Borneo (/ˈbɔːrnioʊ/; Malay: Pulau Borneo, Indonesian: Kalimantan)
is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.[note
1] At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to
major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of
Sulawesi, and east of Sumatra.
The island is politically divided among three countries:
Brunei in the north, and
Indonesia to the south. Approximately 73%
of the island is Indonesian territory. In the north, the East
Malaysian states of
Sarawak make up about 26% of the island.
Additionally, the Malaysian federal territory of
Labuan is situated on
a small island just off the coast of Borneo. The sovereign state of
Brunei, located on the north coast, comprises about 1% of Borneo's
land area. A little more than half of the island is in the Northern
Brunei and the Malaysian portion, while the
Indonesian portion spans both the Northern and Southern hemispheres.
Antipodal to an area of Amazon rainforest,
Borneo is itself home to
one of the oldest rainforests in the world.
2.2 Conservation issues
3.1 Early history
3.2 British and Dutch control
3.3 World War II
3.4 Recent history
4.1 Largest cities
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
The island is known by many names. Internationally it is known as
Borneo, after Brunei, derived from European contact with the kingdom
in the 16th century during the Age of Exploration. The name Brunei
possibly derives from the
Sanskrit word "váruṇa" (वरुण),
meaning either "water" or the mythological Varuna, the
Hindu god of
rain. Indonesian natives called it Kalimantan, which was derived from
Sanskrit word Kalamanthana, meaning "burning weather island" (to
describe its hot and humid tropical weather).
In earlier times, the island was known by other names. In 977, Chinese
records began to use the term Po-ni to refer to
Borneo or Brunei. In
1225, it was also mentioned by the Chinese official Chau Ju-Kua
(趙汝适). The Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by
Majapahit court poet
Mpu Prapanca in 1365, mentioned the island as
Nusa Tanjungnagara, which means the island of the Tanjungpura
See also: Geological history of Borneo
Mount Kinabalu in Malaysia, the highest summit of the island
Borneo is surrounded by the
South China Sea
South China Sea to the north and
Sulu Sea to the northeast, the
Celebes Sea and the
Makassar Strait to the east, and the
Java Sea and
Karimata Strait to
the south. To the west of
Borneo are the
Malay Peninsula and Sumatra.
To the south and east are islands of Indonesia:
Java and Sulawesi,
respectively. To the northeast are the Philippine Islands. With an
area of 743,330 square kilometres (287,000 sq mi), it is the
third-largest island in the world, and is the largest island of Asia
(the largest continent). Its highest point is
Mount Kinabalu in Sabah,
Malaysia, with an elevation of 4,095 m (13,435 ft).
Before sea levels rose at the end of the last Ice Age,
Borneo was part
of the mainland of Asia, forming, with
Java and Sumatra, the upland
regions of a peninsula that extended east from present day Indochina.
South China Sea
South China Sea and
Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand now submerge the former
low-lying areas of the peninsula. Deeper waters separating
Sulawesi prevented a land connection to that island,
creating the divide known as
Wallace's Line between Asian and
New Guinea biological regions.
Kapuas River in Indonesia; at 1,000 km (620 mi) in length,
it is the longest river in Borneo.
The largest river system is the Kapuas in West Kalimantan, with a
length of 1,000 km (620 mi). Other major rivers include
the Mahakam in
East Kalimantan (920 km long (570 mi)),
the Barito in
South Kalimantan (900 km long (560 mi)),
Sarawak (565 km long (351 mi)) and
Sabah (560 km long (350 mi)).
significant cave systems. In Sarawak, the Clearwater Cave has one of
the world's longest underground rivers while
Deer Cave is home to over
three million bats, with guano accumulated to over 100 metres
(330 ft) deep. The
Gomantong Caves in
Sabah has been dubbed
as the "Cockroach Cave" due to the presence of million of cockroaches
inside the cave. The
Gunung Mulu National Park
Gunung Mulu National Park in
Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat Karst in
East Kalimantan which particularly a
karst areas contains thousands of smaller caves.
See also: Biodiversity of Borneo, Fauna of Borneo, Flora of Borneo,
List of endemic birds of Borneo, and Mammals of Borneo
NASA satellite image of
Borneo on 19 May 2002
Borneo rainforest is estimated to be around 140 million years old,
making it one of the oldest rainforests in the world. It is the
centre of the evolution and distribution of many endemic species of
plants and animals, and the rainforest is one of the few remaining
natural habitats for the endangered Bornean orangutan. It is an
important refuge for many endemic forest species, including the Borneo
elephant, the eastern Sumatran rhinoceros, the Bornean clouded
leopard, the hose's palm civet and the dayak fruit bat.
