totipotent with
the ability to give rise to a new individual plant. Exceptions include
highly lignified cells, the sclerenchyma and xylem which are dead at
maturity, and the phloem sieve tubes which lack nuclei. While plants
use many of the same epigenetic mechanisms as animals, such as
chromatin remodelling, an alternative hypothesis is that plants set
their gene expression patterns using positional information from the
environment and surrounding cells to determine their developmental
Main article: Evolutionary history of plants
Transverse section of a fossil stem of the
Devonian vascular plant
The chloroplasts of plants have a number of biochemical, structural
and genetic similarities to cyanobacteria, (commonly but incorrectly
known as "blue-green algae") and are thought to be derived from an
ancient endosymbiotic relationship between an ancestral eukaryotic
cell and a cyanobacterial resident.
The algae are a polyphyletic group and are placed in various
divisions, some more closely related to plants than others. There are
many differences between them in features such as cell wall
composition, biochemistry, pigmentation, chloroplast structure and
nutrient reserves. The algal division Charophyta, sister to the green
algal division Chlorophyta, is considered to contain the ancestor of
true plants. The Charophyte class
Charophyceae and the land plant
Embryophyta together form the monophyletic group or clade
Nonvascular land plants are embryophytes that lack the vascular
tissues xylem and phloem. They include mosses, liverworts and
hornworts. Pteridophytic vascular plants with true xylem and phloem
that reproduced by spores germinating into free-living gametophytes
evolved during the
Silurian period and diversified into several
lineages during the late
Silurian and early Devonian. Representatives
of the lycopods have survived to the present day. By the end of the
Devonian period, several groups, including the lycopods, sphenophylls
and progymnosperms, had independently evolved "megaspory" – their
spores were of two distinct sizes, larger megaspores and smaller
microspores. Their reduced gametophytes developed from megaspores
retained within the spore-producing organs (megasporangia) of the
sporophyte, a condition known as endospory. Seeds consist of an
endosporic megasporangium surrounded by one or two sheathing layers
(integuments). The young sporophyte develops within the seed, which on
germination splits to release it. The earliest known seed plants date
from the latest
Famennian stage. Following the
evolution of the seed habit, seed plants diversified, giving rise to a
number of now-extinct groups, including seed ferns, as well as the
modern gymnosperms and angiosperms. Gymnosperms produce "naked
seeds" not fully enclosed in an ovary; modern representatives include
conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and Gnetales.
Angiosperms produce seeds
enclosed in a structure such as a carpel or an ovary.
Ongoing research on the molecular phylogenetics of living plants
appears to show that the angiosperms are a sister clade to the
Five of the key areas of study within plant physiology
Plant physiology encompasses all the internal chemical and physical
activities of plants associated with life. Chemicals obtained
from the air, soil and water form the basis of all plant metabolism.
The energy of sunlight, captured by oxygenic photosynthesis and
released by cellular respiration, is the basis of almost all life.
Photoautotrophs, including all green plants, algae and cyanobacteria
gather energy directly from sunlight by photosynthesis. Heterotrophs
including all animals, all fungi, all completely parasitic plants, and
non-photosynthetic bacteria take in organic molecules produced by
photoautotrophs and respire them or use them in the construction of
cells and tissues. Respiration is the oxidation of carbon
compounds by breaking them down into simpler structures to release the
energy they contain, essentially the opposite of photosynthesis.
Molecules are moved within plants by transport processes that operate
at a variety of spatial scales. Subcellular transport of ions,
electrons and molecules such as water and enzymes occurs across cell
membranes. Minerals and water are transported from roots to other
parts of the plant in the transpiration stream. Diffusion, osmosis,
and active transport and mass flow are all different ways transport
can occur. Examples of elements that plants need to transport are
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. In
vascular plants, these elements are extracted from the soil as soluble
ions by the roots and transported throughout the plant in the xylem.
Most of the elements required for plant nutrition come from the
chemical breakdown of soil minerals.
Sucrose produced by
photosynthesis is transported from the leaves to other parts of the
plant in the phloem and plant hormones are transported by a variety of
1 An oat coleoptile with the sun overhead.
Auxin (pink) is evenly
distributed in its tip.
2 With the sun at an angle and only shining on one side of the shoot,
auxin moves to the opposite side and stimulates cell elongation there.
3 and 4 Extra growth on that side causes the shoot to bend towards the
Plant hormone and Phytochrome
Plants are not passive, but respond to external signals such as light,
touch, and injury by moving or growing towards or away from the
stimulus, as appropriate. Tangible evidence of touch sensitivity is
the almost instantaneous collapse of leaflets of Mimosa pudica, the
insect traps of
Venus flytrap and bladderworts, and the pollinia of
The hypothesis that plant growth and development is coordinated by
plant hormones or plant growth regulators first emerged in the late
19th century. Darwin experimented on the movements of plant shoots and
roots towards light and gravity, and concluded "It is hardly an
exaggeration to say that the tip of the radicle . . acts like the
brain of one of the lower animals . . directing the several
movements". About the same time, the role of auxins (from the
Greek auxein, to grow) in control of plant growth was first outlined
by the Dutch scientist Frits Went. The first known auxin,
indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which promotes cell growth, was only
isolated from plants about 50 years later. This compound mediates
the tropic responses of shoots and roots towards light and
gravity. The finding in 1939 that plant callus could be
maintained in culture containing IAA, followed by the observation in
1947 that it could be induced to form roots and shoots by controlling
the concentration of growth hormones were key steps in the development
of plant biotechnology and genetic modification.
Venus's fly trap, Dionaea muscipula, showing the touch-sensitive
insect trap in action
Cytokinins are a class of plant hormones named for their control of
cell division or cytokinesis. The natural cytokinin zeatin was
discovered in corn, Zea mays, and is a derivative of the purine
Zeatin is produced in roots and transported to shoots in the
xylem where it promotes cell division, bud development, and the
greening of chloroplasts. The gibberelins, such as
Gibberelic acid are diterpenes synthesised from acetyl CoA via the
mevalonate pathway. They are involved in the promotion of germination
and dormancy-breaking in seeds, in regulation of plant height by
controlling stem elongation and the control of flowering.
Abscisic acid (ABA) occurs in all land plants except liverworts, and
is synthesised from carotenoids in the chloroplasts and other
plastids. It inhibits cell division, promotes seed maturation, and
dormancy, and promotes stomatal closure. It was so named because it
was originally thought to control abscission. Ethylene is a
gaseous hormone that is produced in all higher plant tissues from
methionine. It is now known to be the hormone that stimulates or
regulates fruit ripening and abscission, and it, or the
synthetic growth regulator ethephon which is rapidly metabolised to
produce ethylene, are used on industrial scale to promote ripening of
cotton, pineapples and other climacteric crops.
Another class of phytohormones is the jasmonates, first isolated from
the oil of Jasminum grandiflorum which regulates wound responses
in plants by unblocking the expression of genes required in the
systemic acquired resistance response to pathogen attack.
In addition to being the primary energy source for plants, light
functions as a signalling device, providing information to the plant,
such as how much sunlight the plant receives each day. This can result
in adaptive changes in a process known as photomorphogenesis.
