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Borrelia
Borrelia
is a genus of bacteria of the spirochete phylum.[1] It causes borreliosis, a zoonotic, vector-borne disease transmitted primarily by ticks and by lice, depending on the species.[2] The genus is named after the French biologist Amédée Borrel
Amédée Borrel
(1867–1936). There are 52 known species of Borrelia. 21 are members of the Lyme disease
Lyme disease
group, 29 belong to the relapsing fever group, and two are members of a third group.[3]

Contents

1 Phylogeny 2 Lyme disease 3 Relapsing fever 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Phylogeny[edit] The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [4] and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[5] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 111 by 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project.[6]

?B. lonestari ♠ Barbour et al. 1996

?B. microti ♠

B. turcica Güner et al. 2004

B. coriaceae Johnson et al. 1987

B. miyamotoi Fukunaga et al. 1995

S. burgdorferi species-group

?Candidatus B. texasensis Lin et al. 2005

?B. andersonii ♠ Marconi et al. 1995

?B. bavariensis ♠ Margos et al. 2009

?B. bissettii ♠ Postic et al. 1998

?B. californiensis ♠ Postic et al. 2007

?B. kurtenbachii ♠ Margos et al. 2010

?B. spielmanii Richter et al. 2006

B. tanukii Fukunaga et al. 1997

B. afzelii Canica et al. 1994

B. turdi Fukunaga et al. 1997

B. valaisiana Wang et al. 1997

B. americana Rudenko et al. 2010

B. carolinensis Rudenko et al. 2011

B. burgdorferi ( Lyme disease
Lyme disease
spirochete)

B. garinii Baranton et al. 1992

B. lusitaniae Le Fleche et al. 1997

B. japonica Kawabata et al. 1994

B. sinica Masuzawa et al. 2001

Notes: ♦ Type strain lost or not available ♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN) ♥ Strains not lodged at National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) or listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) Lyme disease[edit] Main article: Lyme disease
Lyme disease
microbiology

Borrelia burgdorferi
Borrelia burgdorferi
the causative agent of Lyme disease
Lyme disease
(borreliosis) magnified 400 times.

Of the 52 known species of Borrelia, 12[citation needed] are known to cause Lyme disease
Lyme disease
or borreliosis and are transmitted by ticks. The major Borrelia
Borrelia
species causing Lyme disease
Lyme disease
are Borrelia
Borrelia
burgdorferi, Borrelia
Borrelia
afzelii, and Borrelia
Borrelia
garinii. Direct tests include culture of Borrelia
Borrelia
from skin, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and detection of genetic material by polymerase chain reaction in skin, blood, or synovial fluid. Two-tiered serological testing is performed for differential diagnosis of Borrelia
Borrelia
infection. The first-tier tests detect specific antibodies ( IgM
IgM
and IgG
IgG
together or separately) and include enzyme immunoassays (e.g. ELISAs) and immunofluorescent assays. Positive results for first-tier tests are confirmed using second-tier testing. The second-tier consists of standardized immunoblotting, either by using Western blots or blots striped with diagnostically important purified antigens. Positive results for second-tier tests are confirmatory for the presence of Borrelia
Borrelia
infection.[7] Relapsing fever[edit] Main article: Relapsing fever Relapsing fever borreliosis often occurs with severe bacteremia.[8] B. recurrentis is transmitted by the human body louse; no other animal reservoir of B. recurrentis is known. Lice
Lice
that feed on infected humans acquire the Borrelia
Borrelia
organisms that then multiply in the gut of the louse. When an infected louse feeds on an uninfected human, the organism gains access when the victim crushes the louse or scratches the area where the louse is feeding. B. recurrentis infects the person via mucous membranes and then invades the bloodstream. Other tick-borne relapsing infections are acquired from other species, such as B. hermsii, B. parkeri, or B. miyamotoi,[9] which can be spread from rodents, and serve as a reservoir for the infection, via a tick vector. B. hermsii and B. recurrentis cause very similar diseases, although the disease associated with B. hermsii has more relapses and is responsible for more fatalities, while the disease caused by B. recurrentis has longer febrile and afebrile intervals and a longer incubation period. References[edit]