Peat swamp forests occupy the entire coastline of Borneo. The soil
of the peat swamp are comparatively infertile, while it is known to be
the home of various bird species such as the hook-billed bulbul,
helmeted hornbill and rhinoceros hornbill. There are about 15,000
species of flowering plants with 3,000 species of trees (267 species
are dipterocarps), 221 species of terrestrial mammals and 420 species
of resident birds in Borneo. There are about 440 freshwater fish
Borneo (about the same as
In 2010, the
World Wide Fund for Nature
World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) stated that 123 species
have been discovered in
Borneo since the "Heart of Borneo" agreement
was signed in 2007.
The critically endangered Bornean orangutan, a great ape endemic to
The WWF has classified the island into seven distinct ecoregions. Most
are lowland regions:
Borneo lowland rain forests
Borneo lowland rain forests cover most of the island, with an area of
427,500 square kilometres (165,100 sq mi);
Borneo peat swamp forests;
Kerangas or Sundaland heath forests;
Borneo freshwater swamp forests; and
Sunda Shelf mangroves.
Borneo montane rain forests lie in the central highlands of the
island, above the 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) elevation.
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands on
The highest elevations of
Mount Kinabalu are home to the Kinabalu
mountain alpine meadow, an alpine shrubland notable for its numerous
endemic species, including many orchids.
See also: Deforestation in Borneo, 1997 Indonesian forest fires, 1997
Southeast Asian haze, 2006 Southeast Asian haze, 2013 Southeast Asian
haze, 2015 Southeast Asian haze, and 2016 Southeast Asian haze
Logging road in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
The island historically had extensive rainforest cover, but the area
was reduced due to heavy logging by the Indonesian and Malaysian wood
industry, especially with the large demands of raw materials from
industrial countries along with the conversion of forest lands for
large-scale agricultural purposes. Half of the annual global
tropical timber acquisition comes from Borneo.
Palm oil plantations
have been widely developed and are rapidly encroaching on the last
remnants of primary rainforest. Forest fires since 1997, started
by the locals to clear the forests for plantations were exacerbated by
an exceptionally dry
El Niño season, worsening the annual shrinkage
of the rainforest. During these fires, hotspots were visible on
satellite images and the resulting haze frequently affected Brunei,
Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. The haze could also reach southern
Vietnam and the
Philippines as evidenced on the
2015 Southeast Asian haze.
Dayak, the main indigenous people in the island
Territorial loss of the thalassocracy of the Sultanate of
1400 to 1890 due to the beginning of Western imperialism
According to ancient Chinese (977),:129 Indian and Japanese
manuscripts, western coastal cities of
Borneo had become trading ports
by the first millennium AD. In Chinese manuscripts, gold, camphor,
tortoise shells, hornbill ivory, rhinoceros horn, crane crest,
beeswax, lakawood (a scented heartwood and root wood of a thick liana,
Dalbergia parviflora), dragon's blood, rattan, edible bird's nests and
various spices were described as among the most valuable items from
Borneo. The Indians named
Borneo Suvarnabhumi (the land of gold)
and also Karpuradvipa (
Camphor Island). The Javanese named Borneo
Puradvipa, or Diamond Island.
Archaeological findings in the Sarawak
river delta reveal that the area was a thriving centre of trade
between India and China from the 6th century until about 1300.
Stone pillars bearing inscriptions in the Pallava script, found in
Kutai along the
Mahakam River in
East Kalimantan and dating to around
the second half of the 4th century, constitute some of the oldest
Hindu influence in Southeast Asia. By the 14th
Borneo became a vassal state of
Majapahit (in present-day
Indonesia), later changing its allegiance to the Ming dynasty
of China. The religion of
Islam entered the island in the 10th
century, following the arrival of Muslim traders who later
converted many indigenous peoples in the coastal areas.
The Sultanate of
Brunei declared independence from
the death of
Majapahit Emperor in mid-14th century. During its golden
Bolkiah from the 15th century to the 17th century, the
Bruneian Empire ruled almost the entire coastal area of Borneo
(lending its name to the island due to its influence in the region)
and several islands in the Philippines. During the 1450s,
Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an Arab born in Johor, arrived in
Sulu from Malacca. In 1457, he founded the Sultanate of Sulu; he
titled himself as "Paduka Maulana Mahasari Sharif Sultan Hashem Abu
Bakr". Following their independence in 1578 from Brunei's
influence, the Sulu's began to expand their thalassocracy to parts
of the northern Borneo. Both the sultanates who ruled northern
Borneo had traditionally engaged in trade with China by means of the
frequently-arriving Chinese junks. Despite the thalassocracy
of the sultanates, Borneo's interior region remained free from the
rule of any kingdoms.
