HOME
The Info List - Bos



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i)

B. acutifrons † (Aurochs, primordial bos) B. frontalis (gayal, domesticated gaur) B. gaurus (gaur) B. grunniens (domestic yak) B. mutus (wild yak) B. indicus (zebu) B. javanicus (banteng) B. palaesondaicus † (Pleistocene Banteng) B. planifrons † B. primigenius † (aurochs) B. sauveli (kouprey) B. taurus (cattle)

BOS (from Latin
Latin
bōs: cow , ox , bull ) is the genus of wild and domestic cattle . Bos
Bos
can be divided into four subgenera : Bos, Bibos, Novibos, and Poephagus, but these divisions are controversial. The genus has five extant species. However, this may rise to seven if the domesticated varieties are counted as separate species, and nine if the closely related genus Bison
Bison
is also included. Most modern breeds of domesticated cattle are believed to have originated from the extinct aurochs .

CONTENTS

* 1 Anatomy and morphology * 2 Range and distribution * 3 Ecology, behavior and life history * 4 Evolutionary history * 5 Systematics and taxonomy * 6 See also * 7 Bibliography * 8 References * 9 External links

ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY

Most species are grazers, with long tongues to twist the plant material they favor and large teeth to break up the plant material they ingest. They are ruminants , having a four-chambered stomach that allows them to break down plant material.

RANGE AND DISTRIBUTION

There are about 1.3 billion domestic cattle alive today, making them one of the world's most numerous mammals. Members of this genus are currently found in Africa, Asia, eastern and western Europe, parts of North America, South America and also in Oceania. Their habitats vary greatly depending on the particular species; they can be found in prairies, rain forests, wetlands, savannas and temperate forests.

ECOLOGY, BEHAVIOR AND LIFE HISTORY

Most Bos
Bos
species have a lifespan of 18–25 years in the wild, with up to 36 being recorded in captivity. They have a 9–11 month gestation , depending on the species and birth one, or rarely two young in the spring.

Most species travel in herds ranging in size from 10 members into the hundreds. Within most herds, there is one bull (male) for all the cows (female). Dominance is important in the herds; calves will usually inherit their mother's position in the hierarchy .

They are generally diurnal , resting in the hot part of the day and being active morning and afternoon. In areas where humans have encroached on the territory of a herd, they may turn nocturnal . Some species are also migratory, moving with food and water availability.

EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY

Modern species of Bos
Bos
are thought to have evolved from a single ancestor, the aurochs (B. primigenius). This particular species survived until the early 17th century when it was hunted to extinction as the last aurochs, a female, died in Poland
Poland
.

SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMY

Scientific classification :

* Subgenus Bos
Bos

* Bos primigenius
Bos primigenius
(cattle , including aurochs )

* Bos primigenius
Bos primigenius
primigenius (aurochs ) † * Bos primigenius
Bos primigenius
taurus (taurine cattle , domesticated) * Bos primigenius
Bos primigenius
indicus (zebu , domesticated)

* Bos aegyptiacus
Bos aegyptiacus
(Egyptian cattle; name not recognized by ITIS ) † * Bos acutifrons † * Bos planifrons

* Subgenus Bibos

* Bos gaurus
Bos gaurus
(gaur or Indian bison) * Bos frontalis (gayal or mithun, domesticated form of Bos
Bos
gaurus)

* Bos javanicus (banteng )

* Bos javanicus domesticus ( Bali cattle )

* Bos palaesondaicus
Bos palaesondaicus
(Pleistocene Banteng) †

* Subgenus Novibos

* Bos
Bos
sauveli (kouprey or Grey ox)

* Subgenus Poephagus

* Bos grunniens
Bos grunniens
(yak ) * Bos mutus (wild yak )

In 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature resolved a long-standing dispute about the naming of those species (or pairs of species) of Bos
Bos
that contain both wild and domesticated forms. The commission "conserved the usage of 17 specific names based on wild species, which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic forms", confirming Bos primigenius
Bos primigenius
for the aurochs and Bos gaurus
Bos gaurus
for the gaur. If domesticated cattle and gayal are considered separate species, they are to be named Bos
Bos
taurus and Bos frontalis; however, if they are considered part of the same species as their wild relatives, the common species are to be named Bos primigenius and Bos
Bos
gaurus.

