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Boston
Boston
(/ˈbɒstən/ ( listen) BOS-tən) is the capital city and most populous municipality[9] of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles (124 km2) with an estimated population of 687,584 in 2017,[3] making it also the most populous city in the New England
New England
region of the northeastern United States.[2] Boston
Boston
is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999.[10] The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country.[11] As a combined statistical area (CSA), this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States.[12] Boston
Boston
is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula
Shawmut Peninsula
in 1630 by Puritan
Puritan
settlers from England.[13][14] It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston
Boston
Massacre, the Boston
Boston
Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U.S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture.[15][16] The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall
Faneuil Hall
alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year.[17] Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public school ( Boston
Boston
Latin
Latin
School, 1635),[18] first subway system ( Tremont Street
Tremont Street
Subway, 1897),[19] and first public park ( Boston
Boston
Common, 1634). The Boston
Boston
area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education,[20] including law, medicine, engineering, and business, and the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 start-ups.[21][22][23] Boston's economic base also includes finance,[24] professional and business services, biotechnology, information technology, and government activities.[25] Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States;[26] businesses and institutions rank among the top in the country for environmental sustainability and investment.[27] The city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States[28][29] as it has undergone gentrification,[30] though it remains high on world livability rankings.[31]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Colonial 1.2 Revolution through the War of 1812 1.3 19th century 1.4 20th Century 1.5 21st Century

2 Geography

2.1 Cityscapes 2.2 Neighborhoods 2.3 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 Demographic breakdown by ZIP Code

3.1.1 Income

3.2 Religion

4 Economy 5 Education

5.1 Primary and secondary education 5.2 Higher education

6 Public safety 7 Culture 8 Environment

8.1 Pollution control 8.2 Water purity and availability

9 Sports 10 Parks and recreation 11 Government and politics 12 Media

12.1 Newspapers 12.2 Radio and television 12.3 Film

13 Healthcare 14 Infrastructure

14.1 Transportation

15 Twin towns and Sister Cities 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References

18.1 Sources

19 Further reading 20 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Boston
History of Boston
and Timeline of Boston Colonial[edit]

A south east view of the great town of Boston
Boston
in New England
New England
in America, c. 1730

Map showing a British tactical evaluation of Boston
Boston
in 1775

Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine (after its "three mountains," only traces of which remain today) but later renamed it Boston
Boston
after Boston, Lincolnshire, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, (Old Style)[32][b] was by Puritan
Puritan
colonists from England[14][33] who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water. Their settlement was initially limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay and Charles River
Charles River
and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC.[34] In 1629, the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan
Puritan
ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history;[35] America's first public school was founded in Boston in 1635.[18] Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston
Boston
was the largest town in British America
British America
until Philadelphia
Philadelphia
grew larger in the mid-18th century.[36] Revolution through the War of 1812[edit]

State Street, 1801

Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution[37] occurred in or near Boston, including the Boston
Boston
Massacre, the Boston
Boston
Tea Party, Paul Revere's midnight ride, the battles of Lexington and Concord and Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston, and many others. After the Revolution, Boston's long seafaring tradition helped make it one of the world's wealthiest international ports, with the slave trade,[38] rum, fish, salt, and tobacco being particularly important.[39]

View of Boston
Boston
from Dorchester Heights, 1841

Boston's harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 (adopted during the Napoleonic Wars) and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Boston's merchants had found alternatives for their capital investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the city's economy, and the city's industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston
Boston
remained one of the nation's largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, and was known for its garment production and leather-goods industries.[40] A network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a dense network of railroads furthered the region's industry and commerce.[41]

Tremont Street, 1843

During this period, Boston
Boston
flourished culturally, as well, admired for its rarefied literary life and generous artistic patronage,[42][43] with members of old Boston
Boston
families—eventually dubbed Boston Brahmins—coming to be regarded as the nation's social and cultural elites.[44] Boston
Boston
was an early port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England
New England
colonies, but was soon overtaken by Salem, Massachusetts and Newport, Rhode Island.[45] Boston
Boston
eventually became a center of the abolitionist movement.[46] The city reacted strongly to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850,[47] contributing to President Franklin Pierce's attempt to make an example of Boston
Boston
after the Anthony Burns Fugitive Slave Case.[48][49] In 1822,[15] the citizens of Boston
Boston
voted to change the official name from the "Town of Boston" to the "City of Boston", and on March 4, 1822, the people of Boston
Boston
accepted the charter incorporating the City.[50] At the time Boston
Boston
was chartered as a city, the population was about 46,226, while the area of the city was only 4.7 square miles (12 km2).[50]

Cutting down Beacon Hill in 1811; a view from the north toward the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State House[51]

The Old City Hall was home to the Boston
Boston
city council from 1865 to 1969.

Haymarket Square, 1909

19th century[edit] In the 1820s, Boston's population grew rapidly, and the city's ethnic composition changed dramatically with the first wave of European immigrants. Irish immigrants dominated the first wave of newcomers during this period, especially following the Irish Potato Famine; by 1850, about 35,000 Irish lived in Boston.[52] In the latter half of the 19th century, the city saw increasing numbers of Irish, Germans, Lebanese, Syrians,[53] French Canadians, and Russian and Polish Jews settling in the city. By the end of the 19th century, Boston's core neighborhoods had become enclaves of ethnically distinct immigrants. Italians inhabited the North End,[54] Irish dominated South Boston
South Boston
and Charlestown, and Russian Jews lived in the West End. Irish and Italian immigrants brought with them Roman Catholicism. Currently, Catholics make up Boston's largest religious community,[55] and the Irish have played a major role in Boston
Boston
politics since the early 20th century; prominent figures include the Kennedys, Tip O'Neill, and John F. Fitzgerald.[56] Between 1631 and 1890, the city tripled its area through land reclamation by filling in marshes, mud flats, and gaps between wharves along the waterfront.[57] The largest reclamation efforts took place during the 19th century; beginning in 1807, the crown of Beacon Hill was used to fill in a 50-acre (20 ha) mill pond that later became the Haymarket Square area. The present-day State House sits atop this lowered Beacon Hill. Reclamation projects in the middle of the century created significant parts of the South End, the West End, the Financial District, and Chinatown. After the Great Boston
Boston
Fire of 1872, workers used building rubble as landfill along the downtown waterfront. During the mid- to-late 19th century, workers filled almost 600 acres (2.4 km2) of brackish Charles River
Charles River
marshlands west of Boston Common
Boston Common
with gravel brought by rail from the hills of Needham Heights. The city annexed the adjacent towns of South Boston
South Boston
(1804), East Boston
East Boston
(1836), Roxbury (1868), Dorchester (including present day Mattapan
Mattapan
and a portion of South Boston) (1870), Brighton (including present day Allston) (1874), West Roxbury
West Roxbury
(including present day Jamaica Plain
Jamaica Plain
and Roslindale) (1874), Charlestown (1874), and Hyde Park (1912).[58][59] Other proposals were unsuccessful for the annexation of Brookline, Cambridge,[60] and Chelsea.[61][62] 20th Century[edit] The city went into decline by the early to mid-20th century, as factories became old and obsolete and businesses moved out of the region for cheaper labor elsewhere.[63] Boston
Boston
responded by initiating various urban renewal projects, under the direction of the Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) established in 1957. In 1958, BRA initiated a project to improve the historic West End neighborhood. Extensive demolition was met with strong public opposition.[64] The BRA subsequently re-evaluated its approach to urban renewal in its future projects, including the construction of Government Center. In 1965, the Columbia Point Health Center opened in the Dorchester neighborhood, the first Community Health Center in the United States. It mostly served the massive Columbia Point public housing complex adjoining it, which was built in 1953. The health center is still in operation and was rededicated in 1990 as the Geiger-Gibson Community Health Center.[65] The Columbia Point complex itself was redeveloped and revitalized from 1984 to 1990 into a mixed-income residential development called Harbor Point Apartments.[66] By the 1970s, the city's economy had recovered after 30 years of economic downturn. A large number of high rises were constructed in the Financial District and in Boston's Back Bay
Back Bay
during this period.[67] This boom continued into the mid-1980s and resumed after a few pauses. Hospitals such as Massachusetts
Massachusetts
General Hospital, Beth Israel
Israel
Deaconess Medical Center, and Brigham and Women's Hospital
Brigham and Women's Hospital
lead the nation in medical innovation and patient care. Schools such as Boston
Boston
College, Boston
Boston
University, the Harvard
Harvard
Medical School, Tufts University School of Medicine, Northeastern University, Massachusetts College of Art and Design, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Berklee College of Music, and Boston Conservatory
Boston Conservatory
attract students to the area. Nevertheless, the city experienced conflict starting in 1974 over desegregation busing, which resulted in unrest and violence around public schools throughout the mid-1970s.[68]

Back Bay

21st Century[edit] Boston
Boston
is an intellectual, technological, and political center but has lost some important regional institutions,[69] including the loss to mergers and acquisitions of local financial institutions such as Fleet Boston
Boston
Financial, which was acquired by Charlotte-based Bank of America in 2004.[70] Boston-based department stores Jordan Marsh
Jordan Marsh
and Filene's
Filene's
have both merged into the Cincinnati–based Macy's.[71] The 1993 acquisition of The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe
by The New York Times[72] was reversed in 2013 when it was re-sold to Boston
Boston
businessman John W. Henry. In 2016, it was announced that General Electric
General Electric
would be moving its corporate headquarters from Connecticut
Connecticut
to the Innovation
Innovation
District in South Boston, joining many other companies in this rapidly developing neighborhood. Boston
Boston
has experienced gentrification in the latter half of the 20th century,[73] with housing prices increasing sharply since the 1990s.[29] Living expenses have risen; Boston
Boston
has one of the highest costs of living in the United States[74] and was ranked the 129th most expensive major city in the world in a 2011 survey of 214 cities.[75] Despite cost of living issues, Boston
Boston
ranks high on livability ratings, ranking 36th worldwide in quality of living in 2011 in a survey of 221 major cities.[76] On April 15, 2013, two Chechen Islamist brothers detonated a pair of bombs near the finish line of the Boston
Boston
Marathon, killing three people and injuring roughly 264.[77] In 2016, Boston
Boston
briefly shouldered a bid as the US applicant for the 2024 Summer Olympics. The bid was supported by the mayor and a coalition of business leaders and local philanthropists, but was eventually dropped due to public opposition.[78] The USOC
USOC
then selected Los Angeles
Los Angeles
to be the American candidate with Los Angeles ultimately securing the right to host the 2028 Summer Olympics. Geography[edit]