Phytochromes are the photoreceptors in a plant that are sensitive to
Plant anatomy and morphology
A nineteenth-century illustration showing the morphology of the roots,
stems, leaves and flowers of the rice plant Oryza sativa
Plant anatomy is the study of the structure of plant cells and
tissues, whereas plant morphology is the study of their external
form. All plants are multicellular eukaryotes, their
in nuclei. The characteristic features of plant cells that
distinguish them from those of animals and fungi include a primary
cell wall composed of the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose and
pectin,  larger vacuoles than in animal cells and the presence of
plastids with unique photosynthetic and biosynthetic functions as in
the chloroplasts. Other plastids contain storage products such as
starch (amyloplasts) or lipids (elaioplasts). Uniquely, streptophyte
cells and those of the green algal order Trentepohliales divide
by construction of a phragmoplast as a template for building a cell
plate late in cell division.
A diagram of a "typical" eudicot, the most common type of plant
(three-fifths of all plant species). No plant actually looks
exactly like this though.
The bodies of vascular plants including clubmosses, ferns and seed
plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) generally have aerial and
subterranean subsystems. The shoots consist of stems bearing green
photosynthesising leaves and reproductive structures. The underground
vascularised roots bear root hairs at their tips and generally lack
chlorophyll. Non-vascular plants, the liverworts, hornworts and
mosses do not produce ground-penetrating vascular roots and most of
the plant participates in photosynthesis. The sporophyte
generation is nonphotosynthetic in liverworts but may be able to
contribute part of its energy needs by photosynthesis in mosses and
The root system and the shoot system are interdependent – the
usually nonphotosynthetic root system depends on the shoot system for
food, and the usually photosynthetic shoot system depends on water and
minerals from the root system. Cells in each system are capable
of creating cells of the other and producing adventitious shoots or
Stolons and tubers are examples of shoots that can grow
roots. Roots that spread out close to the surface, such as those
of willows, can produce shoots and ultimately new plants. In the
event that one of the systems is lost, the other can often regrow it.
In fact it is possible to grow an entire plant from a single leaf, as
is the case with Saintpaulia, or even a single cell – which can
dedifferentiate into a callus (a mass of unspecialised cells) that can
grow into a new plant. In vascular plants, the xylem and phloem
are the conductive tissues that transport resources between shoots and
roots. Roots are often adapted to store food such as sugars or
starch, as in sugar beets and carrots.
Stems mainly provide support to the leaves and reproductive
structures, but can store water in succulent plants such as cacti,
food as in potato tubers, or reproduce vegetatively as in the stolons
of strawberry plants or in the process of layering. Leaves gather
sunlight and carry out photosynthesis. Large, flat, flexible,
green leaves are called foliage leaves. Gymnosperms, such as
conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes are seed-producing plants
with open seeds.
Angiosperms are seed-producing plants that
produce flowers and have enclosed seeds. Woody plants, such as
azaleas and oaks, undergo a secondary growth phase resulting in two
additional types of tissues: wood (secondary xylem) and bark
(secondary phloem and cork). All gymnosperms and many angiosperms are
woody plants. Some plants reproduce sexually, some asexually, and
some via both means.
Although reference to major morphological categories such as root,
stem, leaf, and trichome are useful, one has to keep in mind that
these categories are linked through intermediate forms so that a
continuum between the categories results. Furthermore, structures
can be seen as processes, that is, process combinations.
Further information: Taxonomy (biology)
A botanist preparing a plant specimen for mounting in the herbarium
Systematic botany is part of systematic biology, which is concerned
with the range and diversity of organisms and their relationships,
particularly as determined by their evolutionary history. It
involves, or is related to, biological classification, scientific
taxonomy and phylogenetics. Biological classification is the method by
which botanists group organisms into categories such as genera or
species. Biological classification is a form of scientific taxonomy.
Modern taxonomy is rooted in the work of Carl Linnaeus, who grouped
species according to shared physical characteristics. These groupings
have since been revised to align better with the Darwinian principle
of common descent – grouping organisms by ancestry rather than
superficial characteristics. While scientists do not always agree on
how to classify organisms, molecular phylogenetics, which uses DNA
sequences as data, has driven many recent revisions along evolutionary
lines and is likely to continue to do so. The dominant classification
system is called Linnaean taxonomy. It includes ranks and binomial
nomenclature. The nomenclature of botanical organisms is codified in
the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
(ICN) and administered by the International Botanical
Kingdom Plantae belongs to Domain
Eukarya and is broken down
recursively until each species is separately classified. The order is:
Phylum (or Division); Class; Order; Family;
genera); Species. The scientific name of a plant represents its genus
and its species within the genus, resulting in a single worldwide name
for each organism. For example, the tiger lily is Lilium
columbianum. Lilium is the genus, and columbianum the specific
epithet. The combination is the name of the species. When writing the
scientific name of an organism, it is proper to capitalise the first
letter in the genus and put all of the specific epithet in lowercase.
Additionally, the entire term is ordinarily italicised (or underlined
when italics are not available).
The evolutionary relationships and heredity of a group of organisms is
called its phylogeny. Phylogenetic studies attempt to discover
phylogenies. The basic approach is to use similarities based on shared
inheritance to determine relationships. As an example, species of
Pereskia are trees or bushes with prominent leaves. They do not
obviously resemble a typical leafless cactus such as an Echinocactus.
Echinocactus have spines produced from
areoles (highly specialised pad-like structures) suggesting that the
two genera are indeed related.
Two cacti of very different appearance
Pereskia is a tree with leaves, it has spines and areoles
like a more typical cactus, such as Echinocactus.
Judging relationships based on shared characters requires care, since
plants may resemble one another through convergent evolution in which
characters have arisen independently. Some euphorbias have leafless,
rounded bodies adapted to water conservation similar to those of
globular cacti, but characters such as the structure of their flowers
make it clear that the two groups are not closely related. The
cladistic method takes a systematic approach to characters,
distinguishing between those that carry no information about shared
evolutionary history – such as those evolved separately in different
groups (homoplasies) or those left over from ancestors
(plesiomorphies) – and derived characters, which have been passed
down from innovations in a shared ancestor (apomorphies). Only derived
characters, such as the spine-producing areoles of cacti, provide
evidence for descent from a common ancestor. The results of cladistic
analyses are expressed as cladograms: tree-like diagrams showing the
pattern of evolutionary branching and descent.
From the 1990s onwards, the predominant approach to constructing
phylogenies for living plants has been molecular phylogenetics, which
uses molecular characters, particularly
DNA sequences, rather than
morphological characters like the presence or absence of spines and
areoles. The difference is that the genetic code itself is used to
decide evolutionary relationships, instead of being used indirectly
via the characters it gives rise to.
Clive Stace describes this as
having "direct access to the genetic basis of evolution." As a
simple example, prior to the use of genetic evidence, fungi were
thought either to be plants or to be more closely related to plants
than animals. Genetic evidence suggests that the true evolutionary
relationship of multicelled organisms is as shown in the cladogram
below – fungi are more closely related to animals than to
In 1998 the
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group published a phylogeny for
flowering plants based on an analysis of
DNA sequences from most
families of flowering plants. As a result of this work, many
questions, such as which families represent the earliest branches of
angiosperms, have now been answered. Investigating how plant
species are related to each other allows botanists to better
understand the process of evolution in plants. Despite the study
of model plants and increasing use of
DNA evidence, there is ongoing
work and discussion among taxonomists about how best to classify
plants into various taxa. Technological developments such as
computers and electron microscopes have greatly increased the level of
detail studied and speed at which data can be analysed.