SEE ALSO

* Bovine genome
Bovine genome
* Bull
Bull
(mythology) * Bull
Bull
versus bear

BIBLIOGRAPHY

This article includes a list of references , but ITS SOURCES REMAIN UNCLEAR because it has INSUFFICIENT INLINE CITATIONS . Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

* Briggs, H.M. and Briggs, D.M. (1980). Modern Breeds of Livestock. Macmillan Publishing. * International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2003. Opinion 2027 (Case 3010). Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved. Bull.Zool.Nomencl., 60:81-84. * Van Vuure, Cis. 2003. De Oeros – Het spoor terug, Cis van Vuure, Wageningen University and Research Centrum / Ministry of the Flemish Community, Brussels ">

* ^ Groves, C. P., 1981. Systematic relationships in the Bovini (Artiodactyla, Bovidae). Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung, 4:264-278., quoted in Don E. Wilson ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Extant Artiodactyla species

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata * Class: Mammalia * Infraclass: Eutheria
Eutheria
* Superorder: Laurasiatheria
Laurasiatheria

SUBORDER RUMINANTIA

ANTILOCAPRIDAE

ANTILOCAPRA

* Pronghorn
Pronghorn
(A. americana)

GIRAFFIDAE

OKAPIA

* Okapi
Okapi
(O. johnstoni)

GIRAFFA

* Northern giraffe (G. camelopardalis) * Southern giraffe
Southern giraffe
(G. giraffa) * Reticulated giraffe
Reticulated giraffe
(G. reticulata) * Masai giraffe
Masai giraffe
(G. tippelskirchi)

MOSCHIDAE

MOSCHUS

* Anhui musk deer (M. anhuiensis) * Dwarf musk deer (M. berezovskii) * Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer
(M. chrysogaster) * Kashmir musk deer (M. cupreus) * Black musk deer
Black musk deer
(M. fuscus) * Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster) * Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer
(M. moschiferus)

TRAGULIDAE

HYEMOSCHUS

* Water chevrotain (H. aquaticus)

MOSCHIOLA

* Indian spotted chevrotain (M. indica) * Yellow-striped chevrotain (M. kathygre) * Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain (M. meminna)

TRAGULUS

* Java mouse-deer (T. javanicus) * Lesser mouse-deer
Lesser mouse-deer
(T. kanchil) * Greater mouse-deer
Greater mouse-deer
(T. napu) * Philippine mouse-deer
Philippine mouse-deer
(T. nigricans) * Vietnam mouse-deer
Vietnam mouse-deer
(T. versicolor) * Williamson\'s mouse-deer (T. williamsoni)

CERVIDAE Large family listed below

BOVIDAE Large family listed below

FAMILY CERVIDAE

CERVINAE

MUNTIACUS

* Indian muntjac
Indian muntjac
(M. muntjak) * Reeves\'s muntjac (M. reevesi) * Hairy-fronted muntjac
Hairy-fronted muntjac
(M. crinifrons) * Fea\'s muntjac (M. feae) * Bornean yellow muntjac (M. atherodes) * Roosevelt\'s muntjac (M. rooseveltorum) * Gongshan muntjac
Gongshan muntjac
(M. gongshanensis) * Giant muntjac
Giant muntjac
(M. vuquangensis) * Truong Son muntjac (M. truongsonensis) * Leaf muntjac
Leaf muntjac
(M. putaoensis) * Sumatran muntjac (M. montanus) * Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac
(M. puhoatensis)

ELAPHODUS

* Tufted deer
Tufted deer
(E. cephalophus)

DAMA

* Fallow deer
Fallow deer
(D. dama) * Persian fallow deer (D. mesopotamica)

AXIS

* Chital
Chital
(A. axis)

RUCERVUS

* Barasingha
Barasingha
(R. duvaucelii)

PANOLIA

* Eld\'s deer (P. eldii)

ELAPHURUS

* Père David\'s deer (E. davidianus)

HYELAPHUS

* Hog deer (H. porcinus) * Calamian deer (H. calamianensis) * Bawean deer
Bawean deer
(H. kuhlii)

RUSA

* Sambar deer
Sambar deer
(R. unicolor) * Rusa deer (R. timorensis) * Philippine sambar (R. mariannus) * Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)

CERVUS

* Red deer
Red deer
(C. elaphus) * Elk
Elk
(C. canadensis) * Thorold\'s deer (C. albirostris) * Sika deer
Sika deer
(C. nippon)

CAPREOLINAE

ALCES

* Moose
Moose
(A. alces)