Boston
Boston
as seen from the International Space Station (ISS)

Boston
Boston
has an area of 89.63 square miles (232.1 km2)—48.4 square miles (125.4 km2) (54.0%) of land and 41.2 square miles (106.7 km2) (46.0%) of water. The city's official elevation, as measured at Logan International Airport, is 19 ft (5.8 m) above sea level.[79] The highest point in Boston
Boston
is Bellevue Hill at 330 feet (100 m) above sea level, and the lowest point is at sea level.[80] Situated onshore of the Atlantic Ocean, Boston
Boston
is the only state capital in the contiguous United States
United States
with an oceanic shoreline.[81]

The geographical center of Boston
Boston
is in Roxbury. Due north of the center we find the South End. This is not to be confused with South Boston
Boston
which lies directly east from the South End. North of the South End is East Boston
East Boston
and southwest of East Boston
East Boston
is the North End. — Author, Unknown – A common local colloquialism

Boston
Boston
is surrounded by the "Greater Boston" region and is contiguously bordered by the cities and towns of Winthrop, Revere, Chelsea, Everett, Somerville, Cambridge, Watertown, Newton, Brookline, Needham, Dedham, Canton, Milton, and Quincy. The Charles River separates Boston
Boston
from Watertown and the majority of Cambridge, and the mass of Boston
Boston
from its own Charlestown neighborhood. To the east lie Boston Harbor
Boston Harbor
and the Boston Harbor
Boston Harbor
Islands National Recreation Area (which includes part of the city's territory, specifically Calf Island, Gallops Island, Great Brewster Island, Green Island, Little Brewster Island, Little Calf Island, Long Island, Lovells Island, Middle Brewster Island, Nixes Mate, Outer Brewster Island, Rainsford Island, Shag Rocks, Spectacle Island, The Graves, and Thompson Island). The Neponset River
Neponset River
forms the boundary between Boston's southern neighborhoods and the city of Quincy and the town of Milton. The Mystic River
Mystic River
separates Charlestown from Chelsea and Everett, and Chelsea Creek and Boston Harbor
Boston Harbor
separate East Boston
East Boston
from Boston proper.[82] Cityscapes[edit]

Sailboats on the Charles River
Charles River
overlook the Boston
Boston
skyline, as seen from Cambridge.

From left to right: Boston
Boston
City Hall, the West End, the North End, Charlestown, Boston
Charlestown, Boston
Harbor, and East Boston

Sunset view of the Boston
Boston
skyline and Charles River

  Neighborhoods[edit] Main article: Neighborhoods in Boston

The John Hancock Tower
John Hancock Tower
is the tallest building in Boston, with a roof height of 790 feet (240 m).

Boston
Boston
is sometimes called a "city of neighborhoods" because of the profusion of diverse subsections; the city government's Office of Neighborhood
Neighborhood
Services has officially designated 23 neighborhoods.[83] More than two-thirds of inner Boston's modern land area did not exist when the city was founded. Instead, it was created via the gradual filling in of the surrounding tidal areas over the centuries,[57] with earth from leveling or lowering Boston's three original hills (the "Trimountain", after which Tremont Street
Tremont Street
is named) and with gravel brought by train from Needham to fill the Back Bay.[16] Downtown and its immediate surroundings consist largely of low-rise masonry buildings (often Federal style and Greek Revival) interspersed with modern highrises, in the Financial District, Government Center, and South Boston.[84] Back Bay
Back Bay
includes many prominent landmarks, such as the Boston
Boston
Public Library, Christian Science Center, Copley Square, Newbury Street, and New England's two tallest buildings: the John Hancock Tower and the Prudential Center.[85] Near the John Hancock Tower is the old John Hancock Building with its prominent illuminated beacon, the color of which forecasts the weather.[86] Smaller commercial areas are interspersed among areas of single-family homes and wooden/brick multi-family row houses. The South End Historic District is the largest surviving contiguous Victorian-era neighborhood in the US.[87] The geography of downtown and South Boston was particularly affected by the Central Artery/Tunnel Project (known unofficially as the "Big Dig") which removed the unsightly elevated Central Artery
Central Artery
and incorporated new green spaces and open areas.[88] Climate[edit]

Normal distribution
Normal distribution
of winter snowfall counts collected at Logan International Airport from 1920–2016. Data is from NWS and NOAA and was procured at The Weather Warehouse. Statistical mean is approximately 43.4 inches and one standard deviation is approximately 22 inches. Note: Winter is defined here as October 1 through April 30.[89][90][91][92][93][94][95]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Boston
Boston
has a hot summer humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa).[96] Summers are typically warm and humid, while winters are cold and stormy, with occasional periods of heavy snow. Spring and fall are usually cool to mild, with varying conditions dependent on wind direction and jet stream positioning. Prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore minimize the influence of the Atlantic Ocean, however, in winter areas near the immediate coast will often see more rain than snow as warm air is drawn off the Atlantic at times.[97] The city lies at the transition between USDA
USDA
plant hardiness zones 6b (most of the city) and 7a (Downtown, South Boston, and East Boston
East Boston
neighborhoods).[98] The hottest month is July, with a mean temperature of 73.4 °F (23.0 °C). The coldest month is January, with a mean of 29.0 °F (−1.7 °C). Periods exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) in summer and below freezing in winter are not uncommon but rarely extended, with about 13 and 25 days per year seeing each, respectively.[99] The most recent sub-0 °F (−18 °C) reading occurred on January 7, 2018, when the temperature dipped down to −2 °F (−19 °C).[99] In addition, several decades may pass between 100 °F (38 °C) readings, with the most recent such occurrence on July 22, 2011, when the temperature reached 103 °F (39 °C).[99] The city's average window for freezing temperatures is November 9 through April 5.[99][c] Official temperature records have ranged from −18 °F (−28 °C) on February 9, 1934, up to 104 °F (40 °C) on July 4, 1911; the record cold daily maximum is 2 °F (−17 °C) on December 30, 1917, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 83 °F (28 °C) on August 2, 1975.[100] Boston's coastal location on the North Atlantic moderates its temperature but makes the city very prone to Nor'easter
Nor'easter
weather systems that can produce much snow and rain.[97] The city averages 43.8 inches (1,110 mm) of precipitation a year, with 43.8 inches (111 cm) of snowfall per season.[99] Snowfall increases dramatically as one goes inland away from the city (especially north and west of the city)—away from the moderating influence of the ocean.[101] Most snowfall occurs from mid November through early April, and snow is rare in May and October.[102][103] There is also high year-to-year variability in snowfall; for instance, the winter of 2011–12 saw only 9.3 in (23.6 cm) of accumulating snow, but the previous winter, the corresponding figure was 81.0 in (2.06 m).[99][d]

Boston's skyline in the background, with fall foliage in the foreground

Fog is fairly common, particularly in spring and early summer. Due to its situation along the North Atlantic, the city often receives sea breezes, especially in the late spring, when water temperatures are still quite cold and temperatures at the coast can be more than 20 °F (11 °C) colder than a few miles inland, sometimes dropping by that amount near midday.[104][105] Thunderstorms occur from May to September, that are occasionally severe with large hail, damaging winds and heavy downpours.[97] Although downtown Boston
Boston
has never been struck by a violent tornado, the city itself has experienced many tornado warnings. Damaging storms are more common to areas north, west, and northwest of the city.[106] Boston
Boston
has a relatively sunny climate for a coastal city at its latitude, averaging over 2,300 hours of sunshine per annum.

Climate data for Boston
Boston
(Logan Airport), 1981−2010 normals,[e] extremes 1872−present[f]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 72 (22) 73 (23) 89 (32) 94 (34) 97 (36) 100 (38) 104 (40) 102 (39) 102 (39) 90 (32) 83 (28) 76 (24) 104 (40)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 56.4 (13.6) 57.7 (14.3) 67.6 (19.8) 80.7 (27.1) 87.3 (30.7) 92.1 (33.4) 94.9 (34.9) 93.3 (34.1) 87.9 (31.1) 79.1 (26.2) 70.5 (21.4) 61.3 (16.3) 96.2 (35.7)

Average high °F (°C) 35.8 (2.1) 38.7 (3.7) 45.4 (7.4) 55.6 (13.1) 66.0 (18.9) 75.9 (24.4) 81.4 (27.4) 79.6 (26.4) 72.4 (22.4) 61.4 (16.3) 51.5 (10.8) 41.2 (5.1) 58.8 (14.9)

Daily mean °F (°C) 29.0 (−1.7) 31.7 (−0.2) 38.3 (3.5) 48.1 (8.9) 57.9 (14.4) 67.7 (19.8) 73.4 (23) 72.1 (22.3) 64.9 (18.3) 54.0 (12.2) 44.7 (7.1) 34.7 (1.5) 51.5 (10.8)

Average low °F (°C) 22.2 (−5.4) 24.7 (−4.1) 31.1 (−0.5) 40.6 (4.8) 49.9 (9.9) 59.5 (15.3) 65.4 (18.6) 64.6 (18.1) 57.4 (14.1) 46.5 (8.1) 38.0 (3.3) 28.2 (−2.1) 44.1 (6.7)

Mean minimum °F (°C) 4.1 (−15.5) 8.5 (−13.1) 14.7 (−9.6) 30.7 (−0.7) 40.8 (4.9) 49.6 (9.8) 57.3 (14.1) 55.4 (13) 45.8 (7.7) 34.9 (1.6) 24.2 (−4.3) 11.1 (−11.6) 2.3 (−16.5)

Record low °F (°C) −13 (−25) −18 (−28) −8 (−22) 11 (−12) 31 (−1) 41 (5) 50 (10) 46 (8) 34 (1) 25 (−4) −2 (−19) −17 (−27) −18 (−28)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.36 (85.3) 3.25 (82.6) 4.32 (109.7) 3.74 (95) 3.49 (88.6) 3.68 (93.5) 3.43 (87.1) 3.35 (85.1) 3.44 (87.4) 3.94 (100.1) 3.99 (101.3) 3.78 (96) 43.77 (1,111.8)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 12.9 (32.8) 10.9 (27.7) 7.8 (19.8) 1.9 (4.8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) trace 1.3 (3.3) 9.0 (22.9) 43.8 (111.3)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 11.3 9.8 11.6 11.2 12.0 10.9 9.6 9.4 8.6 9.4 10.6 11.6 126.0

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 6.7 5.3 4.2 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.8 4.6 22.4

Average relative humidity (%) 62.3 62.0 63.1 63.0 66.7 68.5 68.4 70.8 71.8 68.5 67.5 65.4 66.5

Mean monthly sunshine hours 163.4 168.4 213.7 227.2 267.3 286.5 300.9 277.3 237.1 206.3 143.2 142.3 2,633.6

Percent possible sunshine 56 57 58 57 59 63 65 64 63 60 49 50 59

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)[108][99][109]

Demographics[edit] See also: Chinese Americans in Boston, History of the Irish in Boston, Vietnamese in Boston, and LGBT culture in Boston

Per capita income in the Greater Boston
Greater Boston
area, by US Census block group, 2000. The dashed line shows the boundary of the City of Boston.