Bibliography of biology
Branches of botany
Evolution of plants
Genomics of domestication
Glossary of botanical terms
Glossary of plant morphology
History of phycology
History of plant systematics
List of botany journals
List of botanists
List of botanical gardens
List of botanists by author abbreviation
List of domesticated plants
List of flowers
List of Russian botanists
List of systems of plant taxonomy
Outline of botany
Plant reproductive morphology
Chlorophyll b is also found in some cyanobacteria. A bunch of other
chlorophylls exist in cyanobacteria and certain algal groups, but none
of them are found in land plants.
^ Liddell & Scott 1940.
^ Gordh & Headrick 2001, p. 134.
^ Online Etymology Dictionary 2012.
^ RBG Kew (2016). The State of the World’s Plants Report – 2016.
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Plant List - Bryophytes".
^ Sumner 2000, p. 16.
^ a b Delcourt, Paul A.; Delcourt, Hazel R.; Cridlebaugh, Patricia A.;
Chapman, Jefferson (1986-05-01). "
Holocene ethnobotanical and
paleoecological record of human impact on vegetation in the Little
Tennessee River Valley, Tennessee". Quaternary Research. 25 (3):
^ a b Reed 1942, pp. 7–29.
^ Oberlies 1998, p. 155.
^ Needham, Lu & Huang 1986.
^ a b Greene 1909, pp. 140–142.
^ Bennett & Hammond 1902, p. 30.
^ Mauseth 2003, p. 532.
^ Dallal 2010, p. 197.
^ Panaino 2002, p. 93.
^ Levey 1973, p. 116.
^ Hill 1915.
^ National Museum of Wales 2007.
^ Yaniv & Bachrach 2005, p. 157.
^ Sprague 1939.
^ Waggoner 2001.
^ Scharf 2009, pp. 73–117.
^ Capon 2005, pp. 220–223.
^ Hoek, Mann & Jahns 2005, p. 9.
^ Starr 2009, p. 299–.
^ Morton 1981, p. 377.
^ Harris 2000, pp. 76–81.
^ Small 2012, p. 118–.
^ Karp 2009, p. 382.
^ National Science Foundation 1989.
^ Chaffey 2007, pp. 481–482.
^ Tansley 1935, pp. 299–302.
^ Willis 1997, pp. 267–271.
^ Morton 1981, p. 457.
^ de Candolle 2006, pp. 9–25, 450–465.
^ Jasechko et al. 2013, pp. 347–350.
^ Nobel 1983, p. 608.
^ Yates & Mather 1963, pp. 91–129.
^ Finney 1995, pp. 554–573.
^ Cocking 1993.
^ Cousens & Mortimer 1995.
^ Ehrhardt & Frommer 2012, pp. 1–21.
^ Haberlandt 1902, pp. 69–92.
^ Leonelli et al. 2012.
^ Sattler & Jeune 1992, pp. 249-262.
^ a b Sattler 1992, pp. 708-714.
^ Ereshefsky 1997, pp. 493–519.
^ Gray & Sargent 1889, pp. 292–293.
^ Medbury 1993, pp. 14–16.
^ Judd et al. 2002, pp. 347–350.
^ a b Burger 2013.
^ Kress et al. 2005, pp. 8369–8374.
^ Janzen et al. 2009, pp. 12794–12797.
^ Campbell et al. 2008, pp. 186–187.
^ Campbell et al. 2008, p. 1240.
^ Gust 1996.
^ Missouri Botanical
^ Chapman et al. 2001, p. 56.
^ Braselton 2013.
^ Ben-Menahem 2009, p. 5368.
^ Campbell et al. 2008, p. 602.
^ Campbell et al. 2008, pp. 619–620.
^ Capon 2005, pp. 10–11.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 1–3.
^ Cleveland Museum of Natural History 2012.
^ Campbell et al. 2008, pp. 516–517.
^ Botanical Society of America 2013.
^ Ben-Menahem 2009, pp. 5367–5368.
^ Butz 2007, pp. 534–553.
^ Stover & Simmonds 1987, pp. 106–126.
^ Zohary & Hopf 2000, pp. 20–22.
^ Floros, Newsome & Fisher 2010.
^ Schoening 2005.
^ Acharya & Anshu 2008, p. 440.
^ a b Kuhnlein, Harriet V.; Turner, Nancy J. (1991-01-01). Traditional
Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany, and
Use. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9782881244650.
^ Lüttge 2006, pp. 7–25.
^ Campbell et al. 2008, pp. 190–193.
^ Kim & Archibald 2009, pp. 1–39.
^ Howe et al. 2008, pp. 2675–2685.
^ Takaichi 2011, pp. 1101–1118.
^ a b Lewis & McCourt 2004, pp. 1535–1556.
^ Padmanabhan & Dinesh-Kumar 2010, pp. 1368–1380.
^ Schnurr et al. 2002, pp. 1700–1709.
^ Ferro et al. 2002, pp. 11487–11492.
^ Kolattukudy 1996, pp. 83–108.
^ Fry 1989, pp. 1–11.
^ Thompson & Fry 2001, pp. 23–34.
^ Kenrick & Crane 1997, pp. 33–39.
^ Gowik & Westhoff 2010, pp. 56–63.
^ a b Benderoth et al. 2006, pp. 9118–9123.
^ Jeffreys 2005, pp. 38–40.
^ Mann 1987, pp. 186–187.
University of Maryland Medical Center 2011.
^ Frances, Densmore (1974). How Indians Use Wild Plants for Food,
Medicine, and Crafts. Dover Publications.
^ McCutcheon, A. R.; Ellis, S. M.; Hancock, R. E.; Towers, G. H.
(1992-10-01). "Antibiotic screening of medicinal plants of the British
Columbian native peoples". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 37 (3):
213–223. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(92)90036-q. ISSN 0378-8741.
^ Klemm et al. 2005.
^ Scharlemann & Laurance 2008, pp. 52–53.
^ a b "Research confirms Native American use of sweetgrass as bug
repellent". Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 786–818.
^ a b Teach
Ethnobotany (2012-06-12), Cultivation of peyote by Native
Americans: Past, present and future, retrieved 2016-05-05
^ Burrows 1990, pp. 1–73.
^ Addelson 2003.
^ Grime & Hodgson 1987, pp. 283–295.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 819–848.
^ Campbell et al. 2008, p. 794.
^ Herrera & Pellmyr 2002, pp. 211–235.
^ Proctor & Yeo 1973, p. 479.
^ Herrera & Pellmyr 2002, pp. 157–185.
^ Herrera & Pellmyr 2002, pp. 185–210.
^ Bennett & Willis 2001, pp. 5–32.
^ Beerling, Osborne & Chaloner 2001, pp. 287–394.
^ Björn et al. 1999, pp. 449–454.
^ Ben-Menahem 2009, pp. 5369–5370.
^ Ben-Menahem 2009, p. 5369.
^ Stace 2010b, pp. 629–633.
^ Hancock 2004, pp. 190–196.
^ Sobotka, Sáková & Curn 2000, pp. 103–112.
^ Renner & Ricklefs 1995, pp. 596–606.