British and Dutch control
British Borneo and Dutch East Indies
British flag hoisted for the first time on the island of
Labuan on 24
Since the fall of Malacca in 1511, Portuguese merchants traded
regularly with Borneo, and especially with
Brunei from 1530.
Having visited Brunei's capital, the Portuguese described the place as
surrounded by a stone wall. While
Borneo was seen as rich, the
Portuguese did not make any attempts to conquer it. The Spanish
Brunei led to the
Castilian War in 1578. The English began to
trade with Sambas of southern
Borneo in 1609, while the Dutch only
began their trade in 1644: to Banjar and Martapura, also in the
southern Borneo. The Dutch tried to settle the island of
Balambangan, north of Borneo, in the second half of the 18th century,
but withdrew by 1797. In 1812, the sultan in southern
his forts to the English East India Company. The English, led by
Stamford Raffles, then tried to establish an intervention in Sambas
but failed. Although they managed to defeat the Sultanate the next
year and declared a blockade on all ports in
Borneo except Brunei,
Banjarmasin and Pontianak, the project was cancelled by the British
Governor-General Lord Minto in India as it was too expensive. At
the beginning of British and Dutch exploration on the island, they
described the island of
Borneo as full of head hunters, with the
indigenous in the interior practising cannibalism, and the waters
around the island infested with pirates, especially between the north
Borneo and the southern Philippines. The Malay and Sea
Dayak pirates preyed on maritime shipping in the waters between
Singapore and Hong Kong from their haven in Borneo, along with the
attacks by Illanuns of the
Moro Pirates from the southern Philippines,
such as in the Battle off Mukah.
Map of the island divided between the British and the Dutch, 1898. The
present boundaries of Malaysia,
Brunei are largely
inherited from the British and Dutch colonial rules.
The Dutch began to intervene in the southern part of the island upon
resuming contact in 1815, posting Residents to Banjarmasin, Pontianak
and Sambas and Assistant-Residents to Landak and Mampawa. The
Brunei in 1842 granted large parts of land in
the English adventurer James Brooke, as a reward for his help in
quelling a local rebellion. Brooke established the Kingdom of Sarawak
and was recognised as its rajah after paying a fee to the Sultanate.
He established a monarchy, and the Brooke dynasty (through his nephew
and great-nephew) ruled
Sarawak for 100 years; the leaders were known
as the White Rajahs. Brooke also acquired the island of
Britain in 1846 through the Treaty of
Labuan with the Sultan of
Omar Ali Saifuddin II
Omar Ali Saifuddin II on 18 December 1846. The region of
Borneo came under the administration of North Borneo
Chartered Company following the acquisition of territory from the
Brunei and Sulu by a German businessman and adventurer
named Baron von Overbeck, before it was passed to British Dent
Alfred Dent and Edward Dent). Further
enroachment by the British reduced the territory of Brunei. This
led the 26th Sultan of Brunei,
Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin
Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin to appeal
the British to stop, and as a result a Treaty of Protection was signed
in 1888, rendering
Brunei a British protectorate.
Dutch imperial imagery representing the
Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies (1916). The
text reads "Our most precious jewel" which includes the whole island
Before the acquisition by the British, the Americans also managed to
establish their temporary presence in northwestern
acquiring a parcel of land from the Sultanate of Brunei. A company
American Trading Company of Borneo
American Trading Company of Borneo was formed by Joseph
Thomas Bradley Harris
Thomas Bradley Harris and several Chinese investors,
establishing a colony named "Ellena" in the
Kimanis area. The
colony failed and was abandoned, due to denials of financial backing,
especially by the US government, and to diseases and riots among the
workers. Before Torrey left, he managed to sell the land to the
German businessman, Overbeck. Meanwhile, the Germans under William
Frederick Schuck was awarded a parcel of land in northeastern Borneo
Sandakan Bay from the
Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu where he operate
business and export large quantities of arms, opium, textiles and
tobacco to Sulu before the land were also passed to Overbeck by the
Prior to the recognition of Spanish presence in the Philippine
archipelago, a protocol known as the
Madrid Protocol of 1885
Madrid Protocol of 1885 was
signed between the governments of the United Kingdom, Germany and
Madrid to cement Spanish influence and recognise their
sovereignty over the Sultanate of Sulu—in return for Spain's
relinquishing its claim to the former possessions of the Sultanate in
northern Borneo. The British administration then established
the first railway network in northern Borneo, known as the North
Borneo Railway. During this time, the British sponsored a
large number of Chinese workers to migrate to northern
Borneo to work
in European plantation and mines, and the Dutch followed suit to
increase their economic production. By 1888, North Borneo, Sarawak
Brunei in northern
Borneo had become British protectorate. The
area in southern
Borneo was made Dutch protectorate in 1891. The
Dutch who already claimed the whole
Borneo were asked by Britain to
delimit their boundaries between the two colonial territories to avoid
further conflicts. The British and Dutch governments had signed
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 to exchange trading ports in Malay
Sumatra that were under their controls and assert
spheres of influence. This resulted in indirectly establishing
British- and Dutch-controlled areas in the north (Malay Peninsula) and
Sumatra and Riau Islands) respectively.