U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
sailors march in Boston's annual St. Patrick's Day Parade. Irish Americans constitute the largest ethnicity in Boston.

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1722 10,567 —    

1765 15,520 +46.9%

1790 18,320 +18.0%

1800 24,937 +36.1%

1810 33,787 +35.5%

1820 43,298 +28.1%

1830 61,392 +41.8%

1840 93,383 +52.1%

1850 136,881 +46.6%

1860 177,840 +29.9%

1870 250,526 +40.9%

1880 362,839 +44.8%

1890 448,477 +23.6%

1900 560,892 +25.1%

1910 670,585 +19.6%

1920 748,060 +11.6%

1930 781,188 +4.4%

1940 770,816 −1.3%

1950 801,444 +4.0%

1960 697,197 −13.0%

1970 641,071 −8.1%

1980 562,994 −12.2%

1990 574,283 +2.0%

2000 589,141 +2.6%

2010 617,594 +4.8%

2016 673,184 +9.0%

* = population estimate. Source: United States Census
United States Census
records and Population Estimates Program data.[110][111][112][113][114][115][116][117][118][119][120][121] Source: U.S. Decennial Census[122]

In 2016, Boston
Boston
was estimated to have 673,184 residents (a density of 13,841 persons/sq mile, or 5,344/km2) living in 272,481 housing units—[2] a 9% population increase over 2010. The city is the third most densely populated large U.S. city of over half a million residents. Some 1.2 million persons may be within Boston's boundaries during work hours, and as many as 2 million during special events. This fluctuation of people is caused by hundreds of thousands of suburban residents who travel to the city for work, education, health care, and special events.[123] In the city, the population was spread out with 21.9% at age 19 and under, 14.3% from 20 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, and 10.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males.[124] There were 252,699 households, of which 20.4% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 25.5% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 54.0% were non-families. 37.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 3.08.[124] Boston
Boston
has one of the largest LGBT populations in the United States. The median household income in Boston
Boston
was $51,739, while the median income for a family was $61,035. Full-time year-round male workers had a median income of $52,544 versus $46,540 for full-time year-round female workers. The per capita income for the city was $33,158. 21.4% of the population and 16.0% of families are below the poverty line. Of the total population, 28.8% of those under the age of 18 and 20.4% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.[125] In 1950, Whites represented 94.7% of Boston's population.[126] From the 1950s to the end of the 20th century, the proportion of non-Hispanic whites in the city declined; in 2000, non-Hispanic whites made up 49.5% of the city's population, making the city majority-minority for the first time. However, in the 21st century, the city has experienced significant gentrification, in which affluent whites have moved into formerly non-white areas. In 2006, the US Census Bureau estimated that non-Hispanic whites again formed a slight majority. But as of 2010[update], in part due to the housing crash, as well as increased efforts to make more affordable housing more available, the non-white population has rebounded. This may also have to do with increased Latin
Latin
American and Asian populations and more clarity surrounding US Census statistics, which indicate a non-Hispanic white population of 47 percent (some reports give slightly lower figures).[127][128][129]

Race/ethnicity composition

Race/ethnicity 2015[130] 1990[126] 1970[126] 1940[126]

White (includes White Hispanics) 62.1% 62.8% 81.8% 96.7%

Black 24.7% 25.6% 16.3% 3.1%

Asian 9.1% 5.3% 1.3% 0.2%

Native American 0.8% 0.3% 0.2% –

Two or more races 3.1% – – –

Hispanic or Latino
Latino
(of any race) 22.1% 10.8% 2.8% [131] 0.1%

Non-Hispanic Whites 46.2% 59.0% 79.5% [131] 96.6%

Chinatown, with its paifang gate, is home to many Chinese and also Vietnamese restaurants.

People of Irish descent form the largest single ethnic group in the city, making up 15.8% of the population, followed by Italians, accounting for 8.3% of the population. People of West Indian and Caribbean
Caribbean
ancestry are another sizable group, at 6.0%,[132] about half of whom are of Haitian ancestry. Over 27,000 Chinese Americans made their home in Boston
Boston
city proper in 2013,[133] and the city hosts a growing Chinatown accommodating heavily traveled Chinese-owned bus lines to and from Chinatown, Manhattan
Chinatown, Manhattan
in New York City. Some neighborhoods, such as Dorchester, have received an influx of people of Vietnamese ancestry in recent decades. Neighborhoods such as Jamaica Plain
Jamaica Plain
and Roslindale
Roslindale
have experienced a growing number of Dominican Americans.[134] The city and greater area also has a growing immigrant population of South Asians, including the tenth-largest Indian population in the country.

Map of racial distribution in Boston, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian Hispanic, or Other (yellow)

Boston
Boston
gay pride march, held annually in June

The city, especially the East Boston
East Boston
neighborhood, has a significant Hispanic population. In 2010, Hispanics in Boston
Boston
were mostly of Puerto Rican (30,506 or 4.9% of total city population), Dominican (25,648 or 4.2% of total city population), Salvadoran (10,850 or 1.8% of city population), Colombian (6,649 or 1.1% of total city population), Mexican (5,961 or 1.0% of total city population), and Guatemalan (4,451 or 0.7% of total city population) ethnic origin. Hispanics of all national origins totaled 107,917 in 2010. In Greater Boston, these numbers grew significantly, with Puerto Ricans numbering 175,000+, Dominicans 95,000+, Salvadorans 40,000+, Guatemalans 31,000+, Mexicans 25,000+, and Colombians numbering 22,000+.[135] Demographic breakdown by ZIP Code[edit] Income[edit] See also: List of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
locations by per capita income Data is from the 2008–2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.[136][137][138]

Rank ZIP code (ZCTA) Per capita income Median household income Median family income Population Number of households

1 02110 (Financial District) $152,007 $123,795 $196,518 1,486 981

2 02199 (Prudential Center) $151,060 $107,159 $146,786 1,290 823

3 02210 (Fort Point) $93,078 $111,061 $223,411 1,905 1,088

4 02109 (North End) $88,921 $128,022 $162,045 4,277 2,190

5 02116 (Back Bay/Bay Village) $81,458 $87,630 $134,875 21,318 10,938

6 02108 (Beacon Hill/Financial District) $78,569 $95,753 $153,618 4,155 2,337

7 02114 (Beacon Hill/West End) $65,865 $79,734 $169,107 11,933 6,752

8 02111 (Chinatown/Financial District/Leather District) $56,716 $44,758 $88,333 7,616 3,390

9 02129 (Charlestown) $56,267 $89,105 $98,445 17,052 8,083

10 02467 (Chestnut Hill) $53,382 $113,952 $148,396 22,796 6,351

11 02113 (North End) $52,905 $64,413 $112,589 7,276 4,329

12 02132 (West Roxbury) $44,306 $82,421 $110,219 27,163 11,013

13 02118 (South End) $43,887 $50,000 $49,090 26,779 12,512

14 02130 (Jamaica Plain) $42,916 $74,198 $95,426 36,866 15,306

15 02127 (South Boston) $42,854 $67,012 $68,110 32,547 14,994

Massachusetts $35,485 $66,658 $84,380 6,560,595 2,525,694

Boston $33,589 $53,136 $63,230 619,662 248,704

Suffolk County $32,429 $52,700 $61,796 724,502 287,442

16 02135 (Brighton) $31,773 $50,291 $62,602 38,839 18,336

17 02131 (Roslindale) $29,486 $61,099 $70,598 30,370 11,282

United States $28,051 $53,046 $64,585 309,138,711 115,226,802

18 02136 (Hyde Park) $28,009 $57,080 $74,734 29,219 10,650

19 02134 (Allston) $25,319 $37,638 $49,355 20,478 8,916

20 02128 (East Boston) $23,450 $49,549 $49,470 41,680 14,965

21 02122 (Dorchester-Fields Corner) $23,432 $51,798 $50,246 25,437 8,216

22 02124 (Dorchester-Codman Square-Ashmont) $23,115 $48,329 $55,031 49,867 17,275

23 02125 (Dorchester-Uphams Corner-Savin Hill) $22,158 $42,298 $44,397 31,996 11,481

24 02163 (Allston- Harvard
Harvard
Business School) $21,915 $43,889 $91,190 1,842 562

25 02115 (Back Bay/Fenway-Kenmore) $21,654 $23,677 $50,303 29,178 9,958

26 02126 (Mattapan) $20,649 $43,532 $52,774 27,335 9,510

27 02215 (Fenway-Kenmore) $19,082 $30,823 $72,583 23,719 7,995

28 02119 (Roxbury) $18,998 $27,051 $35,311 24,237 9,769

29 02121 (Dorchester-Mount Bowdoin) $18,226 $30,419 $35,439 26,801 9,739

30 02120 (Mission Hill) $17,390 $32,367 $29,583 13,217 4,509

Religion[edit]

Old South Church, a United Church of Christ
United Church of Christ
congregation first organized in 1669

