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B. acutifrons † (Aurochs, primordial bos) B. frontalis (gayal, domesticated gaur) B. gaurus (gaur) B. grunniens (domestic yak) B. mutus (wild yak) B. indicus (zebu) B. javanicus (banteng) B. palaesondaicus † (Pleistocene Banteng) B. planifrons † B. primigenius † (aurochs) B. sauveli (kouprey) B. taurus (cattle)

BOS (from Latin
Latin
bōs: cow , ox , bull ) is the genus of wild and domestic cattle . Bos
Bos
can be divided into four subgenera : Bos, Bibos, Novibos, and Poephagus, but these divisions are controversial. The genus has five extant species. However, this may rise to seven if the domesticated varieties are counted as separate species, and nine if the closely related genus Bison
Bison
is also included. Most modern breeds of domesticated cattle are believed to have originated from the extinct aurochs .

CONTENTS

* 1 Anatomy and morphology * 2 Range and distribution * 3 Ecology, behavior and life history * 4 Evolutionary history * 5 Systematics and taxonomy * 6 See also * 7 Bibliography * 8 References * 9 External links

ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY

Most species are grazers, with long tongues to twist the plant material they favor and large teeth to break up the plant material they ingest. They are ruminants , having a four-chambered stomach that allows them to break down plant material.

RANGE AND DISTRIBUTION

There are about 1.3 billion domestic cattle alive today, making them one of the world's most numerous mammals. Members of this genus are currently found in Africa, Asia, eastern and western Europe, parts of North America, South America and also in Oceania. Their habitats vary greatly depending on the particular species; they can be found in prairies, rain forests, wetlands, savannas and temperate forests.

ECOLOGY, BEHAVIOR AND LIFE HISTORY

Most Bos
Bos
species have a lifespan of 18–25 years in the wild, with up to 36 being recorded in captivity. They have a 9–11 month gestation , depending on the species and birth one, or rarely two young in the spring.

Most species travel in herds ranging in size from 10 members into the hundreds. Within most herds, there is one bull (male) for all the cows (female). Dominance is important in the herds; calves will usually inherit their mother's position in the hierarchy .

They are generally diurnal , resting in the hot part of the day and being active morning and afternoon. In areas where humans have encroached on the territory of a herd, they may turn nocturnal . Some species are also migratory, moving with food and water availability.

EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY

Modern species of Bos
Bos
are thought to have evolved from a single ancestor, the aurochs (B. primigenius). This particular species survived until the early 17th century when it was hunted to extinction as the last aurochs, a female, died in Poland
Poland
.

SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMY

Scientific classification :

* Subgenus Bos
Bos

* Bos primigenius (cattle , including aurochs )

* Bos primigenius primigenius (aurochs ) † * Bos primigenius taurus (taurine cattle , domesticated) * Bos primigenius indicus (zebu , domesticated)

* Bos aegyptiacus (Egyptian cattle; name not recognized by ITIS ) † * Bos acutifrons † * Bos planifrons

* Subgenus Bibos

* Bos gaurus
Bos gaurus
(gaur or Indian bison) * Bos frontalis (gayal or mithun, domesticated form of Bos
Bos
gaurus)

* Bos javanicus (banteng )

* Bos javanicus domesticus ( Bali cattle )

* Bos palaesondaicus (Pleistocene Banteng) †

* Subgenus Novibos

* Bos
Bos
sauveli (kouprey or Grey ox)

* Subgenus Poephagus

* Bos grunniens
Bos grunniens
(yak ) * Bos mutus (wild yak )

In 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature resolved a long-standing dispute about the naming of those species (or pairs of species) of Bos
Bos
that contain both wild and domesticated forms. The commission "conserved the usage of 17 specific names based on wild species, which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic forms", confirming Bos primigenius for the aurochs and Bos gaurus
Bos gaurus
for the gaur. If domesticated cattle and gayal are considered separate species, they are to be named Bos
Bos
taurus and Bos frontalis; however, if they are considered part of the same species as their wild relatives, the common species are to be named Bos primigenius and Bos
Bos
gaurus.