^ J.P. Euzéby. "Borrelia". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [1]. Retrieved 2013-03-20. ^ Samuels DS; Radolf, JD, eds. (2010). Borrelia: Molecular Biology, Host Interaction and Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-58-5.  ^ Cutler SJ, Ruzic-Sabljic E, Potkonjak A (2016). "Emerging borreliae - Expanding beyond Lyme borreliosis". Molecular and Cellular Probes. doi:10.1016/j.mcp.2016.08.003. PMID 27523487.  ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Borrelia". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Archived from the original on 2011-06-13. Retrieved 2013-03-20.  ^ Sayers; et al. "Borrelia". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2013-03-20.  ^ 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 111 (full tree)" (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2013-03-20.  ^ Johnson, B.J.; Robbins, K.E.; Bailey, R.E.; Cao, B.L.; Sviat, S.L.; Craven, R.B.; Mayer, L.W. & Dennis, D.T. (1996). "Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease: accuracy of a two-step approach using a flagella-based ELISA
ELISA
and immunoblotting". Journal of Infectious Diseases. 174: 346–53. doi:10.1093/infdis/174.2.346. PMID 8699065.  ^ Guo, B.P.; Teneberg, S; Münch, R; Terunuma, D; Hatano, K; Matsuoka, K; Angström, J; Borén, T; Bergström, S (2009). "Relapsing fever Borrelia
Borrelia
binds to neolacto glycans and mediates rosetting of human erythrocytes". PNAS. 106 (46): 19280–19285. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905470106. PMC 2771742 . PMID 19884498.  ^ McNeil, Donald (19 September 2011). "New Tick-Borne Disease Is Discovered". The New York Times. pp. D6. Retrieved 20 September 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

Samuels DS; Radolf, JD (editors) (2010). Borrelia: Molecular Biology, Host Interaction and Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-58-5. Sayers et al. "Borrelia". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database [2]. Retrieved 2013-03-20. The All-Species Living Tree Project. "16S rRNA-based LTP release 111 (full tree)". Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database [3]. Retrieved 2013-03-20. Guo BP; Teneberg S; Münch R; Terunuma D; Hatano K; Matsuoka K; Angström J; Borén T; Bergström S (2009). " Relapsing fever Borrelia binds to neolacto glycans and mediates rosetting of human erythrocytes". PNAS. 106 (46): 19280–19285. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905470106. PMC 2771742 . PMID 19884498.  McNeil, Donald (19 September 2011). "New Tick-Borne Disease Is Discovered". The New York Times. pp. D6. Retrieved 20 September 2011.

External links[edit]

Borrelia
Borrelia
genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID Borrelia
Borrelia
Microbe Wiki Page NCBI Borrelia
Borrelia
Taxonomy Browser

v t e

Infectious diseases Bacterial diseases: BV4 non-proteobacterial G- (primarily A00–A79, 001–041, 080–109)

Spirochaete

Spirochaetaceae

Treponema

Treponema
Treponema
pallidum

Syphilis/bejel Yaws

Treponema
Treponema
carateum (Pinta) Treponema
Treponema
denticola

Borrelia

Borrelia
Borrelia
burgdorferi/ Borrelia
Borrelia
afzelii

Lyme disease Erythema chronicum migrans Neuroborreliosis

Borrelia recurrentis ( Louse
Louse
borne relapsing fever) Borrelia
Borrelia
hermsii/ Borrelia
Borrelia
duttoni/ Borrelia parkeri (Tick borne relapsing fever)

Leptospiraceae

Leptospira

Leptospira
Leptospira
interrogans (Leptospirosis)

Chlamydiaceae

Chlamydophila

Chlamydophila psittaci (Psittacosis) Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Chlamydia

Chlamydia trachomatis

Chlamydia Lymphogranuloma venereum Trachoma

Bacteroidetes

Bacteroides fragilis Tannerella forsythia Capnocytophaga canimorsus Porphyromonas gingivalis Prevotella intermedia

Fusobacteria

Fusobacterium necrophorum (Lemierre's syndrome) Fusobacterium nucleatum Fusobacterium polymorphum

Streptobacillus moniliformis (Rat-bite fever/Haverhill fever)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q115528 EoL: 97576 EPPO: 1BORRG GBIF: 3228159 ITIS: 956843 NCBI:

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