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 57% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, with 25% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, and 29% professing Roman Catholic beliefs.[139][140] while 33% claim no religious affiliation. The same study says that other religions (including Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism) collectively make up about 10% of the population. As of 2010[update] the Catholic Church had the highest number of adherents as a single denomination in the Boston-Cambridge-Newton Metro area, with more than two million members and 339 churches, followed by the Episcopal Church with 58,000 adherents in 160 churches. The United Church of Christ
United Church of Christ
had 55,000 members and 213 churches.[141] The UCC is the successor of the city's Puritan religious traditions. Old South Church
Old South Church
in Boston
Boston
is one of the oldest congregations in the United States. It was organized in 1669 by dissenters from the First Church in Boston
First Church in Boston
(1630). Past members include Samuel Adams, William Dawes, Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Sewall, and Phillis Wheatley. In 1773, Adams gave the signals from the Old South Meeting House that started the Boston
Boston
Tea Party. The city has a sizable Jewish population
Jewish population
with an estimated 248,000 Jews within the Boston
Boston
metro area.[142] More than half of Jewish households in the Greater Boston
Greater Boston
area reside in the city itself, Brookline, Newton, Cambridge, Somerville, or adjacent towns.[142] Economy[edit] See also: Major companies in Greater Boston

Distribution of the Boston
Boston
metropolitan NECTA labor force, 2004 annual averages[40]

A global city, Boston
Boston
is placed among the top 30 most economically powerful cities in the world.[143] Encompassing $363 billion, the Greater Boston
Greater Boston
metropolitan area has the sixth-largest economy in the country and 12th-largest in the world.[144] Boston's colleges and universities exert a significant impact on the regional economy. Boston
Boston
attracts more than 350,000 college students from around the world, who contribute more than US$4.8 billion annually to the city's economy.[145][146] The area's schools are major employers and attract industries to the city and surrounding region. The city is home to a number of technology companies and is a hub for biotechnology, with the Milken Institute
Milken Institute
rating Boston
Boston
as the top life sciences cluster in the country.[147] Boston
Boston
receives the highest absolute amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health of all cities in the United States.[148] The city is considered highly innovative for a variety of reasons, including the presence of academia, access to venture capital, and the presence of many high-tech companies.[22][149] The Route 128 corridor and Greater Boston
Greater Boston
continue to be a major center for venture capital investment,[150] and high technology remains an important sector. Tourism
Tourism
also composes a large part of Boston's economy, with 21.2 million domestic and international visitors spending $8.3 billion in 2011;[151] excluding visitors from Canada
Canada
and Mexico, over 1.4 million international tourists visited Boston
Boston
in 2014, with those from China
China
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
leading the list.[152] Boston's status as a state capital as well as the regional home of federal agencies has rendered law and government to be another major component of the city's economy.[40][153] The city is a major seaport along the East Coast of the United States
United States
and the oldest continuously operated industrial and fishing port in the Western Hemisphere.[154] The financial services industry is important to Boston, especially involving mutual funds and insurance.[40] In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Boston
Boston
was ranked as having the ninth most competitive financial center in the world and the fourth most competitive in the United States.[155] Boston-based Fidelity Investments
Fidelity Investments
helped popularize the mutual fund in the 1980s and has made Boston
Boston
one of the top financial centers in the United States.[24][156] The city is home to the headquarters of Santander Bank, and Boston
Boston
is a center for venture capital firms. State Street Corporation, which specializes in asset management and custody services, is based in the city. Boston
Boston
is a printing and publishing center[157]— Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
is headquartered within the city, along with Bedford-St. Martin's Press and Beacon Press. Pearson PLC
Pearson PLC
publishing units also employ several hundred people in Boston. The city is home to three major convention centers—the Hynes Convention Center
Hynes Convention Center
in the Back Bay, and the Seaport World Trade Center and Boston Convention and Exhibition Center
Boston Convention and Exhibition Center
on the South Boston
South Boston
waterfront.[158] The General Electric
General Electric
Corporation announced in January 2016 its decision to move the company's global headquarters to the Seaport District
Seaport District
in Boston, from Fairfield, Connecticut, citing factors including Boston's preeminence in the realm of higher education.[159] Boston
Boston
is home to the headquarters of several major athletic and footwear companies including Converse, New Balance, and Reebok. Rockport, PUMA and Wolverine World Wide, Inc. headquarters or regional offices[160] are located just outside the city.[161] Education[edit] Primary and secondary education[edit]

Boston
Boston
Latin
Latin
School was established in 1635 and is the oldest public high school in the US.

The Boston Public Schools
Boston Public Schools
enroll 57,000 students attending 145 schools, including the renowned Boston
Boston
Latin
Latin
Academy, John D. O'Bryant School of Math & Science, and Boston
Boston
Latin
Latin
School. The Boston Latin
Latin
School was established in 1635 and is the oldest public high school in the US. Boston
Boston
also operates the United States' second-oldest public high school and its oldest public elementary school.[18] The system's students are 40% Hispanic or Latino, 35% Black or African American, 13% White, and 9% Asian.[162] There are private, parochial, and charter schools as well, and approximately 3,300 minority students attend participating suburban schools through the Metropolitan Educational Opportunity Council.[163] Higher education[edit] See also: List of colleges and universities in metropolitan Boston

Map of Boston
Boston
area universities

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (MIT) is often cited as among the world's top universities.

Some of the most renowned and highly ranked universities in the world are located near Boston.[164][165] Three universities with a major presence in the city, Harvard, MIT, and Tufts, are located just outside of Boston
Boston
in the cities of Cambridge and Somerville, known as the Brainpower Triangle.[166] Harvard
Harvard
is the nation's oldest institute of higher education and is centered across the Charles River
Charles River
in Cambridge, though the majority of its land holdings and a substantial amount of its educational activities are in Boston. Its business, medical, dental, and public health schools are located in Boston's Allston
Allston
and Longwood neighborhoods, and Harvard
Harvard
has plans for additional expansion into Allston.[167] The Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (MIT) originated in Boston and was long known as " Boston
Boston
Tech"; it moved across the river to Cambridge in 1916.[168] Tufts
Tufts
University's main campus is north of the city in Somerville and Medford, though it locates its medical and dental schools in Boston's Chinatown at Tufts
Tufts
Medical Center, a 451-bed academic medical institution that is home to both a full-service hospital for adults and the Floating Hospital for Children.[169] Four members of the Association of American Universities
Association of American Universities
are in Greater Boston
Greater Boston
(more than any other metropolitan area): Harvard University, the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Boston University, and Brandeis University.[170] Furthermore, Greater Boston contains seven Highest Research Activity (R1) Universities as per the Carnegie Classification. This includes, in addition to the aforementioned four, Boston
Boston
College, Northeastern University, and Tufts
Tufts
University. This is, by a large margin, the highest concentration of such institutions in a single metropolitan area. Hospitals, universities, and research institutions in Greater Boston received more than $1.77 billion in National Institutes of Health grants in 2013, more money than any other American metropolitan area.[171] Greater Boston
Greater Boston
has more than 100 colleges and universities, with 250,000 students enrolled in Boston
Boston
and Cambridge alone.[172] The city's largest private universities include Boston University
Boston University
(also the city's fourth-largest employer),[173] with its main campus along Commonwealth Avenue and a medical campus in the South End; Northeastern University
Northeastern University
in the Fenway area;[174] Suffolk University near Beacon Hill, which includes law school and business school;[175] and Boston
Boston
College, which straddles the Boston
Boston
(Brighton)–Newton border.[176] Boston's only public university is the University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Boston
Boston
on Columbia Point in Dorchester. Roxbury Community College and Bunker Hill Community College
Bunker Hill Community College
are the city's two public community colleges. Altogether, Boston's colleges and universities employ more than 42,600 people, accounting for nearly seven percent of the city's workforce.[177]

Harvard
Harvard
Business School, one of the country's top business schools

Smaller private schools include Babson College, Bentley University, Boston
Boston
Architectural College, Emmanuel College, Fisher College, MGH Institute of Health Professions, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Simmons College, Wellesley College, Wheelock College, Wentworth Institute of Technology, New England
New England
School of Law (originally established as America's first all female law school),[178] and Emerson College.[179] Metropolitan Boston
Boston
is home to several conservatories and art schools, including Lesley University
Lesley University
College of Art and Design, Massachusetts College of Art, the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, New England Institute of Art, New England
New England
School of Art and Design (Suffolk University), Longy School of Music of Bard College, and the New England Conservatory (the oldest independent conservatory in the United States).[180] Other conservatories include the Boston Conservatory and Berklee College of Music, which has made Boston
Boston
an important city for jazz music.[181] Public safety[edit]

A Boston
Boston
Police cruiser on Beacon Street

Like many major American cities, Boston
Boston
has seen a great reduction in violent crime since the early 1990s. Boston's low crime rate since the 1990s has been credited to the Boston
Boston
Police Department's collaboration with neighborhood groups and church parishes to prevent youths from joining gangs, as well as involvement from the United States Attorney and District Attorney's offices. This helped lead in part to what has been touted as the " Boston
Boston
Miracle". Murders in the city dropped from 152 in 1990 (for a murder rate of 26.5 per 100,000 people) to just 31—not one of them a juvenile—in 1999 (for a murder rate of 5.26 per 100,000).[182] In 2008, there were 62 reported homicides.[183] Through December 30, 2016, major crime was down seven percent and there were 46 homicides compared to 40 in 2015.[184] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture in Boston See also: List of annual events in Boston, List of arts organizations in Boston, and Sites of interest in Boston

The Old State House, a museum on the Freedom Trail
Freedom Trail
and the site of the Boston
Boston
Massacre

Hanover Street in the North End is known for its restaurants.

Boston
Boston
shares many cultural roots with greater New England, including a dialect of the non-rhotic Eastern New England
New England
accent known as the Boston
Boston
accent[185] and a regional cuisine with a large emphasis on seafood, salt, and dairy products.[186] Boston
Boston
also has its own collection of neologisms known as Boston
Boston
slang.[187]

In the nineteenth century, the Old Corner Bookstore
Old Corner Bookstore
became a gathering place for writers, including Emerson, Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller. Here James Russell Lowell
James Russell Lowell
printed the first editions of The Atlantic Monthly.