^ Porley & Hodgetts 2005, pp. 2–3.
^ Savidan 2000, pp. 13–86.
^ a b Campbell et al. 2008, pp. 495–496.
^ Morgensen 1996, pp. 383–384.
Genome Initiative 2000, pp. 796–815.
^ Devos & Gale 2000.
University of California-Davis 2012.
^ Russin et al. 1996, pp. 645–658.
^ Rochaix, Goldschmidt-Clermont & Merchant 1998, p. 550.
^ Glynn et al. 2007, pp. 451–461.
^ Possingham & Rose 1976, pp. 295–305.
^ Sun et al. 2002, pp. 95–100.
^ Heinhorst & Cannon 1993, pp. 1–9.
^ Schell & Van Montagu 1977, pp. 159–179.
^ Bird 2007, pp. 396–398.
^ Hunter 2008.
^ Spector 2012, p. 8.
^ Reik 2007, pp. 425–432.
^ Costa & Shaw 2007, pp. 101–106.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 552–581.
^ Copeland 1938, pp. 383–420.
^ Woese et al. 1977, pp. 305–311.
^ Cavalier-Smith 2004, pp. 1251–1262.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 617–654.
^ Becker & Marin 2009, pp. 999–1004.
^ Fairon-Demaret 1996, pp. 217–233.
^ Stewart & Rothwell 1993, pp. 279–294.
^ Taylor, Taylor & Krings 2009, chapter 13.
^ a b Mauseth 2003, pp. 720–750.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 751–785.
^ Lee et al. 2011, p. e1002411.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 278–279.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 280–314.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 315–340.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 341–372.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 373–398.
^ Mauseth 2012, p. 351.
^ Darwin 1880, pp. 129–200.
^ Darwin 1880, pp. 449–492.
^ Darwin 1880, p. 573.
Plant Hormones 2013.
^ Went & Thimann 1937, pp. 110–112.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 411–412.
^ Sussex 2008, pp. 1189–1198.
^ Campbell et al. 2008, pp. 827–830.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 411–413.
^ Taiz & Zeiger 2002, pp. 461–492.
^ Taiz & Zeiger 2002, pp. 519–538.
^ Lin, Zhong & Grierson 2009, pp. 331–336.
^ Taiz & Zeiger 2002, pp. 539–558.
^ Demole, Lederer & Mercier 1962, pp. 675–685.
^ Chini et al. 2007, pp. 666–671.
^ Roux 1984, pp. 25–29.
^ Raven, Evert & Eichhorn 2005, p. 9.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 433–467.
^ National Center for Biotechnology Information 2004.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 62–81.
^ López-Bautista, Waters & Chapman 2003, pp. 1715–1718.
^ Campbell et al. 2008, pp. 630, 738.
^ a b c Campbell et al. 2008, p. 739.
^ Campbell et al. 2008, pp. 607–608.
^ Lepp 2012.
^ a b Campbell et al. 2008, pp. 812–814.
^ Campbell et al. 2008, p. 740.
^ a b Mauseth 2003, pp. 185–208.
^ Mithila et al. 2003, pp. 408–414.
^ Campbell et al. 2008, p. 741.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 114–153.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 154–184.
^ Capon 2005, p. 11.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 209–243.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 244–277.
^ Sattler & Jeune 1992, pp. 249-269.
^ Lilburn et al. 2006.
^ McNeill et al. 2011, p. Preamble, para. 7.
^ a b Mauseth 2003, pp. 528–551.
^ Mauseth 2003, pp. 528–55.
^ International Association for
Plant Taxonomy 2006.
^ Silyn-Roberts 2000, p. 198.
^ Mauseth 2012, pp. 438–444.
^ Mauseth 2012, pp. 446–449.
^ Anderson 2001, pp. 26–27.
^ Mauseth 2012, pp. 442–450.
^ Stace 2010a, p. 104.
^ Mauseth 2012, p. 453.
^ Chase et al. 2003, pp. 399–436.
^ Capon 2005, p. 223.
^ Morton 1981, pp. 459–459.
Acharya, Deepak; Anshu, Shrivastava (2008). Indigenous Herbal
Medicines: Tribal Formulations and Traditional
Jaipur, India: Aavishkar Publishers. ISBN 81-7910-252-1.
Addelson, Barbara (December 2003). "Natural Science Institute in
Ecology for Elementary Teachers". Botanical Gardens
Conservation International. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
Anderson, Edward F. (2001). The
Cactus Family. Pentland, Oregon:
Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-498-5.
Armstrong, G. A.; Hearst, J. E. (1996). "Carotenoids 2:
Carotenoid Pigment Biosynthesis". FASEB J. 10
(2): 228–37. PMID 8641556.
Becker, Burkhard; Marin, Birger (2009). "
Algae and the
Origin of Embryophytes". Annals of Botany. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. 103 (7): 999–1004. doi:10.1093/aob/mcp044.
PMC 2707909 . PMID 19273476. Retrieved June 16,
Beerling, D. J.; Osborne, C. P.; Chaloner, W. G. (2001). "
Leaf-form in Land Plants Linked to Atmospheric CO2 Decline in the Late
Palaeozoic Era". Nature. 410 (6826): 352–4. doi:10.1038/35066546.
Benderoth, Markus; Textor, Susanne; Windsor, Aaron J.; Mitchell-Old s,
Thomas; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Kroymann, Juergen (June 2006). "Positive
Selection Driving Diversification in
Plant Secondary Metabolism".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
of America. Washington, D.C. 103 (24): 9118–23.
JSTOR 30051907. PMC 1482576 . PMID 16754868.
Ben-Menahem, Ari (2009). Historical Encyclopedia of Natural and
Mathematical Sciences. 1. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Bennett, Charles E.; Hammond, William A. (1902). The Characters of
Theophrastus – Introduction. London: Longmans, Green, and Co.
Retrieved June 27, 2012.
Bennett, K. D.; Willis, K. J. (2001). "Pollen". In Smol, John P.;
Birks, H. John B. Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments.
3: Terrestrial, Algal, and Siliceous Indicators. Dordrecht, Germany:
Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Bird, Adrian (May 2007). "Perceptions of Epigenetics". Nature. 447
(7143): 396–8. Bibcode:2007Natur.447..396B. doi:10.1038/nature05913.
Björn, L. O.; Callaghan, T. V.; Gehrke, C.; Johanson, U.; Sonesson,
M. (November 1999). "Ozone Depletion,
Ultraviolet Radiation and Plant
Life". Chemosphere – Global Change Science. Philadelphia: Elsevier
Ltd. 1 (4): 449–454. doi:10.1016/S1465-9972(99)00038-0. Retrieved
June 16, 2013.
Bold, H. C. (1977). The
Plant Kingdom (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-680389-X.
Braselton, J. P. (2013). "What is
Plant Biology?". Ohio University.
Retrieved June 3, 2013.
Burger, William C. (2013). "
Angiosperm Origins: A Monocots-First
Scenario". Chicago: The Field Museum.
Burrows, W. J. (1990). Processes of Vegetation Change. London: Unwin
Hyman. ISBN 0-04-580013-8.
Butz, Stephen D. (2007). Science of Earth Systems (2 ed.). Clifton
Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning. ISBN 1-4180-4122-X.