HYDROPOTES

* Water deer
Water deer
(H. inermis)

CAPREOLUS

* Roe deer (C. capreolus) * Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer
(C. pygargus)

RANGIFER

* Caribou
Caribou
(R. tarandus) * Reindeer
Reindeer
(R. tarandus)

HIPPOCAMELUS

* Taruca (H. antisensis) * South Andean deer
South Andean deer
(H. bisulcus)

MAZAMA

* Red brocket
Red brocket
(M. americana) * Small red brocket (M. bororo) * Merida brocket
Merida brocket
(M. bricenii) * Dwarf brocket (M. chunyi) * Gray brocket
Gray brocket
(M. gouazoubira) * Pygmy brocket
Pygmy brocket
(M. nana) * Amazonian brown brocket (M. nemorivaga) * Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket
(M. pandora) * Little red brocket (M. rufina) * Central American red brocket (M. temama)

OZOTOCEROS

* Pampas deer
Pampas deer
(O. bezoarticus)

BLASTOCERUS

* Marsh deer
Marsh deer
(B. dichotomus)

PUDU

* Northern pudú (P. mephistophiles) * Southern pudú (P. pudu)

ODOCOILEUS

* White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer
(O. virginianus) * Mule deer
Mule deer
(O. hemionus)

FAMILY BOVIDAE

CEPHALOPHINAE

CEPHALOPHUS

* Abbott\'s duiker (C. spadix) * Aders\' duiker (C. adersi) * Bay duiker
Bay duiker
(C. dorsalis) * Black duiker
Black duiker
(C. niger) * Black-fronted duiker (C. nigrifrons) * Brooke\'s duiker (C. brookei) * Harvey\'s duiker (C. harveyi) * Jentink\'s duiker (C. jentinki) * Ogilby\'s duiker (C. ogilbyi) * Peters\'s duiker (C. callipygus) * Red-flanked duiker (C. rufilatus) * Red forest duiker
Red forest duiker
(C. natalensis) * Ruwenzori duiker (C. rubidis) * Weyns\'s duiker (C. weynsi) * White-bellied duiker
White-bellied duiker
(C. leucogaster) * White-legged duiker
White-legged duiker
(C. crusalbum) * Yellow-backed duiker (C. Sylvicultor) * Zebra duiker (C. zebra)

PHILANTOMBA

* Blue duiker
Blue duiker
(P. monticola) * Maxwell\'s duiker (P. maxwellii) * Walter\'s duiker (P. walteri)

SYLVICAPRA

* Common duiker
Common duiker
(S. grimmia)

HIPPOTRAGINAE

HIPPOTRAGUS

* Roan antelope
Roan antelope
(H. equinus) * Sable antelope
Sable antelope
(H. niger)

ORYX

* East African oryx (O. beisa) * Scimitar oryx
Scimitar oryx
(O. dammah) * Gemsbok (O. gazella) * Arabian oryx
Arabian oryx
(O. leucoryx)

ADDAX

* Addax
Addax
(A. nasomaculatus)

REDUNCINAE

KOBUS

* Upemba lechwe
Upemba lechwe
(K. anselli) * Waterbuck
Waterbuck
(K. ellipsiprymnus) * Kob (K. kob) * Lechwe
Lechwe
(K. leche) * Nile lechwe
Nile lechwe
(K. megaceros) * Puku
Puku
(K. vardonii)

REDUNCA

* Southern reedbuck (R. arundinum) * Mountain reedbuck
Mountain reedbuck
(R. fulvorufula) * Bohor reedbuck (R. redunca)

AEPYCEROTINAE

AEPYCEROS

* Impala
Impala
(A. melampus)

PELEINAE

PELEA

* Grey rhebok (P. capreolus)

ALCELAPHINAE

BEATRAGUS

* Hirola
Hirola
(B. hunteri)

DAMALISCUS

* Topi
Topi
(D. korrigum) * Common tsessebe
Common tsessebe
(D. lunatus) * Bontebok
Bontebok
(D. pygargus) * Bangweulu tsessebe (D. superstes)

ALCELAPHUS

* Hartebeest
Hartebeest
(A. buselaphus) * Red hartebeest
Red hartebeest
(A. caama) * Lichtenstein\'s hartebeest (A. lichtensteinii)

CONNOCHAETES

* Black wildebeest
Black wildebeest
(C. gnou) * Blue wildebeest
Blue wildebeest
(C. taurinus)