SEE ALSO

* Bovine genome * Bull
Bull
(mythology) * Bull
Bull
versus bear

BIBLIOGRAPHY

This article includes a list of references , but ITS SOURCES REMAIN UNCLEAR because it has INSUFFICIENT INLINE CITATIONS . Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

* Briggs, H.M. and Briggs, D.M. (1980). Modern Breeds of Livestock. Macmillan Publishing. * International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2003. Opinion 2027 (Case 3010). Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved. Bull.Zool.Nomencl., 60:81-84. * Van Vuure, Cis. 2003. De Oeros – Het spoor terug, Cis van Vuure, Wageningen University and Research Centrum / Ministry of the Flemish Community, Brussels ">

* ^ Groves, C. P., 1981. Systematic relationships in the Bovini (Artiodactyla, Bovidae). Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung, 4:264-278., quoted in Don E. Wilson ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Extant Artiodactyla species

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata * Class: Mammalia * Infraclass: Eutheria
Eutheria
* Superorder: Laurasiatheria

SUBORDER RUMINANTIA

ANTILOCAPRIDAE

ANTILOCAPRA

* Pronghorn
Pronghorn
(A. americana)

GIRAFFIDAE

OKAPIA

* Okapi
Okapi
(O. johnstoni)

GIRAFFA

* Northern giraffe
Northern giraffe
(G. camelopardalis) * Southern giraffe
Southern giraffe
(G. giraffa) * Reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata) * Masai giraffe (G. tippelskirchi)

MOSCHIDAE

MOSCHUS

* Anhui musk deer (M. anhuiensis) * Dwarf musk deer
Dwarf musk deer
(M. berezovskii) * Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer
(M. chrysogaster) * Kashmir musk deer
Kashmir musk deer
(M. cupreus) * Black musk deer
Black musk deer
(M. fuscus) * Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster) * Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer
(M. moschiferus)

TRAGULIDAE

HYEMOSCHUS

* Water chevrotain (H. aquaticus)

MOSCHIOLA

* Indian spotted chevrotain (M. indica) * Yellow-striped chevrotain (M. kathygre) * Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain (M. meminna)

TRAGULUS

* Java mouse-deer
Java mouse-deer
(T. javanicus) * Lesser mouse-deer
Lesser mouse-deer
(T. kanchil) * Greater mouse-deer
Greater mouse-deer
(T. napu) * Philippine mouse-deer
Philippine mouse-deer
(T. nigricans) * Vietnam mouse-deer
Vietnam mouse-deer
(T. versicolor) * Williamson\'s mouse-deer (T. williamsoni)

CERVIDAE Large family listed below

BOVIDAE Large family listed below

FAMILY CERVIDAE

CERVINAE

MUNTIACUS

* Indian muntjac (M. muntjak) * Reeves\'s muntjac (M. reevesi) * Hairy-fronted muntjac (M. crinifrons) * Fea\'s muntjac (M. feae) * Bornean yellow muntjac (M. atherodes) * Roosevelt\'s muntjac (M. rooseveltorum) * Gongshan muntjac (M. gongshanensis) * Giant muntjac (M. vuquangensis) * Truong Son muntjac (M. truongsonensis) * Leaf muntjac (M. putaoensis) * Sumatran muntjac (M. montanus) * Pu Hoat muntjac (M. puhoatensis)

ELAPHODUS

* Tufted deer (E. cephalophus)

DAMA

* Fallow deer (D. dama) * Persian fallow deer (D. mesopotamica)

AXIS

* Chital
Chital
(A. axis)

RUCERVUS

* Barasingha
Barasingha
(R. duvaucelii)

PANOLIA

* Eld\'s deer (P. eldii)

ELAPHURUS

* Père David\'s deer (E. davidianus)

HYELAPHUS

* Hog deer (H. porcinus) * Calamian deer (H. calamianensis) * Bawean deer (H. kuhlii)

RUSA

* Sambar deer
Sambar deer
(R. unicolor) * Rusa deer (R. timorensis) * Philippine sambar (R. mariannus) * Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)