Campbell, Neil A.; Reece, Jane B.; Urry, Lisa Andrea; Cain, Michael
L.; Wasserman, Steven Alexander; Minorsky, Peter V.; Jackson, Robert
Biology (8 ed.). San Francisco: Pearson – Benjamin
Cummings. ISBN 978-0-321-54325-7.
de Candolle, Alphonse (2006). Origin of Cultivated Plants. Glacier
National Park, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
Capon, Brian (2005).
Botany for Gardeners (2nd ed.). Portland, OR:
Timber Publishing. ISBN 0-88192-655-8.
Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2004). "Only Six Kingdoms of Life" (PDF).
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 271 (1545): 1251–1262.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2705. PMC 1691724 .
Chaffey, Nigel (2007). "Esau's
Plant Anatomy, Meristems, Cells, and
Tissues of the
Plant Body: their Structure, Function, and
Development". Annals of Botany. 99 (4): 785–786.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcm015. PMC 2802946 .
Chapman, Jasmin; Horsfall, Peter; O'Brien, Pat; Murphy, Jan;
MacDonald, Averil (2001). Science Web. Cheltenham, GB: Nelson Thornes.
Chase, Mark W.; Bremer, Birgitta; Bremer, Kåre; Reveal, James L.;
Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Stevens, Peter S. (2003). "An
Update of the
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Classification for the Orders
and Families of Flowering Plants: APG II" (PDF). Botanical Journal of
the Linnean Society. The Linnean Society of London. 141 (4):
Chini, A.; Fonseca, S.; Fernández, G.; Adie, B.; Chico, J. M.;
Lorenzo, O.; García-Casado, G.; López-Vidriero, I.; Lozano, F. M.;
Ponce, M. R.; Micol, J. L.; Solano, R. (2007). "The JAZ Family of
Repressors is the Missing Link in
Jasmonate Signaling". Nature. 448
(7154): 666–71. Bibcode:2007Natur.448..666C.
doi:10.1038/nature06006. PMID 17637675.
Cocking, Edward C. (October 18, 1993). "Obituary: Professor F. C.
Steward". The Independent. London. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
Copeland, Herbert Faulkner (1938). "The Kingdoms of Organisms".
Quarterly Review of Biology. 13 (4): 383–420.
Costa, Silvia; Shaw, Peter (March 2007). "'Open Minded' Cells: How
Cells Can Change Fate" (PDF). Trends in Cell Biology. 17 (3): 101–6.
doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2006.12.005. PMID 17194589. Archived from the
original (PDF)) on 2013-12-15.
Cousens, Roger; Mortimer, Martin (1995). Dynamics of
Dallal, Ahmad (2010). Islam, Science, and the Challenge of History.
New Haven, CT: Yale
Darwin, Charles (1880). The Power of Movement in Plants (PDF). London:
Demole, E.; Lederer, E.; Mercier, D. (1962). "Isolement et
détermination de la structure du jasmonate de méthyle, constituant
odorant caractéristique de l'essence de jasminIsolement et
détermination de la structure du jasmonate de méthyle, constituant
odorant caractéristique de l'essence de jasmin". Helvetica Chimica
Acta. 45 (2): 675–685. doi:10.1002/hlca.19620450233.
Devos, Katrien M.; Gale, M. D. (May 2000). "
Genome Relationships: The
Grass Model in Current Research". The
Plant Cell. American Society of
Plant Physiologists. 12 (5): 637–646. doi:10.2307/3870991.
JSTOR 3870991. PMC 139917 . PMID 10810140.
Ehrhardt, D. W.; Frommer, W. B. (February 2012). "New Technologies for
Plant Science" (PDF). The
Plant Cell. 24 (2): 374–94.
doi:10.1105/tpc.111.093302. PMC 3315222 .
Ereshefsky, Marc (1997). "The
Evolution of the Linnaean Hierarchy".
Biology and Philosophy. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 12 (4): 493–519.
Ferro, Myriam; Salvi, Daniel; Rivière-Rolland, Hélène; Vermat,
Thierry; et al. (20 August 2002). "Integral Membrane Proteins of the
Chloroplast Envelope: Identification and Subcellular Localization of
New Transporters". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of
the United States of America. 99 (17): 11487–11492.
PMC 123283 . PMID 12177442.
Fairon-Demaret, Muriel (October 1996). "Dorinnotheca streelii
Fairon-Demaret, gen. et sp. nov., a New Early
Plant From the
Famennian of Belgium". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology.
93: 217–233. doi:10.1016/0034-6667(95)00127-1.
Finney, D. J. (November 1995). "
Frank Yates 12 May 1902 – 17
June 1994". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 41:
554–573. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1995.0033. JSTOR 770162.
Floros, John D.; Newsome, Rosetta; Fisher, William (2010). "Feeding
the World Today and Tomorrow: The Importance of Food Science and
Technology" (PDF). Institute of Food Technologists. Retrieved March 1,
Fry, S. C. (1989). "The Structure and Functions of Xyloglucan".
Journal of Experimental Biology. Cambridge: The Company of Biologists.
Gordh, Gordon; Headrick, D. H. (2001). A Dictionary of Entomology.
Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85199-291-4.
Gray, Asa; Sargent, Charles (1889). Scientific Papers of Asa Gray:
Selected by Charles Sprague Sargent. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Retrieved February 26, 2012.
Greene, Edward Lee (1909). Landmarks of botanical history: a study of
certain epochs in the development of the science of botany: part 1,
Prior to 1562 A.D. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
Glynn, Jonathan M.; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Yoder, David W.; Osteryoung,
Katherine W.; Vitha, Stanislav (May 1, 2007). "
Traffic. 8 (5): 451–61. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0854.2007.00545.x.
Gowik, U.; Westhoff, P. (2010). "The Path from C3 to C4
Plant Physiology. 155 (1): 56–63.
doi:10.1104/pp.110.165308. PMC 3075750 .
Grime, J. P.; Hodgson, J. G. (1987). "Botanical Contributions to
Contemporary Ecological Theory". The New Phytologist. 106.
Gust, Devens (1996). "Why Study Photosynthesis?". Arizona State
University. Archived from the original on February 9, 2012. Retrieved
February 26, 2012.
Hancock, James F. (2004).
Evolution and the Origin of Crop
Species. Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing.
Haberlandt, G. (1902). "Kulturversuche mit isolierten Pflanzenzellen".
Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche (in German). Vienna: Akademie der
Wissenschaften in Wien Sitzungsberichte. 111 (1): 69–92.
Harris, Henry (2000). The Birth of the Cell. New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press. ISBN 0-300-08295-9.
Heinhorst, S.; Cannon, G. C. (January 1993). "
DNA Replication in
Chloroplasts". Journal of Cell Science. 104 (104): 1. Retrieved July
Herrera, C. M.; Pellmyr, O. (2002).
Plant Animal Interactions: An
Evolutionary Approach. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell Science.
Hill, Arthur W. (1915). "The History and Functions of Botanic
Gardens". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2 (1/2): 185–240.
doi:10.2307/2990033. JSTOR 2990033.
Hoek, Christiaan; Mann, D. G.; Jahns, H. M. (2005). Algae: An
Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge: Cambridge
Howe, C. J.; Barbrook, A. C.; Nisbet, R. E. R; Lockhart, P. J.;
Larkum, A. W. D. (2008). "The Origin of Plastids". Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1504):
2675–85. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0050. PMC 2606771 .