In the early 1800s, William Tudor wrote that Boston
Boston
was "“perhaps the most perfect and certainly the best-regulated democracy that ever existed. There is something so impossible in the immortal fame of Athens, that the very name makes everything modern shrink from comparison; but since the days of that glorious city I know of none that has approached so near in some points, distant as it may still be from that illustrious model.”[188] From this, Boston
Boston
has been called the " Athens
Athens
of America" (also a nickname of Philadelphia[189]) for its literary culture, earning a reputation as "the intellectual capital of the United States."[190] In the nineteenth century, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Margaret Fuller, James Russell Lowell, and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote in Boston. Some consider the Old Corner Bookstore to be the "cradle of American literature," the place where these writers met and where The Atlantic Monthly
The Atlantic Monthly
was first published.[191] In 1852, the Boston Public Library
Boston Public Library
was founded as the first free library in the United States.[190] Boston's literary culture continues today thanks to the city's many universities and the Boston
Boston
Book Festival.

Symphony Hall, home of the Boston
Boston
Symphony Orchestra

Jordan Hall
Jordan Hall
at the New England
New England
Conservatory

Music is afforded a high degree of civic support in Boston. The Boston Symphony Orchestra is one of the "Big Five," a group of the greatest American orchestras, and the classical music magazine Gramophone called it one of the "world's best" orchestras.[192] Symphony Hall (located west of Back Bay) is home to the Boston
Boston
Symphony Orchestra and the related Boston
Boston
Youth Symphony Orchestra, which is the largest youth orchestra in the nation, and to the Boston
Boston
Pops Orchestra. The British newspaper The Guardian
The Guardian
called Boston
Boston
Symphony Hall "one of the top venues for classical music in the world," adding that "Symphony Hall in Boston
Boston
was where science became an essential part of concert hall design."[193] Other concerts are held at the New England Conservatory's Jordan Hall. The Boston Ballet
Boston Ballet
performs at the Boston Opera House. Other performing-arts organizations located in the city include the Boston Lyric Opera Company, Opera Boston, Boston
Boston
Baroque (the first permanent Baroque orchestra in the US),[194] and the Handel and Haydn Society (one of the oldest choral companies in the United States).[195] The city is a center for contemporary classical music with a number of performing groups, several of which are associated with the city's conservatories and universities. These include the Boston Modern Orchestra Project and Boston
Boston
Musica Viva.[194] Several theaters are located in or near the Theater District south of Boston Common, including the Cutler Majestic Theatre, Citi Performing Arts Center, the Colonial Theater, and the Orpheum Theatre.[196] There are several major annual events, such as First Night
First Night
which occurs on New Year's Eve, the Boston
Boston
Early Music Festival, the annual Boston Arts Festival
Boston Arts Festival
at Christopher Columbus Waterfront Park, the annual Boston
Boston
gay pride parade and festival held in June, and Italian summer feasts in the North End honoring Catholic saints.[197] The city is the site of several events during the Fourth of July period. They include the week-long Harborfest festivities[198] and a Boston
Boston
Pops concert accompanied by fireworks on the banks of the Charles River.[199]

Museum of Fine Arts

Several historic sites relating to the American Revolution
American Revolution
period are preserved as part of the Boston National Historical Park
Boston National Historical Park
because of the city's prominent role. Many are found along the Freedom Trail, which is marked by a red line of bricks embedded in the ground. The city is also home to several art museums and galleries, including the Museum of Fine Arts and the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum.[200] The Institute of Contemporary Art is housed in a contemporary building designed by Diller Scofidio + Renfro in the Seaport District.[201] Boston's South End Art and Design District (SoWa) and Newbury St. are both art gallery destinations.[202][203] Columbia Point is the location of the University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Boston, the Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the United States
United States
Senate, the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, and the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Archives and Commonwealth Museum. The Boston Athenæum
Boston Athenæum
(one of the oldest independent libraries in the United States),[204] Boston
Boston
Children's Museum, Bull & Finch Pub (whose building is known from the television show Cheers),[205] Museum of Science, and the New England Aquarium are within the city. Boston
Boston
has been a noted religious center from its earliest days. The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Archdiocese of Boston
Boston
serves nearly 300 parishes and is based in the Cathedral of the Holy Cross (1875) in the South End, while the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
serves just under 200 congregations, with the Cathedral Church of St. Paul (1819) as its episcopal seat. Unitarian Universalism has its headquarters on Beacon Hill. The Christian Scientists are headquartered in Back Bay
Back Bay
at the Mother Church (1894). The oldest church in Boston
Boston
is First Church in Boston, founded in 1630.[206] King's Chapel
King's Chapel
was the city's first Anglican church, founded in 1686 and converted to Unitarianism in 1785. Other churches include Christ Church (better known as Old North Church, 1723), the oldest church building in the city, Trinity Church (1733), Park Street Church
Park Street Church
(1809), Old South Church
Old South Church
(1874), Jubilee Christian Church, and Basilica and Shrine of Our Lady of Perpetual Help on Mission Hill (1878).[207] Environment[edit] Pollution control[edit] Air quality
Air quality
in Boston
Boston
is generally very good. Between 2004–2013, there were only four days in which the air was unhealthy for the general public, according to the EPA.[208] Some of the cleaner energy facilities in Boston
Boston
include the Allston green district, with three ecologically compatible housing facilities.[209] Boston
Boston
is also breaking ground on multiple green affordable housing facilities to help reduce the carbon impact of the city while simultaneously making these initiatives financially available to a greater population. Boston's climate plan is updated every three years and was most recently modified in 2013. This legislature includes the Building Energy Reporting and Disclosure Ordinance, which requires the city's larger buildings to disclose their yearly energy and water use statistics and to partake in an energy assessment every five years. These statistics are made public by the city, thereby increasing incentives for buildings to be more environmentally conscious.[210] Mayor Thomas Menino
Thomas Menino
introduced the Renew Boston
Boston
Whole Building Incentive which reduces the cost of living in buildings that are deemed energy efficient. This gives people an opportunity to find housing in neighborhoods that support the environment. The ultimate goal of this initiative is to enlist 500 Bostonians to participate in a free, in-home energy assessment.[210] Water purity and availability[edit] Many older buildings in certain areas of Boston
Boston
are supported by wooden piles driven into the area's fill; these piles remain sound if submerged in water, but are subject to dry rot if exposed to air for long periods.[211] Ground water levels have been dropping in many areas of the city, due in part to an increase in the amount of rainwater discharged directly into sewers rather than absorbed by the ground. The Boston
Boston
Groundwater Trust coordinates monitoring ground water levels throughout the city via a network of public and private monitoring wells.[212] However, Boston's drinking water supply from the Quabbin and Wachusett Reservoirs[213] is one of the very few in the country so pure as to satisfy the Federal Clean Water Act
Clean Water Act
without filtration.[214] Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Boston Boston
Boston
has teams in the four major North American professional sports leagues plus Major League Soccer, and has won 37 championships in these leagues, As of 2017[update]. It is one of five cities (along with Chicago, Los Angeles, New York and Philadelphia) to have won championships in all four major sports. It has been suggested[215][216][217] that Boston
Boston
is the new "TitleTown, USA", as the city's professional sports teams have won ten championships since 2001: Patriots (2001, 2003, 2004, 2014, and 2016), Red Sox (2004, 2007, and 2013), Celtics (2008), and Bruins (2011). This love of sports made Boston
Boston
the United States
United States
Olympic Committee's choice to bid to hold the 2024 Summer Olympic Games, but the city cited financial concerns when it withdrew its bid on July 27, 2015.[218]

Fenway Park
Fenway Park
is the oldest professional baseball stadium still in use.

The Boston
Boston
Red Sox, a founding member of the American League
American League
of Major League Baseball in 1901, play their home games at Fenway Park, near Kenmore Square
Kenmore Square
in the city's Fenway section. Built in 1912, it is the oldest sports arena or stadium in active use in the United States among the four major professional American sports leagues, Major League Baseball, the National Football League, National Basketball Association, and the National Hockey League.[219] Boston
Boston
was the site of the first game of the first modern World Series, in 1903. The series was played between the AL Champion Boston Americans
Boston Americans
and the NL champion Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Pirates.[220][221] Persistent reports that the team was known in 1903 as the " Boston
Boston
Pilgrims" appear to be unfounded.[222] Boston's first professional baseball team was the Red Stockings, one of the charter members of the National Association in 1871, and of the National League
National League
in 1876. The team played under that name until 1883, under the name Beaneaters until 1911, and under the name Braves from 1912 until they moved to Milwaukee
Milwaukee
after the 1952 season. Since 1966 they have played in Atlanta
Atlanta
as the Atlanta Braves.[223]

The Celtics play at the TD Garden.

The TD Garden, formerly called the FleetCenter and built to replace the old, since-demolished Boston
Boston
Garden, is adjoined to North Station and is the home of two major league teams: the Boston Bruins
Boston Bruins
of the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
and the Boston Celtics
Boston Celtics
of the National Basketball Association. The arena seats 18,624 for basketball games and 17,565 for ice hockey games. The Bruins were the first American member of the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
and an Original Six franchise.[224] The Boston Celtics
Boston Celtics
were founding members of the Basketball Association of America, one of the two leagues that merged to form the NBA.[225] The Celtics have the distinction of having won more championships than any other NBA team, with seventeen.[226] While they have played in suburban Foxborough since 1971, the New England Patriots of the National Football League
National Football League
were founded in 1960 as the Boston
Boston
Patriots, changing their name after relocating. The team won the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
after the 2001, 2003, 2004, 2014, and 2016 seasons.[227] They share Gillette Stadium
Gillette Stadium
with the New England Revolution of Major League Soccer. The Boston
Boston
Breakers of Women's Professional Soccer, which formed in 2009, play their home games at Dilboy Stadium in Somerville.[228] The Boston
Boston
Storm of the United Women's Lacrosse League was formed in 2015.[229]

Harvard
Harvard
Stadium, the first collegiate athletic stadium built in the U.S.