CERVUS

* Red deer
Red deer
(C. elaphus) * Elk
Elk
(C. canadensis) * Thorold\'s deer (C. albirostris) * Sika deer
Sika deer
(C. nippon)

CAPREOLINAE

ALCES

* Moose
Moose
(A. alces)

HYDROPOTES

* Water deer (H. inermis)

CAPREOLUS

* Roe deer
Roe deer
(C. capreolus) * Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer
(C. pygargus)

RANGIFER

* Caribou
Caribou
(R. tarandus) * Reindeer
Reindeer
(R. tarandus)

HIPPOCAMELUS

* Taruca (H. antisensis) * South Andean deer (H. bisulcus)

MAZAMA

* Red brocket (M. americana) * Small red brocket (M. bororo) * Merida brocket (M. bricenii) * Dwarf brocket (M. chunyi) * Gray brocket (M. gouazoubira) * Pygmy brocket (M. nana) * Amazonian brown brocket (M. nemorivaga) * Yucatan brown brocket (M. pandora) * Little red brocket (M. rufina) * Central American red brocket (M. temama)

OZOTOCEROS

* Pampas deer (O. bezoarticus)

BLASTOCERUS

* Marsh deer
Marsh deer
(B. dichotomus)

PUDU

* Northern pudú (P. mephistophiles) * Southern pudú (P. pudu)

ODOCOILEUS

* White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer
(O. virginianus) * Mule deer
Mule deer
(O. hemionus)

FAMILY BOVIDAE

CEPHALOPHINAE

CEPHALOPHUS

* Abbott\'s duiker (C. spadix) * Aders\' duiker (C. adersi) * Bay duiker (C. dorsalis) * Black duiker (C. niger) * Black-fronted duiker
Black-fronted duiker
(C. nigrifrons) * Brooke\'s duiker (C. brookei) * Harvey\'s duiker (C. harveyi) * Jentink\'s duiker (C. jentinki) * Ogilby\'s duiker (C. ogilbyi) * Peters\'s duiker (C. callipygus) * Red-flanked duiker (C. rufilatus) * Red forest duiker (C. natalensis) * Ruwenzori duiker (C. rubidis) * Weyns\'s duiker (C. weynsi) * White-bellied duiker (C. leucogaster) * White-legged duiker (C. crusalbum) * Yellow-backed duiker (C. Sylvicultor) * Zebra duiker (C. zebra)

PHILANTOMBA

* Blue duiker
Blue duiker
(P. monticola) * Maxwell\'s duiker (P. maxwellii) * Walter\'s duiker (P. walteri)

SYLVICAPRA

* Common duiker
Common duiker
(S. grimmia)

HIPPOTRAGINAE

HIPPOTRAGUS

* Roan antelope (H. equinus) * Sable antelope (H. niger)

ORYX

* East African oryx (O. beisa) * Scimitar oryx (O. dammah) * Gemsbok
Gemsbok
(O. gazella) * Arabian oryx
Arabian oryx
(O. leucoryx)

ADDAX

* Addax
Addax
(A. nasomaculatus)

REDUNCINAE

KOBUS

* Upemba lechwe
Upemba lechwe
(K. anselli) * Waterbuck (K. ellipsiprymnus) * Kob
Kob
(K. kob) * Lechwe (K. leche) * Nile lechwe (K. megaceros) * Puku (K. vardonii)

REDUNCA

* Southern reedbuck
Southern reedbuck
(R. arundinum) * Mountain reedbuck (R. fulvorufula) * Bohor reedbuck (R. redunca)

AEPYCEROTINAE

AEPYCEROS

* Impala
Impala
(A. melampus)

PELEINAE

PELEA

* Grey rhebok (P. capreolus)

ALCELAPHINAE

BEATRAGUS

* Hirola (B. hunteri)

DAMALISCUS

* Topi (D. korrigum) * Common tsessebe (D. lunatus) * Bontebok (D. pygargus) * Bangweulu tsessebe (D. superstes)

ALCELAPHUS

* Hartebeest
Hartebeest
(A. buselaphus) * Red hartebeest (A. caama) * Lichtenstein\'s hartebeest (A. lichtensteinii)