Hunter, Philip (May 2008). "What Genes Remember". Web.archive.org.
Archived from the original on May 1, 2008. Retrieved August 24,
2013. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
Janzen, Daniel H. with the CBOL
Plant Working Group; Forrest, L. L.;
Spouge, J. L.; Hajibabaei, M.; et al. (August 4, 2009). "A
for Land Plants". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106
(31): 12794–7. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10612794H.
doi:10.1073/pnas.0905845106. PMC 2722355 .
Jasechko, Scott; Sharp, Zachary D.; Gibson, John J.; Birks, S. Jean;
Yi, Yi; Fawcett, Peter J. (April 3, 2013). "Terrestrial Water Fluxes
Dominated by Transpiration". Nature. 496 (7445): 347–50.
Jeffreys, Diarmuid (2005). Aspirin : The Remarkable Story of a
Wonder Drug. New York: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-58234-600-7.
Judd, W. S.; Campbell, C. S.; Kellogg, E. A.; Stevens, P. F.;
Donoghue, M. J. (2002).
Plant Systematics, a Phylogenetic Approach.
Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0-87893-403-0.
Karp, Gerald (2009). Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and
Experiments. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Kenrick, Paul; Crane, Peter R. (September 1997). "The Origin and Early
Evolution of Plants on Land". Nature. 389 (6646): 33–39.
Kim, E.; Archibald, J. M. (2009). "Diversity and
Evolution of Plastids
and Their Genomes". In Sandelius, Anna Stina; Aronsson, Henrik. The
Plant Cell Monographs. 13.
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-68696-5_1. ISBN 978-3-540-68692-7.
Klemm, Dieter; Heublein, Brigitte; Fink, Hans-Peter; Bohn, Andreas
(September 6, 2005). "Cellulose: Fascinating Biopolymer and
Sustainable Raw Material". ChemInform. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &
Sons. 36 (36). doi:10.1002/chin.200536238.
Kolattukudy, Pappachan E. (1996). "3". In Kerstiens, G. Plant
Biology Series. Oxford: BIOS Scientific
Publishers Ltd. ISBN 1-85996-130-4.
Kress, W. J.; Wurdack, K. J.; Zimmer, E. A.; Weigt, L. A.; Janzen, D.
H. (June 2005). "Use of
DNA Barcodes to Identify Flowering Plants".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (23): 8369–74.
PMC 1142120 . PMID 15928076. Supporting Information
Lee, Ernest K.; Cibrian-Jaramillo, Angelica; Kolokotronis,
Sergios-Orestis; Katari, Manpreet S.; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Ott,
Michael; Chiu, Joanna C.; Little, Damon P.; Stevenson, Dennis W.;
McCombie, W. Richard; Martienssen, Robert A.; Coruzzi, Gloria;
Desalle, Rob (2011). Sanderson, Michael J, ed. "A Functional
Phylogenomic View of the
Seed Plants". PLOS Genetics. 7 (12):
e1002411. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002411. PMC 3240601 .
Leonelli, Sabina; Charnley, Berris; Webb, Alex; Bastow, Ruth (2012).
"Under One Leaf, A Historical Perspective on the UK
Federation". New Phytologist. 195: 10–3.
doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.4168.x. PMID 22530650.
Lepp, Heino (2012). "Mosses". Australian National Botanic Gardens.
Retrieved July 14, 2013.
Levey, Martin (1973). Early Arabic Pharmacology: An Introduction Based
on Ancient and Medieval Sources. Leiden: Brill Archive.
Lewis, Louise A.; McCourt, Richard M. (2004). "Green
Algae and the
Origin of Land Plants". American Journal of Botany. St. Louis, MO. 91
(10): 1535–56. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1535. PMID 21652308.
Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940). Botane (βοτάνη).
Oxford: Clarendon Press via Perseus Digital Library, Tufts
Lilburn, Timothy G.; Harrison, Scott H.; Cole, James R.; Garrity,
George M. (2006). "Computational aspects of systematic biology".
Briefings in Bioinformatics. 7 (2): 186–195. doi:10.1093/bib/bbl005.
Lin, Z.; Zhong, S.; Grierson, D. (2009). "Recent Advances in Ethylene
Research". Journal of Experimental Botany. Oxford. 60 (12): 3311–36.
doi:10.1093/jxb/erp204. PMID 19567479.
López-Bautista, J. M.; Waters, D.A.; Chapman, R.L. (2003).
Algae and the
Evolution of Cytokinesis".
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.
Reading, UK. 53 (6): 1715–1718. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02561-0.
Lunn, J. E. (2002). "
Sucrose Synthesis". Plant
Physiology. 128 (4): 1490–500. doi:10.1104/pp.010898.
PMC 154276 . PMID 11950997.
Lüttge, Ulrich (2006). "Photosynthetic Flexibility and
Ecophysiological Plasticity: Questions and Lessons from Clusia, the
Only CAM Tree, in the Neotropics". New Phytologist. Hoboken, NJ. 171
(1): 7–25. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01755.x. JSTOR 3694480.
Mann, J. (1987). Secondary Metabolism, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-855529-6.
Mauseth, James D. (2003). Botany : An Introduction to Plant
Biology (3rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.
Mauseth, James D. (2012). Botany : An Introduction to Plant
Biology (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.
McNeill, J.; Barrie, F. R.; Buck, W. R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.;
Hawksworth, D. L.; Herendeen, P. S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado,
J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W. F.; Smith, G. F.; Wiersema, J. H.;
Turland, N. J. (2011). International Code of Nomenclature for algae,
fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth
International Botanical Congress
International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011.
Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG.
Medbury, Scot (1993). "Taxonomy and Arboreturm Design" (PDF). Harvard
University. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
Mithila, J.; Hall, J. C.; Victor, J. M.; Saxena, P. K. (January 2003).
Shoot Organogenesis at Low Concentrations and
Somatic Embryogenesis at High Concentrations on
Leaf and Petiole
Explants of African Violet (
Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl)".
Reports. 21 (5): 408–14. doi:10.1007/s00299-002-0544-y.
Morgensen, H. L. (1996). "The Hows and Whys of Cytoplasmic Inheritance
Seed Plants". American Journal of Botany. 83 (3): 383.
doi:10.2307/2446172. JSTOR 2446172.
Morton, Alan G. (1981). History of Botanical Science: An Account of
the Development of
Botany from Ancient Times to the Present Day.
London: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-508380-5.
Needham, Joseph; Lu, Gwei-djen; Huang, Hsing-Tsung (1986). Science and
Civilisation in China, Vol. 6 Part 1 Botany. Cambridge: Cambridge
Nobel, P. S. (1983). Biophysical
Physiology and Ecology. San
Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-1447-7.
Oberlies, Thomas (1998). Die Religion des Rgveda (in German). Wien:
Sammlung De Nobili. ISBN 978-3-900271-31-2.
Padmanabhan, Meenu S.; Dinesh-Kumar, S. P. (2010). "All Hands on
Deck—The Role of Chloroplasts, Endoplasmic Reticulum, and the
Nucleus in Driving
Plant Innate Immunity". Molecular Plant-Microbe
Interactions. St. Paul, MN: The American Phytopathological Society. 23
(11): 1368–80. doi:10.1094/MPMI-05-10-0113.