The area's many colleges and universities are active in college athletics. Four NCAA Division I members play in the city—Boston College, Boston
Boston
University, Harvard
Harvard
University, and Northeastern University. Of the four, only Boston College
Boston College
participates in college football at the highest level, the Football Bowl Subdivision. Harvard participates in the second-highest level, the Football Championship Subdivision. The Boston Cannons
Boston Cannons
of the MLL play at Harvard
Harvard
Stadium. One of the best known sporting events in the city is the Boston Marathon, the 26.2-mile (42.2 km) race which is the world's oldest annual marathon,[230] run on Patriots' Day
Patriots' Day
in April. On April 15, 2013, two explosions killed three people and injured hundreds at the marathon.[77] Another major annual event is the Head of the Charles Regatta, held in October.[231] Parks and recreation[edit]

Boston Common
Boston Common
seen from the Prudential Tower

Boston
Boston
Common, located near the Financial District and Beacon Hill, is the oldest public park in the United States.[232] Along with the adjacent Boston
Boston
Public Garden, it is part of the Emerald Necklace, a string of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted
to encircle the city. The Emerald Necklace
Emerald Necklace
includes Jamaica Pond, Boston's largest body of freshwater, and Franklin Park, the city's largest park and home of the Franklin Park Zoo.[233] Another major park is the Esplanade, located along the banks of the Charles River. The Hatch Shell, an outdoor concert venue, is located adjacent to the Charles River Esplanade. Other parks are scattered throughout the city, with the major parks and beaches located near Castle Island; in Charlestown; and along the Dorchester, South Boston, and East Boston shorelines.[234] Boston's park system is well-reputed nationally. In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that Boston
Boston
was tied with Sacramento and San Francisco
San Francisco
for having the third-best park system among the 50 most populous US cities.[235] ParkScore ranks city park systems by a formula that analyzes the city's median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents. Government and politics[edit] See also: Boston
Boston
City Hall, Boston
Boston
Emergency Medical Services, Boston Finance Commission, Boston
Boston
Fire Department, Boston
Boston
Police Department, List of mayors of Boston, and List of members of Boston
Boston
City Council

The Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State House, seat of the Government of Massachusetts, on Beacon Hill

Boston
Boston
has a strong mayor – council government system in which the mayor (elected every fourth year) has extensive executive power. Marty Walsh became Mayor in January 2014, his predecessor Thomas Menino's twenty-year tenure having been the longest in the city's history.[236] The Boston City Council
Boston City Council
is elected every two years; there are nine district seats, and four citywide "at-large" seats.[237] The School Committee, which oversees the Boston
Boston
Public Schools, is appointed by the mayor.[238] In addition to city government, numerous commissions and state authorities—including the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Department of Conservation and Recreation, the Boston
Boston
Public Health Commission, the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA), and the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Port Authority (Massport)—play a role in the life of Bostonians. As the capital of Massachusetts, Boston
Boston
plays a major role in state politics. The city has several federal facilities, including the John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building, the Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Federal Building,[239] the John W. McCormack Post Office and Courthouse, the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, the United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, and the United States
United States
District Court for the District of Massachusetts. Both courts are housed in the John Joseph Moakley United States
United States
Courthouse. Federally, Boston
Boston
is split between two congressional districts. The northern three-fourths of the city is in the 7th district, represented by Mike Capuano
Mike Capuano
since 1998. The southern fourth is in the 8th district, represented by Stephen Lynch.[240] Both are Democrats; a Republican has not represented a significant portion of Boston
Boston
in over a century. The state's senior member of the United States
United States
Senate is Democrat Elizabeth Warren, first elected in 2012. The state's junior member of the United States
United States
Senate is Democrat Ed Markey, who was elected in 2013 to succeed John Kerry
John Kerry
after Kerry's appointment and confirmation as the United States
United States
Secretary of State. The city uses an algorithm created by the Walsh administration, called CityScore, to measure the effectiveness of various city services. This score is available on a public online dashboard and allows city managers in police, fire, schools, emergency management services, and 3-1-1 to take action and make adjustments in areas of concern.[241]

Voter registration and party enrollment As of October 2012[update][242]

Party Number of voters Percentage

Democratic 211,257 54.58%

Republican 25,903 6.69%

Green-Rainbow 686 0.17%

Unaffiliated 147,813 38.19%

Total 387,040 100%

Media[edit] Main article: Media in Boston Newspapers[edit] The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe
and the Boston Herald
Boston Herald
are two of the city's major daily newspapers. The city is also served by other publications such as Boston
Boston
magazine, The Improper Bostonian, DigBoston, and the Boston edition of Metro. The Christian Science Monitor, headquartered in Boston, was formerly a worldwide daily newspaper but ended publication of daily print editions in 2009, switching to continuous online and weekly magazine format publications.[243] The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe
also releases a teen publication to the city's public high schools, called Teens in Print or T.i.P., which is written by the city's teens and delivered quarterly within the school year.[244] The city's growing Latino
Latino
population has given rise to a number of local and regional Spanish language
Spanish language
newspapers. These include El Planeta (owned by the former publisher of The Boston
Boston
Phoenix), El Mundo, and La Semana. Siglo21, with its main offices in nearby Lawrence, is also widely distributed.[245] There are a number of weekly newspapers dedicated to Boston neighborhoods. Among them is South Boston
South Boston
Online, (founded in 1999) which appears in print and online, and covers events in South Boston and the Seaport District. Various LGBT publications serve the city's large LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) population such as The Rainbow Times, the only minority and lesbian-owned LGBT newsmagazine. Founded in 2006, The Rainbow Times is now based out of Boston, but serves all of New England.[246] Radio and television[edit] Boston
Boston
is the largest broadcasting market in New England, with the radio market being the 9th largest in the United States.[247] Several major AM stations include talk radio WRKO, sports/talk station WEEI, and CBS Radio
CBS Radio
WBZ.[248] WBZ (AM)
WBZ (AM)
broadcasts a news radio format. A variety of commercial FM radio formats serve the area, as do NPR stations WBUR
WBUR
and WGBH. College and university radio stations include WERS (Emerson), WHRB
WHRB
(Harvard), WUMB (UMass Boston), WMBR (MIT), WZBC ( Boston
Boston
College), WMFO
WMFO
( Tufts
Tufts
University), WBRS
WBRS
(Brandeis University), WTBU ( Boston
Boston
University, campus and web only), WRBB
WRBB
(Northeastern University) and WMLN-FM
WMLN-FM
(Curry College). The Boston
Boston
television DMA, which also includes Manchester, New Hampshire, is the 8th largest in the United States.[249] The city is served by stations representing every major American network, including WBZ-TV
WBZ-TV
4 and its sister station WSBK-TV
WSBK-TV
38 (the former a CBS O&O, the latter an MyNetwork TV
MyNetwork TV
affiliate), WCVB-TV
WCVB-TV
5 and its sister station WMUR-TV
WMUR-TV
9 (both ABC), WHDH 7 and its sister station WLVI
WLVI
56 (the former an independent station, the latter a CW affiliate), WBTS-LD
WBTS-LD
8 (a NBC
NBC
O&O), and WFXT 25 (Fox). The city is also home to PBS
PBS
member station WGBH-TV
WGBH-TV
2, a major producer of PBS programs,[250] which also operates WGBX
WGBX
44. Spanish-language television networks, including Azteca ( WFXZ-CD
WFXZ-CD
24), Univision
Univision
(WUNI 27), Telemundo
Telemundo
( WNEU
WNEU
60, a sister station to WBTS-LD), and UniMás ( WUTF-DT 66), have a presence in the region, with WNEU
WNEU
and WUTF serving as network owned-and-operated stations. Most of the area's television stations have their transmitters in nearby Needham and Newton along the Route 128 corridor.[251] Six Boston
Boston
television stations are carried by Canadian satellite television provider Bell TV and by cable television providers in Canada. Film[edit] See also: List of movies filmed in Boston Films have been made in Boston
Boston
since as early as 1903, and it continues to be both a popular setting and a popular site for location shooting.[252][253] Healthcare[edit] See also: List of hospitals in Boston

Harvard
Harvard
Medical School, one of the most prestigious medical schools in the world

The Longwood Medical and Academic Area, adjacent to the Fenway district, is home to a large number of medical and research facilities, including Beth Israel
Israel
Deaconess Medical Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Children's Hospital Boston, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard
Harvard
Medical School, Joslin Diabetes Center, and the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences.[254] Prominent medical facilities, including Massachusetts
Massachusetts
General Hospital, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Eye and Ear Infirmary and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital are located in the Beacon Hill area. St. Elizabeth's Medical Center is in Brighton Center of the city's Brighton neighborhood. New England Baptist Hospital is in Mission Hill. The city has Veterans Affairs medical centers in the Jamaica Plain
Jamaica Plain
and West Roxbury neighborhoods.[255] The Boston
Boston
Public Health Commission, an agency of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
government, oversees health concerns for city residents.[256] Boston EMS
Boston EMS
provides pre-hospital emergency medical services to residents and visitors. Many of Boston's medical facilities are associated with universities. The facilities in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area
Longwood Medical and Academic Area
and in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
General Hospital are affiliated with Harvard
Harvard
Medical School.[257] Tufts
Tufts
Medical Center (formerly Tufts- New England
New England
Medical Center), located in the southern portion of the Chinatown neighborhood, is affiliated with Tufts
Tufts
University School of Medicine. Boston
Boston
Medical Center, located in the South End neighborhood, is the primary teaching facility for the Boston University
Boston University
School of Medicine as well as the largest trauma center in the Boston
Boston
area;[258] it was formed by the merger of Boston University
Boston University
Hospital and Boston
Boston
City Hospital, which was the first municipal hospital in the United States.[259] Infrastructure[edit] Main article: Infrastructure in Boston Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Boston

South Station, the busiest rail hub in New England, is a terminus of Amtrak
Amtrak
and numerous MBTA
MBTA
rail lines.

An MBTA
MBTA
Red Line train departing Boston
Boston
for Cambridge. Bostonians depend heavily on public transit, with over 1.3 million Bostonians riding the city's buses and trains daily (2013).[260]

Hubway
Hubway
bikes in Boston

Logan Airport, located in East Boston
East Boston
and operated by the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Port Authority (Massport), is Boston's principal airport.[261] Nearby general aviation airports are Beverly Municipal Airport to the north, Hanscom Field
Hanscom Field
to the west, and Norwood Memorial Airport to the south. Massport also operates several major facilities within the Port of Boston, including a cruise ship terminal and facilities to handle bulk and container cargo in South Boston, and other facilities in Charlestown and East Boston.[262]

Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge
Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge
crosses the Charles River from Downtown Boston.