PANTHOLOPINAE

PANTHOLOPS

* Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

CAPRINAE Large subfamily listed below

BOVINAE Large subfamily listed below

ANTILOPINAE Large subfamily listed below

FAMILY BOVIDAE (SUBFAMILY CAPRINAE )

AMMOTRAGUS

* Barbary sheep (A. lervia)

BUDORCAS

* Takin (B. taxicolor)

CAPRA

* Wild goat
Wild goat
(C. aegagrus) * Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) * West Caucasian tur (C. caucasia) * East Caucasian tur (C. cylindricornis) * Markhor
Markhor
(C. falconeri) * Alpine ibex
Alpine ibex
(C. ibex) * Nubian ibex
Nubian ibex
(C. nubiana) * Spanish ibex
Spanish ibex
(C. pyrenaica) * Siberian ibex
Siberian ibex
(C. sibirica) * Walia ibex
Walia ibex
(C. walie)

CAPRICORNIS

* Japanese serow
Japanese serow
(C. crispus) * Taiwan serow
Taiwan serow
(C. swinhoei) * Sumatran serow (C. sumatraensis) * Mainland serow (C. milneedwardsii) * Red serow
Red serow
(C. rubidusi) * Himalayan serow
Himalayan serow
(C. thar)

HEMITRAGUS

* Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
(H. hylocrius) * Arabian tahr
Arabian tahr
(H. jayakari) * Himalayan tahr
Himalayan tahr
(H. jemlahicus)

NAEMORHEDUS

* Red goral (N. baileyi) * Long-tailed goral (N. caudatus) * Himalayan goral (N. goral) * Chinese goral
Chinese goral
(N. griseus)

OREAMNOS

* Mountain goat
Mountain goat
(O. americanus)

OVIBOS

* Muskox
Muskox
(O. moschatus)

OVIS

* Argali
Argali
(O. ammon) * Domestic sheep (O. aries) * Bighorn sheep
Bighorn sheep
(O. canadensis) * Dall sheep
Dall sheep
(O. dalli) * Mouflon
Mouflon
(O. musimon) * Snow sheep (O. nivicola) * Urial
Urial
(O. orientalis)

PSEUDOIS

* Bharal (P. nayaur) * Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep
(P. schaeferi)

RUPICAPRA

* Pyrenean chamois
Pyrenean chamois
(R. pyrenaica) * Chamois
Chamois
(R. rupicapra)

FAMILY BOVIDAE (SUBFAMILY BOVINAE )

BOSELAPHINI

TETRACERUS

* Four-horned antelope
Four-horned antelope
(T. quadricornis)

BOSELAPHUS

* Nilgai
Nilgai
(B. tragocamelus)

BOVINI

BUBALUS

* Water buffalo
Water buffalo
(B. bubalis) * Wild Water Buffalo (B. arnee) * Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis) * Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi) * Tamaraw
Tamaraw
(B. mindorensis)

BOS

* Banteng
Banteng
(B. javanicus) * Gaur
Gaur
(B. gaurus) * Gayal
Gayal
(B. frontalis) * Domestic yak (B. grunniens) * Wild yak
Wild yak
(B. mutus) * Cattle
Cattle
(B. taurus) * Kouprey (B. sauveli)

PSEUDONOVIBOS

* Kting voar (P. spiralis)

PSEUDORYX

* Saola (P. nghetinhensis)

SYNCERUS

* African buffalo
African buffalo
(S. caffer)

BISON

* American bison
American bison
(B. bison) * European bison
European bison
(B. bonasus)

STREPSICEROTINI

Tragelaphus (including kudus )

* Sitatunga
Sitatunga
(T. spekeii) * Nyala
Nyala
(T. angasii) * Kéwel (T. scriptus) * Imbabala (T. sylvaticus) * Mountain nyala
Mountain nyala
(T. buxtoni) * Lesser kudu
Lesser kudu
(T. imberbis) * Greater kudu (T. strepsiceros) * Bongo (T. eurycerus)

TAUROTRAGUS

* Common eland
Common eland
(T. oryx) * Giant eland
Giant eland
(T. derbianus)

FAMILY BOVIDAE (SUBFAMILY ANTILOPINAE )

ANTILOPINI

AMMODORCAS

* Dibatag
Dibatag
(A. clarkei)

ANTIDORCAS

* Springbok
Springbok
(A. marsupialis)

ANTILOPE

* Blackbuck
Blackbuck
(A. cervicapra)