Panaino, Antonio (2002). Ideologies as Intercultural Phenomena:
Proceedings of the Third Annual Symposium of the Assyrian and
Babylonian Intellectual Heritage Project, Held in Chicago, USA,
October 27–31, 2000. Bologna: Mimesis Edizioni.
Porley, Ron; Hodgetts, Nick (2005).
Mosses and Liverworts. New
Naturalist series No.97. London: HarperCollins UK.
Possingham, J. V.; Rose, R. J. (May 18, 1976). "Chloroplast
DNA Synthesis in
Spinach Leaves" (PDF).
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 193 (1112):
Proctor, M.; Yeo, P. (1973). The
Pollination of Flowers, New
Naturalist series. London: Harper Collins.
Raven, Peter H.; Evert, Ray H.; Eichhorn, Susan E. (2005).
Plants (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman.
Reed, Howard S. (1942). A Short History of the
Plant Sciences. New
York: Ronald Press.
Reik, Wolf (May 2007). "Stability and Flexibility of Epigenetic Gene
Regulation in Mammalian Development". Nature. 447 (7143): 425–32.
Renner, S. S.; Ricklefs, R. E. (1995). "Dioecy and its Correlates in
the Flowering Plants" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 82 (5): 596.
doi:10.2307/2445418. JSTOR 2445418.
Rochaix, J. D.; Goldschmidt-Clermont, M.; Merchant, Sabeeha (1998).
Biology of Chloroplasts and
Chlamydomonas. Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer Academic.
Roux, Stanley J. (1984). "Ca2+ and
Phytochrome Action in Plants".
BioScience. Berkeley, CA. 34 (1): 25–9. doi:10.2307/1309422.
JSTOR 1309422. PMID 11540810.
Russin, William A.; Evert, Ray F.; Vanderveer, Peter J.; Sharkey,
Thomas D.; Briggs, Steven P. (1996). "Modification of a Specific Class
of Plasmodesmata and Loss of
Sucrose Export Ability in the sucrose
Maize Mutant". The
Plant Cell. 8 (4): 645–658.
doi:10.1105/tpc.8.4.645. PMC 161126 . PMID 12239395.
Sattler, R. (1992). "Process morphology: structural dynamics in
development and evolution" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Botany. 70 (4):
Sattler, R.; Jeune, B. (1992). "Multivariate analysis confirms the
continuum view of plant form". Annals of Botany. 69: 249–262.
Savidan, Y. H. (2000). "Apomixis:
Genetics and Breeding". Plant
Breeding Reviews. 18: 13–86. doi:10.1002/9780470650158.ch2.
Scharf, Sara T. (2009). "Identification Keys, the "Natural Method,"
and the Development of
Plant Identification Manuals". Journal of the
History of Biology. 42 (1): 73–117. doi:10.1007/s10739-008-9161-0.
Scharlemann, J. P. W.; Laurance, W. F. (2008). "How Green are
Biofuels?". Science. American Association for the Advancement of
Science. 319 (5859): 43–4. doi:10.1126/science.1153103.
Schell, J.; Van Montagu, M. (1977). "The Ti-plasmid of Agrobacterium
tumefaciens, a Natural Vector for the Introduction of Nif Genes in
Plants?". Basic Life Sciences. 9: 159–79.
doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-0880-5_12. ISBN 978-1-4684-0882-9.
Schoening, Steve (2005). "California Noxious and Invasive
Plan" (PDF). California Department of Food and Agriculture. Retrieved
March 1, 2012. [permanent dead link]
Schnurr, J. A.; Shockey, J. M.; De Boer, G. J.; Browse, J. A. (2002).
"Fatty Acid Export from the Chloroplast. Molecular Characterization of
a Major Plastidial Acyl-Coenzyme a Synthetase from Arabidopsis". Plant
Physiology. 129 (4): 1700–9. doi:10.1104/pp.003251.
PMC 166758 . PMID 12177483.
Silyn-Roberts, Heather (2000). Writing for Science and Engineering:
Papers, Presentation. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Small, Michael (2012). Dynamics of Biological Systems. Boca Raton, FL:
CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4398-5336-8.
Sobotka, Roman; Sáková, Lenka; Curn, Vladislav (2000). "Molecular
Mechanisms of Self-incompatibility in Brassica". Current Issues in
Molecular Biology. 2 (4): 103–12. PMID 11471754.
Spector, Tim (2012). Identically Different: Why You Can Change Your
Genes. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
Sprague, T. A.; Sprague, M. S. (1939). "The
Herbal of Valerius
Cordus". The Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Linnean Society
of London. LII (341): 1–113.
Stace, Clive A. (2010a). "Classification by molecules: What's in it
for field botanists?" (PDF). Watsonia. 28. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
Stace, Clive (2010b). New
Flora of the British Isles (3rd ed.).
Starr, Cecie (2009). The Unity and Diversity of Life (AP ed.).
Belmomt, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cenpage Learning.
Stewart, Wilson Nichols; Rothwell, Gar W. (1993). Paleobiology and the
Evolution of Plants. Cambridge: Cambridge
Stover, R. H.; Simmonds, N. W. (1987). Bananas (3rd ed.). Harlow,
England: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-46357-8.
Sumner, Judith (2000). The Natural History of Medicinal Plants. New
York: Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-483-0.
Sun, Yuh-Ju; Forouhar, Farhad; Li Hm, Hsou-min; Tu, Shuh-Long; Yeh,
Yi-Hong; Kao, Sen; Shr, Hui-Lin; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Chinpan;
Hsiao, Chwan-Deng (2002). "Crystal Structure of Pea Toc34, a Novel
GTPase of the
Protein Translocon". Nature Structural
Biology. 9 (2): 95–100. doi:10.1038/nsb744.
Sussex, I. (2008). "The Scientific Roots of Modern Plant
Biotechnology" (PDF). The
Plant Cell. 20 (5): 1189–98.
doi:10.1105/tpc.108.058735. PMC 2438469 .
Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo (2002).
Physiology (3rd ed.).
Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0-87893-823-0.
Takaichi, Shinichi (June 2011). "Carotenoids in Algae: Distributions,
Biosyntheses and Functions". Marine Drugs. 9 (12): 1101–1118.
doi:10.3390/md9061101. PMC 3131562 . PMID 21747749.
Tansley, A. G. (1935). "The Use and Abuse of Vegetational Terms and
Concepts". Ecology. Washington, D.C.: Ecological Society of America.
16 (3): 284. doi:10.2307/1930070. JSTOR 1930070.
Taylor, T.N.; Taylor, E.L.; Krings, M. (2009). Paleobotany, The
Evolution of Fossil Plants (2nd ed.). Amsterdam; Boston:
Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-373972-8.
Thompson, James E.; Fry, Stephen C. (2001). "Restructuring of
Xyloglucan by Transglycosylation in Living
Plant Journal. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons. 26
(1): 23–34. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x.2001.01005.x.
Waggoner, Ben (2001). "
University of California Museum of
University of California-Berkeley. Retrieved February
Went, F. W.; Thimann, K. V. (1937). Phytohormones (PDF). New York:
Willis, A. J. (1997). "The Ecosystem: An Evolving Concept Viewed
Historically". Functional Ecology. London: British Ecological Society.