CONNOCHAETES

* Black wildebeest
Black wildebeest
(C. gnou) * Blue wildebeest (C. taurinus)

PANTHOLOPINAE

PANTHOLOPS

* Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

CAPRINAE Large subfamily listed below

BOVINAE Large subfamily listed below

ANTILOPINAE Large subfamily listed below

FAMILY BOVIDAE (SUBFAMILY CAPRINAE )

AMMOTRAGUS

* Barbary sheep (A. lervia)

BUDORCAS

* Takin (B. taxicolor)

CAPRA

* Wild goat (C. aegagrus) * Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) * West Caucasian tur (C. caucasia) * East Caucasian tur (C. cylindricornis) * Markhor
Markhor
(C. falconeri) * Alpine ibex (C. ibex) * Nubian ibex (C. nubiana) * Spanish ibex (C. pyrenaica) * Siberian ibex
Siberian ibex
(C. sibirica) * Walia ibex (C. walie)

CAPRICORNIS

* Japanese serow (C. crispus) * Taiwan serow (C. swinhoei) * Sumatran serow (C. sumatraensis) * Mainland serow (C. milneedwardsii) * Red serow (C. rubidusi) * Himalayan serow (C. thar)

HEMITRAGUS

* Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
(H. hylocrius) * Arabian tahr (H. jayakari) * Himalayan tahr (H. jemlahicus)

NAEMORHEDUS

* Red goral
Red goral
(N. baileyi) * Long-tailed goral (N. caudatus) * Himalayan goral (N. goral) * Chinese goral (N. griseus)

OREAMNOS

* Mountain goat (O. americanus)

OVIBOS

* Muskox (O. moschatus)

OVIS

* Argali
Argali
(O. ammon) * Domestic sheep (O. aries) * Bighorn sheep
Bighorn sheep
(O. canadensis) * Dall sheep
Dall sheep
(O. dalli) * Mouflon (O. musimon) * Snow sheep
Snow sheep
(O. nivicola) * Urial (O. orientalis)

PSEUDOIS

* Bharal
Bharal
(P. nayaur) * Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep
(P. schaeferi)

RUPICAPRA

* Pyrenean chamois (R. pyrenaica) * Chamois
Chamois
(R. rupicapra)

FAMILY BOVIDAE (SUBFAMILY BOVINAE )

BOSELAPHINI

TETRACERUS

* Four-horned antelope (T. quadricornis)

BOSELAPHUS

* Nilgai (B. tragocamelus)

BOVINI

BUBALUS

* Water buffalo
Water buffalo
(B. bubalis) * Wild Water Buffalo (B. arnee) * Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis) * Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi) * Tamaraw (B. mindorensis)

BOS

* Banteng (B. javanicus) * Gaur
Gaur
(B. gaurus) * Gayal (B. frontalis) * Domestic yak (B. grunniens) * Wild yak (B. mutus) * Cattle
Cattle
(B. taurus) * Kouprey
Kouprey
(B. sauveli)

PSEUDONOVIBOS

* Kting voar (P. spiralis)

PSEUDORYX

* Saola (P. nghetinhensis)

SYNCERUS

* African buffalo
African buffalo
(S. caffer)

BISON

* American bison
American bison
(B. bison) * European bison (B. bonasus)

STREPSICEROTINI

Tragelaphus
Tragelaphus
(including kudus )

* Sitatunga
Sitatunga
(T. spekeii) * Nyala (T. angasii) * Kéwel (T. scriptus) * Imbabala (T. sylvaticus) * Mountain nyala (T. buxtoni) * Lesser kudu (T. imberbis) * Greater kudu (T. strepsiceros) * Bongo (T. eurycerus)

TAUROTRAGUS

* Common eland
Common eland
(T. oryx) * Giant eland (T. derbianus)

FAMILY BOVIDAE (SUBFAMILY ANTILOPINAE )

ANTILOPINI

AMMODORCAS

* Dibatag (A. clarkei)

ANTIDORCAS

* Springbok
Springbok
(A. marsupialis)