Downtown Boston's streets grew organically, so they do not form a planned grid,[263] unlike those in later-developed Back Bay, East Boston, the South End, and South Boston. Boston
Boston
is the eastern terminus of I-90, which in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
runs along the Massachusetts Turnpike. The elevated portion of the Central Artery, which carried most of the through traffic in downtown Boston, was replaced with the O'Neill Tunnel during the Big Dig, substantially completed in early 2006. With nearly a third of Bostonians using public transit for their commute to work, Boston
Boston
has the fifth-highest rate of public transit usage in the country.[264] Boston's subway system, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA—known as the "T") operates the oldest underground rapid transit system in the Americas, and is the fourth-busiest rapid transit system in the country,[19] with 65.5 miles (105 km) of track on four lines.[265] The MBTA
MBTA
also operates busy bus and commuter rail networks, and water shuttles.[265] Amtrak's Northeast Corridor
Northeast Corridor
and Chicago lines originate at South Station, which serves as a major intermodal transportation hub, and stop at Back Bay. Fast Northeast Corridor
Northeast Corridor
trains, which serve New York City, Washington, D.C., and points in between, also stop at Route 128 Station in the southwestern suburbs of Boston.[266] Meanwhile, Amtrak's Downeaster service to Maine
Maine
originates at North Station,[267] despite the current lack of a dedicated passenger rail link between the two railhubs, other than the "T" subway lines. Nicknamed "The Walking City", Boston
Boston
hosts more pedestrian commuters than do other comparably populated cities. Owing to factors such as necessity, the compactness of the city and large student population, 13 percent of the population commutes by foot, making it the highest percentage of pedestrian commuters in the country out of the major American cities.[268] In 2011, Walk Score
Walk Score
ranked Boston
Boston
the third most walkable city in the United States.[269][270] As of 2015[update], Walk Score still ranks Boston
Boston
as the third most walkable US city, with a Walk Score
Walk Score
of 80, a Transit Score of 75, and a Bike Score of 70.[271] Between 1999 and 2006, Bicycling magazine named Boston
Boston
three times as one of the worst cities in the US for cycling;[272] regardless, it has one of the highest rates of bicycle commuting.[273] In 2008, as a consequence of improvements made to bicycling conditions within the city, the same magazine put Boston
Boston
on its "Five for the Future" list as a "Future Best City" for biking,[274][275] and Boston's bicycle commuting percentage increased from 1% in 2000 to 2.1% in 2009.[276] The bikeshare program called Hubway
Hubway
launched in late July 2011,[277] logging more than 140,000 rides before the close of its first season.[278] The neighboring municipalities of Cambridge, Somerville, and Brookline joined the Hubway
Hubway
program in the summer of 2012.[279] In 2016, there are 1,461 bikes and 158 docking stations across the city.[280] PBSC Urban Solutions
PBSC Urban Solutions
provides bicycles and technology for this bike-sharing system.[281] In 2013, the Boston-Cambridge-Newton metropolitan statistical area ( Boston
Boston
MSA) had the seventh lowest percentage of workers who commuted by private automobile (75.6 percent), with 6.2 percent of area workers traveling via rail transit. During the period starting in 2006 and ending in 2013, the Boston
Boston
MSA had the greatest percentage decline of workers commuting by automobile (3.3 percent) among MSAs with more than a half million residents.[282] Twin towns and Sister Cities[edit] Main article: Sister cities of Boston Boston
Boston
has nine official sister cities as recognized by Sister Cities International.[283]

City Country Since References

Kyoto Japan 1959 [284]

Strasbourg France 1960 [285][286]

Barcelona Spain 1980 [287][288]

Hangzhou China 1982 [283]

Padua Italy 1983 [289]

Melbourne Australia 1985

[290]

Taipei Taiwan 1996 [291]

Sekondi-Takoradi Ghana 2001 [283]

Belfast Northern Ireland 2014 [292]

Boston
Boston
has less formal friendship or partnership relationships with three additional cities.

City Country Since References

Boston, Lincolnshire United Kingdom 1999 [293][294][295]

Haifa Israel 1999 [296]

Valladolid Spain 2007 [297]

See also[edit]

Boston
Boston
portal North America portal United States
United States
portal Massachusetts
Massachusetts
portal

Boston City League
Boston City League
(high school athletic conference) Boston
Boston
nicknames Boston–Halifax relations List of diplomatic missions in Boston List of people from Boston List of tallest buildings in Boston National Register of Historic Places listings in Boston, Massachusetts Boston
Boston
bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics

Notes[edit]

^ On the New Style (modern) calendar, anniversaries fall on September 17. ^ On the New Style (modern) calendar, anniversaries of the original Old Style date fall on September 17. ^ The average number of days with a low at or below freezing is 94. ^ Seasonal snowfall accumulation has ranged from 9.0 in (22.9 cm) in 1936–37 to 110.6 in (2.81 m) in 2014–15. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official records for Boston
Boston
were kept at downtown from January 1872 to December 1935, and at Logan Airport (KBOS) since January 1936.[107]

References[edit]

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Sources[edit]

Bluestone, Barry; Stevenson, Mary Huff (2002). The Boston
Boston
Renaissance: Race, Space, and Economic Change in an American Metropolis. Russell Sage Foundation. ISBN 978-1-61044-072-1.  Bolino, August C. (2012). Men of Massachusetts: Bay State Contributors to American Society. iUniverse. ISBN 978-1-4759-3376-5.  Christopher, Paul J. (2006). 50 Plus One Greatest Cities in the World You Should Visit. Encouragement Press, LLC. ISBN 978-1-933766-01-0.  Hull, Sarah (2011). The Rough Guide to Boston
Boston
(6 ed.). Penguin. ISBN 978-1-4053-8247-2.  Kennedy, Lawrence W. (1994). Planning the City Upon a Hill: Boston Since 1630. University of Massachusetts
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Press. ISBN 978-0-87023-923-6.  Morris, Jerry (2005). The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe
Guide to Boston. Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-0-7627-3430-6.  Vorhees, Mara (2009). Lonely Planet Boston
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City Guide (4 ed.). Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74179-178-5.  Wechter, Eric B.; et al. (2009). Fodor's Boston
Boston
2009. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4000-0699-1. 

Further reading[edit] Main article: Bibliography of Boston

Beagle, Jonathan M.; Penn, Elan (2006). Boston: A Pictorial Celebration. Sterling Publishing
Publishing
Company, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4027-1977-6.  Brown, Robin; The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe
(2009). Boston's Secret Spaces: 50 Hidden Corners In and Around the Hub (1 ed.). Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-0-7627-5062-7.  Hantover, Jeffrey; King, Gilbert (2008). City in Time: Boston. Sterling Publishing
Publishing
Company, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4027-3300-0.  O'Connell, James C. (2013). The Hub's Metropolis: Greater Boston's Development from Railroad Suburbs to Smart Growth. MIT
MIT
Press. ISBN 978-0-262-01875-3.  O'Connor, Thomas H. (2000). Boston: A to Z. Harvard
Harvard
University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-00310-1.  Price, Michael; Sammarco, Anthony Mitchell (2000). Boston's immigrants, 1840–1925. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7524-0921-4.  Krieger, Alex; Cobb, David; Turner, Amy, eds. (2001). Mapping Boston. MIT
MIT
Press. ISBN 978-0-262-61173-2.  Seasholes, Nancy S. (2003). Gaining Ground: A History of Landmaking in Boston. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT
MIT
Press. ISBN 978-0-262-19494-5.  Shand-Tucci, Douglass (1999). Built in Boston: City & Suburb, 1800–2000 (2 ed.). University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Press. ISBN 978-1-55849-201-1.  Southworth, Michael; Southworth, Susan (2008). AIA Guide to Boston, 3rd Edition: Contemporary Landmarks, Urban Design, Parks, Historic Buildings and Neighborhoods (3 ed.). Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-0-7627-4337-7.  Vrabel, Jim; Bostonian Society (2004). When in Boston: A Time Line & Almanac. Northeastern University
Northeastern University
Press. ISBN 978-1-55553-620-6.  Whitehill, Walter Muir; Kennedy, Lawrence W. (2000). Boston: A Topographical History (3 ed.). Belknap Press of Harvard
Harvard
University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-00268-5. 

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History

Timeline

Media Nicknames People Politics Port Public Library Public Schools Sister cities Skyscrapers Songs Transportation

Attractions

Boston
Boston
Common Boston
Boston
Convention and Exhibition Center Boston
Boston
Irish Famine Memorial Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party
Ships and Museum Bunker Hill Monument Faneuil Hall Fenway Park Franklin Park Zoo Freedom Trail Hynes Convention Center Institute of Contemporary Art Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum Museum of Fine Arts Museum of Science New England
New England
Aquarium Old North Church Paul Revere
Paul Revere
House Symphony Hall TD Garden USS Constitution

Museum

Business districts

Back Bay Downtown Fenway–Kenmore Financial District Government Center Innovation
Innovation
district North End Route 128 corridor South End List of companies in Boston

Government

City council City Hall Elections Emergency Medical Services (EMS) FinComm Fire Housing (BHA) Mayor Police Boston
Boston
Planning and Development Agency

Neighborhoods

Allston–Brighton

Allston Brighton

Back Bay Bay Village Beacon Hill Downtown Boston

Financial District Government Center

Charlestown Chinatown Dorchester

Columbia Point South Bay

East Boston Fenway–Kenmore Harbor Islands Hyde Park

Readville

Jamaica Plain

Forest Hills

Leather District Mattapan Mission Hill

Longwood

North End Roslindale Roxbury

Fort Hill

South Boston

Fort Point

South End West End West Roxbury

Chestnut Hill

Sports

Boston
Boston
Bruins Boston
Boston
Celtics Boston
Boston
Red Sox New England
New England
Patriots New England
New England
Revolution