11 (2): 268–271. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2435.1997.00081.x.
Woese, C. R.; Magrum, W. E.; Fox, L. J.; Wolfe, G. E.; Woese, R. S.
(August 1977). "An Ancient Divergence Among the Bacteria". Journal of
Molecular Evolution. 9 (4): 305–311. doi:10.1007/BF01796092.
Yaniv, Zohara; Bachrach, Uriel (2005). Handbook of Medicinal Plants.
Binghampton, NY: Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56022-994-2.
Yates, F.; Mather, K. (1963). Ronald Aylmer Fisher 1890–1962.
Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 9.
Zohary, Daniel; Hopf, Maria (2000). Domestication of Plants in the Old
World (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford
Genome Initiative (2000). "Analysis of the Genome
Sequence of the Flowering
Plant Arabidopsis thaliana". Nature. London:
Nature Publishing Group. 408 (6814): 796–815.
Plant Hormones, Long Ashton Research Station, Biotechnology
and Biological Sciences Research Council. Retrieved July 15,
"A Basic Introduction to the Science Underlying NCBI Resources".
National Center for Biotechnology Information. March 30, 2004.
Retrieved March 5, 2012.
"Botany". Online Etymology Dictionary. 2012. Retrieved February 24,
"Early Herbals – The German Fathers of Botany". National Museum of
Wales. July 4, 2007. Retrieved February 19, 2012.
"Katherine Esau". National Science Foundation. 1989. Retrieved June
Evolution and Diversity,
Botany for the Next Millennium: I. The
Intellectual: Evolution, Development, Ecosystems". Botanical Society
of America. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved
March 2, 2012.
"Paleobotany". Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Retrieved July 30,
"Physical Map of Brachypodium".
University of California-Davis.
Retrieved February 26, 2012.
"Plants and Life on Earth". Missouri Botanical Garden. 2009. Retrieved
March 10, 2012.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Botany
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Botany
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Botany.
At Wikiversity, you can learn more and teach others about
the Department of Botany
Wikisource has original works on the topic: Botany
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Botanical tourism.
Botany at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Botany databases at the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation
High quality pictures of plants and information about them from
University of Leuven
Plant Information Network
USDA plant database
The Virtual Library of Botany
Larry Oglesby Collection in the Claremont Colleges Digital Library
Evolutionary developmental biology
Hierarchy of life
Ecosystem > Community (Biocoenosis)
Organism > Organ system
> Organ > Tissue > Cell > Organelle
Biomolecular complex >
Biomolecule) > Atom
Earliest known life forms
Plant morphology terms
History of botany
Hypanthium (Floral cup)
Plant growth and habit
Alternation of generations
History of plant systematics
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN)
- for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP)
International Association for
Plant Taxonomy (IAPT)
Plant taxonomy systems
Cultivated plant taxonomy
by author abbreviation
History of botany
Jardin des Plantes
Natural History Museum, London
Orto botanico di Padova
Orto botanico di Pisa
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Historia Plantarum and Causes of Plants of
Theophrastus c. 300 BC
De Plantis of Nicolaus of Damascus c. 1st-century BC
De Materia Medica
De Materia Medica of Dioscorides c. 60 AD
Naturalis Historia 77–79 AD
De Vegetabilibus of Albertus Magnus c. 1256
Herbarum Vivae Icones 1530
Libellus De Re Herbaria Novus 1538
Hieronymus Bock 1539
De plantis libri XVI
De plantis libri XVI of Caesalpino 1583
Stirpium Historiae 1583
Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes
Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes 1597
Prodromus Theatrici Botanici 1620
Pinax theatri botanici 1623
Anatome Plantarum 1675
Anatomy of Plants 1682
Historia Plantarum of
John Ray 1686–1704
De Sexu Plantarum Epistola 1694
Éléments de botanique 1694
Vegetable Staticks 1727
Systema Naturae 1735
Genera Plantarum 1737
Philosophia Botanica 1751
Species Plantarum 1753
Systema Naturae, 10th ed. 1758–9
Familles des Plantes 1763–4
Experiments Upon Vegetables 1779
Die Metamorphose der Pflantzen 1790
Traité d'Anatomie et de Physiologie Végétale 1802
Recherches Chimiques sur la Végétation 1804
Beyträge zur Anatomie der Pflanzen 1812
Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis
Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 1824–73
Die Vegetabilische Zelle 1851
Vergleichende Untersuchungen 1851
On the Origin of
Plant Hybridization 1865
Die Vegetation der Erde 1872
Pflanzengeographie auf Physiologischer Grundlage 1898
Evolution in Plants 1950
An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants 1981
Alternation of generations
Center of diversity
Theophrastus c. 371–287 BC
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder 23–79 AD
Pedanius Dioscorides c. 40–90 AD
Otto Brunfels 1464–1534
Hieronymus Bock 1498–1554
Valerius Cordus 1515–1544
William Turner 1515–1568
Rembert Dodoens 1517–1585
Andrea Cesalpino 1519–1603
Gaspard Bauhin 1560–1624
Joachim Jungius 1587–1657
John Ray 1623–1705
Nehemiah Grew 1628–1711
Marcello Malpighi 1628–1694
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort 1656–1708
Rudolf Jakob Camerarius
Rudolf Jakob Camerarius 1665–1721
Stephen Hales 1677–1761
Bernard de Jussieu
Bernard de Jussieu 1699–1777
Carolus Linnaeus 1707–1778
Michel Adanson 1727–1806
Jan Ingenhousz 1730–1799
Joseph Banks 1743–1820
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1749–1832
Carl Ludwig Willdenow
Carl Ludwig Willdenow 1765–1812
Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure
Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure 1767–1845
Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt 1769–1859
Aimé Bonpland 1773–1858
Thomas Nuttall 1786–1859
Joakim Frederik Schouw
Joakim Frederik Schouw 1789–1852
Matthias Jakob Schleiden
Matthias Jakob Schleiden 1804–1881
Alexander Braun 1805–1877
George Engelmann 1809–1884
Asa Gray 1810–1888
August Grisebach 1814–1879
Joseph Hooker 1817–1911
Gregor Mendel 1822–1884
Nathanael Pringsheim 1823–1894
Wilhelm Hofmeister 1824–1877
Julius von Sachs
Julius von Sachs 1832–1897
Eugenius Warming 1841–1924
William Gilson Farlow
William Gilson Farlow 1844–1919
Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper
Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper 1856–1901
Nikolai Vavilov 1887–1943
Barbara McClintock 1902–1992
G. Ledyard Stebbins
G. Ledyard Stebbins 1906–2000
Eugene Odum 1913–2002
Arthur Cronquist 1919–1992
History of plant systematics
Systems of plant taxonomy
History of agricultural science
History of agriculture
History of biochemistry
History of biology
History of biotechnology
History of ecology
History of evolutionary thought
History of genetics
History of geology
History of medicine
History of molecular biology
History of molecular evolution
History of paleontology
History of phycology
History of science
Philosophy of biology
Timeline of biology and organic chemistry
Horticulture and gardening
Types of gardens
Genetically modified tree
List of organic gardening and farming topics
Vegan organic gardening
Index of pesticide articles
List of fungicides
Plant disease forecasting
Agriculture and agronomy portal