EUDORCAS

* Mongalla gazelle (E. albonotata) * Red-fronted gazelle
Red-fronted gazelle
(E. rufifrons) * Thomson\'s gazelle (E. thomsonii)

GAZELLA

* Mountain gazelle (G. gazella) * Neumann\'s gazelle (G. erlangeri) * Speke\'s gazelle (G. spekei) * Dorcas gazelle
Dorcas gazelle
(G. dorcas) * Chinkara
Chinkara
(G. bennettii) * Cuvier\'s gazelle (G. cuvieri) * Rhim gazelle
Rhim gazelle
(G. leptoceros) * Goitered gazelle (G. subgutturosa)

LITOCRANIUS

* Gerenuk
Gerenuk
(L. walleri)

NANGER

* Dama gazelle
Dama gazelle
(N. dama) * Grant\'s gazelle (N. granti) * Soemmerring\'s gazelle (N. soemmerringii)

PROCAPRA

* Mongolian gazelle (P. gutturosa) * Goa (P. picticaudata) * Przewalski\'s gazelle (P. przewalskii)

SAIGINI

PANTHOLOPS

* Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

SAIGA

* Saiga antelope
Saiga antelope
(S. tatarica)

NEOTRAGINI

DORCATRAGUS

* Beira (D. megalotis)

MADOQUA

* Günther\'s dik-dik (M. guentheri) * Kirk\'s dik-dik (M. kirkii) * Silver dik-dik
Silver dik-dik
(M. piacentinii) * Salt\'s dik-dik (M. saltiana)

NEOTRAGUS

* Bates\'s pygmy antelope (N. batesi) * Suni
Suni
(N. moschatus) * Royal antelope
Royal antelope
(N. pygmaeus)

OREOTRAGUS

* Klipspringer (O. oreotragus)

OUREBIA

* Oribi (O. ourebi)

RAPHICERUS

* Steenbok
Steenbok
(R. campestris) * Cape grysbok
Cape grysbok
(R. melanotis) * Sharpe\'s grysbok (R. sharpei)

SUBORDER SUINA

SUIDAE

BABYROUSA

* Buru babirusa (B. babyrussa) * North Sulawesi babirusa
North Sulawesi babirusa
(B. celebensis) * Togian babirusa
Togian babirusa
(B. togeanensis)

HYLOCHOERUS

* Giant forest hog (H. meinertzhageni)

PHACOCHOERUS

* Desert warthog
Desert warthog
(P. aethiopicus) * Common warthog
Common warthog
(P. africanus)

PORCULA

* Pygmy hog (P. salvania)

POTAMOCHOERUS

* Bushpig
Bushpig
(P. larvatus) * Red river hog
Red river hog
(P. porcus)

Sus (Pigs )

* Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig
(S. ahoenobarbus) * Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig
(S. barbatus) * Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus) * Visayan warty pig (S. cebifrons) * Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig
(S. celebensis) * Flores warty pig (S. heureni) * Oliver\'s warty pig (S. oliveri) * Philippine warty pig (S. philippensis) * Wild boar
Wild boar
(S. scrofa) * Timor warty pig (S. timoriensis) * Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig
(S. verrucosus)

TAYASSUIDAE

TAYASSU

* White-lipped peccary (T. pecari)

CATAGONUS

* Chacoan peccary
Chacoan peccary
(C. wagneri)

PECARI

* Collared peccary
Collared peccary
(P. tajacu) * Giant peccary (P. maximus)

SUBORDER TYLOPODA

CAMELIDAE

LAMA

* Llama
Llama
(L. glama) * Guanaco
Guanaco
(L. guanicoe)

VICUGNA

* Vicuña
Vicuña
(V. vicugna) * Alpaca
Alpaca
(V. pacos)

CAMELUS

* Dromedary (C. dromedarius) * Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. bactrianus) * Wild Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. ferus)

WHIPPOMORPHA (UNRANKED CLADE)

HIPPOPOTAMIDAE

HIPPOPOTAMUS

* Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus
(H. amphibius)

CHOEROPSIS

* Pygmy hippopotamus (C. liberiensis)

TAXON IDENTIFIERS

* Wd : Q237993 * ADW : Bos * EoL : 34548 * GBIF : 2441017 * ITIS : 183837 * MSW : 14200674 * NCBI : 9903

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bos additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

* Privacy policy * About * Disclaimers * Contact * Developers * Cookie statement * Mobile view

* *

Links: ------

.