ANTILOPE

* Blackbuck
Blackbuck
(A. cervicapra)

EUDORCAS

* Mongalla gazelle (E. albonotata) * Red-fronted gazelle (E. rufifrons) * Thomson\'s gazelle (E. thomsonii)

GAZELLA

* Mountain gazelle (G. gazella) * Neumann\'s gazelle (G. erlangeri) * Speke\'s gazelle (G. spekei) * Dorcas gazelle (G. dorcas) * Chinkara
Chinkara
(G. bennettii) * Cuvier\'s gazelle (G. cuvieri) * Rhim gazelle (G. leptoceros) * Goitered gazelle (G. subgutturosa)

LITOCRANIUS

* Gerenuk (L. walleri)

NANGER

* Dama gazelle (N. dama) * Grant\'s gazelle (N. granti) * Soemmerring\'s gazelle (N. soemmerringii)

PROCAPRA

* Mongolian gazelle (P. gutturosa) * Goa (P. picticaudata) * Przewalski\'s gazelle (P. przewalskii)

SAIGINI

PANTHOLOPS

* Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

SAIGA

* Saiga antelope (S. tatarica)

NEOTRAGINI

DORCATRAGUS

* Beira (D. megalotis)

MADOQUA

* Günther\'s dik-dik (M. guentheri) * Kirk\'s dik-dik (M. kirkii) * Silver dik-dik (M. piacentinii) * Salt\'s dik-dik (M. saltiana)

NEOTRAGUS

* Bates\'s pygmy antelope (N. batesi) * Suni (N. moschatus) * Royal antelope (N. pygmaeus)

OREOTRAGUS

* Klipspringer
Klipspringer
(O. oreotragus)

OUREBIA

* Oribi (O. ourebi)

RAPHICERUS

* Steenbok (R. campestris) * Cape grysbok
Cape grysbok
(R. melanotis) * Sharpe\'s grysbok (R. sharpei)

SUBORDER SUINA

SUIDAE

BABYROUSA

* Buru babirusa (B. babyrussa) * North Sulawesi babirusa (B. celebensis) * Togian babirusa (B. togeanensis)

HYLOCHOERUS

* Giant forest hog (H. meinertzhageni)

PHACOCHOERUS

* Desert warthog (P. aethiopicus) * Common warthog (P. africanus)

PORCULA

* Pygmy hog (P. salvania)

POTAMOCHOERUS

* Bushpig (P. larvatus) * Red river hog
Red river hog
(P. porcus)

Sus (Pigs )

* Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig
(S. ahoenobarbus) * Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig
(S. barbatus) * Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus) * Visayan warty pig (S. cebifrons) * Celebes warty pig (S. celebensis) * Flores warty pig (S. heureni) * Oliver\'s warty pig (S. oliveri) * Philippine warty pig (S. philippensis) * Wild boar
Wild boar
(S. scrofa) * Timor warty pig (S. timoriensis) * Javan warty pig (S. verrucosus)

TAYASSUIDAE

TAYASSU

* White-lipped peccary (T. pecari)

CATAGONUS

* Chacoan peccary (C. wagneri)

PECARI

* Collared peccary
Collared peccary
(P. tajacu) * Giant peccary (P. maximus)

SUBORDER TYLOPODA

CAMELIDAE

LAMA

* Llama
Llama
(L. glama) * Guanaco
Guanaco
(L. guanicoe)

VICUGNA

* Vicuña
Vicuña
(V. vicugna) * Alpaca
Alpaca
(V. pacos)

CAMELUS

* Dromedary
Dromedary
(C. dromedarius) * Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. bactrianus) * Wild Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. ferus)

WHIPPOMORPHA (UNRANKED CLADE)

HIPPOPOTAMIDAE

HIPPOPOTAMUS

* Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus
(H. amphibius)

CHOEROPSIS

* Pygmy hippopotamus (C. liberiensis)

TAXON IDENTIFIERS

* Wd : Q237993 * ADW : Bos * EoL : 34548 * GBIF : 2441017 * ITIS : 183837 * MSW : 14200674 * N

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