Suffolk County Boston-Cambridge Metro Massachusetts United States

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Boston
Boston
Landmarks

African Meeting House Boston
Boston
Athenæum Boston
Boston
Children's Museum Boston
Boston
Common Boston
Boston
Convention and Exhibition Center Boston
Boston
Navy Yard Boston
Boston
Public Garden Boston
Boston
Public Library Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party
Ships and Museum Citi Performing Arts Center Downtown Crossing Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the United States
United States
Senate Faneuil Hall Fenway Park Franklin Park Zoo Freedom Trail Harvard
Harvard
University Institute of Contemporary Art Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Institute of Technology Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State House Museum of Fine Arts Museum of Science New England
New England
Aquarium New England
New England
Holocaust Memorial Newbury Street Old North Church Paul Revere
Paul Revere
House Prudential Center Samuel Adams (Whitney) South Station Symphony Hall TD Garden Trinity Church USS Constitution

Museum

Other articles relating to Boston

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Municipalities and communities of Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States

County seat: Boston

Cities

Boston Chelsea Revere Winthrop

Neighborhoods

Allston Back Bay Bay Village Beacon Hill Charlestown Chinatown/Leather District Dorchester Downtown Boston East Boston Fenway-Kenmore Hyde Park Jamaica Plain Mattapan Mission Hill North End Roslindale Roxbury South Boston South End West End West Roxbury

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Region of Greater Boston

Counties

Belknap, NH Bristol, MA Bristol, RI Essex, MA Hillsborough, NH Kent, RI Merrimack, NH Middlesex, MA Newport, RI Norfolk, MA Plymouth, MA Providence, RI Rockingham, NH Strafford, NH Suffolk, MA Washington, RI Worcester, MA

Major cities

Boston

Cities and towns 100k-250k

Cambridge Lowell Manchester Providence Worcester

Cities and towns 25k-100k

Andover Arlington Attleboro Beverly Billerica Braintree Bridgewater Brockton Brookline Chelmsford Chelsea Concord (New Hampshire) Coventry Cranston Cumberland Danvers Dartmouth Derry Dover (New Hampshire) Dracut East Providence Everett Fall River Fitchburg Framingham Franklin Gloucester Haverhill Johnston Lawrence Leominster Lexington Lynn Malden Marlborough Marshfield Medford Melrose Merrimack (New Hampshire) Methuen Milford (Massachusetts) Milton Nashua Natick Needham New Bedford Newport Newton North Andover North Attleboro North Kingstown North Providence Norwood Pawtucket Peabody Plymouth Quincy Revere Rochester Salem (Massachusetts) Salem (New Hampshire) Saugus Shrewsbury Somerville South Kingstown Stoughton Taunton Tewksbury Wakefield Waltham Warwick Watertown Wellesley West Warwick Weymouth Woburn Woonsocket

Cities and towns 10k-25k

Abington Acton Acushnet Amesbury Amherst (New Hampshire) Ashland Athol Auburn Barrington Bedford (Massachusetts) Bedford (New Hampshire) Bellingham Belmont Beverly Bristol Burlington Burrillville Canton Carver Central Falls Charlton Clinton Concord (Massachusetts) Dedham Dudley Duxbury East Bridgewater East Greenwich Easton Exeter Fairhaven Foxborough Gardner Goffstown Grafton Groton Hampton Hanover Hanson Hingham Holbrook Holden Holliston Hooksett Hopkinton Hudson (Massachusetts) Hudson (New Hampshire) Hull Ipswich Kingston Laconia Lakeville Leicester Lincoln (Rhode Island) Londonderry Lunenburg Lynnfield Mansfield Marblehead Maynard Medfield Medway Middleborough Middletown Milford (New Hampshire) Millbury Narragansett Newburyport Norfolk Northborough Northbridge North Reading North Smithfield Norton Norwell Oxford Peabody Pelham Pembroke Pepperell Portsmouth (Rhode Island) Portsmouth (New Hampshire) Randolph Raymond Raynham Reading Rehoboth Rockland Scituate (Massachusetts) Scituate (Rhode Island) Seekonk Sharon Smithfield Somerset Somersworth Southbridge Stoneham Spencer Sudbury Swampscott Swansea Tiverton Tyngsborough Uxbridge Walpole Wareham Warren (Rhode Island) Wayland Webster Westborough Westerly Westford Weston Westport Westwood Whitman Wilmington Winchendon Winchester Windham Winthrop Wrentham

Sub-regions

Boston
Boston
Proper Central Massachusetts Merrimack Valley MetroWest North Shore Rhode Island South Coast South Shore

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 Commonwealth of Massachusetts

Boston
Boston
(capital)

Topics

Index Administrative divisions Congressional districts Elections Geography Geology Government History Images Law Music People State symbols Transportation Villages Tourist attractions Windmills

Society

Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Politics Sports

Regions

The Berkshires Blackstone Valley Cape Ann Cape Cod Central Massachusetts Greater Boston Housatonic Valley The Islands Merrimack Valley MetroWest Montachusett-North County North Shore Pioneer Valley Quabbin-Swift River Valley South Coast South County South Shore Southeastern Massachusetts Western Massachusetts

Counties

Barnstable Berkshire Bristol Dukes Essex Franklin Hampden Hampshire Middlesex Nantucket Norfolk Plymouth Suffolk Worcester

Cities

Agawam Amesbury Attleboro Barnstable Beverly Boston Braintree Bridgewater Brockton Cambridge Chelsea Chicopee East Longmeadow Easthampton Everett Fall River Fitchburg Framingham Franklin Gardner Gloucester Greenfield Haverhill Holyoke Lawrence Leominster Lowell Lynn Malden Marlborough Medford Melrose Methuen New Bedford Newburyport Newton North Adams Northampton Palmer Peabody Pittsfield Quincy Randolph Revere Salem Somerville Southbridge Springfield Taunton Waltham Watertown Westfield West Springfield Weymouth Winthrop Woburn Worcester Note: Municipalities not listed have a town meeting form of government (see all municipalities)

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Northeast megalopolis

Major metropolitan areas (over 1,000,000)

New York

city

Philadelphia

city

Washington

city

Boston

city

Baltimore

city

Providence

city

Hartford

city

Other cities (over 100,000)

Newark Jersey City Yonkers Worcester Springfield Alexandria Paterson Bridgeport Elizabeth New Haven Stamford Allentown Manchester Waterbury Cambridge Lowell

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New England

Topics

Autumn Climate Cuisine Culture Demographics Economy Elections Flag Geography Geology Government History

New England
New England
Colonies Dominion of New England New England
New England
Confederation

Literature Place names of Native-American origin Politics Sports

States

Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont

Major cities

Augusta Boston Bridgeport Burlington Cambridge Concord Hartford Lowell Manchester Montpelier New Bedford New Haven New London New Britain Portland Providence Quincy Springfield Stamford Waterbury Worcester

State capitals

Augusta Boston Concord Hartford Montpelier Providence

Transportation

Passenger rail

MBTA
MBTA
(MA, RI) Northeast Corridor
Northeast Corridor
(CT, MA, RI) Acela Express
Acela Express
(CT, MA, RI) Downeaster (ME, NH, MA) Vermonter (CT, MA, NH, VT) Shore Line East
Shore Line East
(CT) Metro-North (CT) Hartford Line
Hartford Line
(CT, MA; under construction) High-speed Northern New England
New England
(proposed)

Major Interstates

I-84 (CT, MA) I-89 (NH, VT) I-90 (Mass Pike) (MA) I-91 (CT, MA, VT) I-93 (MA, NH, VT) I-95 (CT, RI, MA, NH, ME) defunct: New England
New England
road marking system

Airports

Bradley (CT) Burlington (VT) T. F. Green (RI) Manchester– Boston
Boston
(NH) Logan (MA) Portland (ME)

Category Portal Commons

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Northeastern United States

Topics

Culture Geography Government History

States

Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Maryland Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Maine Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont

Major cities

Allentown Baltimore Boston Bridgeport Buffalo Burlington Cambridge Elizabeth Erie Hartford Jersey City Lowell Manchester New Haven New York City Newark Paterson Philadelphia Pittsburgh Portland Providence Quincy Reading Rochester Scranton Springfield Stamford Syracuse Washington, D.C. Waterbury Wilmington Worcester

State capitals

Albany Annapolis Augusta Boston Concord Dover Hartford Harrisburg Montpelier Providence Trenton

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Capitals of the United States
United States
by jurisdiction

Nation:

US Washington

States:

AL Montgomery AK Juneau AZ Phoenix AR Little Rock CA Sacramento CO Denver CT Hartford DE Dover FL Tallahassee GA Atlanta HI Honolulu ID Boise IL Springfield IN Indianapolis IA Des Moines KS Topeka KY Frankfort LA Baton Rouge ME Augusta MD Annapolis MA Boston MI Lansing MN Saint Paul MS Jackson MO Jefferson City MT Helena NE Lincoln NV Carson City NH Concord NJ Trenton NM Santa Fe NY Albany NC Raleigh ND Bismarck OH Columbus OK Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City OR Salem PA Harrisburg RI Providence SC Columbia SD Pierre TN Nashville TX Austin UT Salt Lake City VT Montpelier VA Richmond WA Olympia WV Charleston WI Madison WY Cheyenne

Territories:

AS Pago Pago GU Hagåtña MP Saipan PR San Juan VI Charlotte Amalie

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All-America City Award: Hall of Fame

Akron, Ohio Anchorage, Alaska Asheville, North Carolina Baltimore Boston Cincinnati Cleveland Columbus, Ohio Dayton, Ohio Des Moines, Iowa Edinburg, Texas Fayetteville, North Carolina Fort Wayne, Indiana Fort Worth, Texas Gastonia, North Carolina Grand Island, Nebraska Grand Rapids, Michigan Hickory, North Carolina Independence, Missouri Kansas
Kansas
City, Missouri Laurinburg, North Carolina New Haven, Connecticut Peoria, Illinois Philadelphia Phoenix, Arizona Roanoke, Virginia Rockville, Maryland Saint Paul, Minnesota San Antonio Seward, Alaska Shreveport, Louisiana Tacoma, Washington Toledo, Ohio Tupelo, Mississippi Wichita, Kansas Worcester, Massachusetts

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Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Massachusetts

Marty Walsh (Boston) Joseph M. Petty (Worcester) Domenic Sarno (Springfield) Edward J. Kennedy (Lowell) Marc McGovern (Cambridge)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 133676669 LCCN: n79045553 GND: 4007840-1 BNF: cb12038429t (d

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