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The Boston
Boston
Manufacturing Company was a business that operated the first factory in America. It was organized in 1813 by Francis Cabot Lowell, a wealthy Boston
Boston
merchant, in partnership a group of investors known as The Boston
Boston
Associates, for the manufacture of cotton textiles. It built the first integrated spinning and weaving factory in the world at Waltham, Massachusetts, using water power. They used plans for a power loom that he smuggled out of England
England
as well as trade secrets from the earlier horse-powered Beverly Cotton Manufactory, of Beverly, Massachusetts, of 1788.[3] This was the largest factory in the U.S., with a workforce of about 300. It was a very efficient, highly profitable mill that, with the aid of the Tariff of 1816, competed effectively with British textiles at a time when many smaller operations were being forced out of business.[4] While the Rhode Island System
Rhode Island System
that followed was famously employed by Samuel Slater, the Boston
Boston
Associates improved upon it with the "Waltham System". The idea was successfully copied at Lowell, Massachusetts and elsewhere in New England. Many rural towns now had their own textile mills.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Revolution 3 The Waltham System 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Origins[edit] Since 1793, when Samuel Slater
Samuel Slater
established the first water-powered successful textile spinning mill in America at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, water power had been operating machinery to process cotton fiber into yarn, which would then be outsourced to small weaving shops and private homes where it would be woven into cloth on hand-operated looms. By 1810, dozens of spinning mills dotted the New England countryside. However, cloth production was still fairly slow with this system. While on a visit to Lancashire, England
England
in 1810,[5] Francis Cabot Lowell studied the workings of the successful British textile industry. He paid particular attention to the power loom, a device for which there was yet no equal in America. He knew that increased cloth production in the United States
United States
depended on such a machine. Upon his return trip to Boston
Boston
in 1812, he committed the plans to memory, disguising himself as a country farmer, since the British banned export of the new technology at the time.[6] In September 1813 The Boston Associates
The Boston Associates
purchased the Boies Paper Mill site in Waltham. With a ten-foot drop in the nearby Charles River, it was an ideal location to establish the new factory they envisioned. Revolution[edit] The group hired a skilled mechanic named Paul Moody of Amesbury to develop and construct the machinery and to supervise the construction of the new mill. After over a year of trials, Moody was able to bring Lowell's description of the power loom to fruition, making his own advancements along the way. It would be the perfection of Moody's power loom that would be the real "revolution" in American industry. For the first time, all phases of cloth production could be brought under one roof. Moody also developed a system of power transmission using a series of leather belts and pulleys powered by water turbines, that would prove much more efficient than the shaft and gear system then in use. The first mill was completed in late 1814, after almost a year of construction. Jacob Perkins was in charge of installing the first waterwheel, dam, flumes and raceway.

Boston
Boston
Manufacturing Company and Dam in August, 2011

By early 1815, the cloth was sold. Production expanded quickly, as did profits. In 1816 a second larger mill was built next to the first mill. In addition to producing cloth, it also produced textile machinery for other companies. The two mills were later connected in 1843, as part of a planned expansion.[7] The power loom was soon copied by many other New England
New England
area mills, and modified and perfected along the way. Francis Cabot Lowell died in 1817, at age 42. The Waltham System[edit] Main article: Waltham-Lowell System

Boston
Boston
Manufacturing Company (1978), HAER-54

The Boston Associates
The Boston Associates
attempted to create a well-controlled system of labor which varied from the harsh conditions observed while in Lancashire. The mill owners recruited young Yankee farm girls from the surrounding area to come work the machines at Waltham. The mill girls, as they came to be known, lived in boarding houses provided by the company and were supervised by older women, and were subject to strict codes of conduct. They worked approximately eighty hours per week. The workers would wake to the factory bell at 4:40 in the morning. They would report to work at 5:00 and have a half-hour breakfast break at 7:00 a.m. They would then work until the half-hour- to forty-five-minute lunch break at noon. At 7:00 p.m. the factory would shut down and the workers would return to their company houses. This routine was followed six days a week. This system became known as the Waltham System.[8] By the early 1820s the water power of the Charles River
Charles River
at Waltham was just about maximized, and the investors sought a new location to build even more mills. As the Merrimack Manufacturing Company, in 1822 they copied the Waltham System
Waltham System
at the new city of Lowell, Massachusetts
Lowell, Massachusetts
on a much larger scale. The same group of investors would later establish Lawrence, Massachusetts, Manchester, New Hampshire
Manchester, New Hampshire
and several other new industrial centers throughout New England
New England
during the first half of the 19th century. The factory methods introduced at Waltham would also be copied by other industries in the years to follow. The Waltham site would be expanded again during the late 19th century. The original mills were connected, the gable roofs removed, and additional floors were added with flat roofs. The Boston
Boston
Manufacturing Company closed in 1930. It was declared a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
in 1977.[2][9] Some of the company's worker housing has also been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Today, the site is occupied by the Charles River
Charles River
Museum of Industry and Innovation, United States
United States
Department of Housing and Urban Development-subsidized housing for seniors, the Ira B. Gordon Center For the Arts (part of the Waltham Mills Artists Association),[10] and other housing. See also[edit]

Lowell Mill Girls Lowell Mills List of National Historic Landmarks in Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in Waltham, Massachusetts

References[edit]

^ National Park Service
National Park Service
(2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.  ^ a b " Boston
Boston
Manufacturing Company". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2009-06-06. Retrieved 2008-07-15.  ^ Robert W Lovett, "The Beverly Cotton Manufactory: Or some new light on an early cotton mill Bulletin of the Business Historical Society pre ( Dec 1952) 26, 000004; ABI/INFORM(pg. 218) ^ Kenton Beerman, "The Beginning of a Revolution: Waltham and the Boston
Boston
Manufacturing Company." The Concord Review (1994) online. ^ Who Made America ^ PDF of Economic Decision-Making: Francis Cabot Lowell Archived August 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ George R. Adams; Candace Jenkins; Mike Folsom; Donald C. Jackson (1984). " Boston
Boston
Manufacturing Company MA-54". Historic American Engineering Record. Historic American Engineering Record. Retrieved 2008-07-15.  ^ Local History Pages ^ George R. Adams(?) (1977(?)). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Boston
Boston
Manufacturing Company" (pdf). National Park Service.  Check date values in: date= (help) A National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination document is available upon request from the National Park Service
National Park Service
for this site, and should be online but there is an error at the NPS Focus server for this document. However, available are the Accompanying six photos, exterior and interior, from 1977 (32 KB) ^ http://www.wmaastudios.org

Further reading[edit]

Bergquist Jr, H. E. "The Boston
Boston
Manufacturing Company and Anglo-American Relations 1807–1820." Business History 15.1 (1973): 45-55. Dalzell, Robert F. Enterprising elite: The Boston Associates
The Boston Associates
and the world they made (1987). Prince, Carl E., and Seth Taylor. "Daniel Webster, the Boston Associates, and the US Government's Role in the Industrializing Process, 1815-1830." Journal of the Early Republic 2.3 (1982): 283-299.

External links[edit]

The Beginning of a Revolution: Waltham and the Boston
Boston
Manufacturing Company. By Kenton Beerman. 1994. The Concord Review Boston
Boston
Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA: 70 photos, 15 data pages, at Historic American Engineering Record Charles River
Charles River
Museum of Industry and Innovation Boston
Boston
Manufacturing Company records at Baker Library Special Collections, Harvard Business School David Stephen Unger, “A Place of Work: The Geography of an Early Nineteenth Century Machine Shop” (Harvard Dissertation 2013)[1]

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