World War II
See also: Japanese occupation of
British Borneo and Japanese
occupation of the Dutch East Indies
Japanese troops march through the streets of
Labuan on 14 January
American support craft moving towards Victoria and Brown beach to
assist the landing of the members of Australian 24th Infantry Brigade
on the island during Operation Oboe Six, 10 June 1945
During World War II, Japanese forces gained control and occupied most
Borneo from 1941–45. In the first stage of the war, the
British saw the Japanese advance to
Borneo as motivated by political
and territorial ambitions rather than economic factors. The
occupation drove many people in the coastal towns to the interior,
searching for food and escaping the Japanese. The Chinese
residents in Borneo, especially with the Sino-Japanese War in Mainland
China mostly resisted the Japanese occupation. Following the
formation of resistance movements in northern
Borneo such as the
Jesselton Revolt, many innocent indigenous and Chinese people were
executed by the Japanese for their alleged involvement.
In Kalimantan, the Japanese also killed many Malay intellectuals,
executing all the Malay Sultans of
West Kalimantan in the Pontianak
incidents, together with Chinese people who were already against the
Japanese for suspecting them to be threats. Sultan Muhammad
Ibrahim Shafi ud-din II of Sambas was executed in 1944. The Sultanate
was thereafter suspended and replaced by a Japanese council. The
Japanese also set-up Pusat Tenaga Rakjat (PUTERA) in the
Indonesian archipelago in 1943, although it was abolished the
following year when it become too nationalistic. Some of the
Indonesian nationalist like
Sukarno and Hatta who had returned from
Dutch exile began to co-operate with the Japanese. Shortly after his
Sukarno became President of the Central Advisory Council, an
advisory council for south Borneo, Celebes, and Lesser Sunda, set up
in February 1945.
Since the fall of Singapore, the Japanese sent several thousand of
British and Australian prisoners of war to camps in
Borneo such as
Batu Lintang camp. From the
Sandakan camp site, only six of some 2,500
prisoners survived after they were forced to march in an event known
Sandakan Death March. In addition, of the total of 17,488
Javanese labourers brought in by the Japanese during the occupation,
only 1,500 survived mainly due to starvation, harsh working conditions
and maltreatment. The Dayak and other indigenous people played a
role in guerrilla warfare against the occupying forces, particularly
in the Kapit Division. They temporarily revived headhunting of
Japanese toward the end of the war, with Allied Z
provided assistance to them. Australia contributed significantly
to the liberation of Borneo. The Australian Imperial Force was
Borneo to fight off the Japanese. Together with other
Allies, the island was completely liberated in 1945.
Sukarno visiting Pontianak,
West Kalimantan in 1963
Towards the end of the war, Japan decided to give an early
independence to a new proposed country of
Indonesia on 17 July 1945,
with an Independence Committee meeting scheduled for 19 August
1945. However, following the surrender of Japan to the Allied
forces, the meeting was shelved.
Sukarno and Hatta continued the plan
by unilaterally declaring independence, although the Dutch tried to
retake their colonial possession in Borneo. The southern part of
the island achieved its independence through the Proclamation of
Indonesian Independence on 17 August 1945. The reaction was relatively
muted with little open fighting in Pontianak or in the Chinese
majority areas. While nationalist guerrillas supporting the
inclusion of southern
Borneo in the new Indonesian republic were
active in Ketapang, and to lesser extent in Sambas where they rallied
with the red-white flag which became the flag of Indonesia, most of
the Chinese residents in southern
Borneo expected to be liberate by
Chinese Nationalist troops from
Mainland China and to integrate their
districts as an overseas province of China.
In May 1945, officials in Tokyo suggested that whether northern Borneo
should be included in the proposed new country of
Indonesia should be
separately determined based on the desires of its indigenous people
and following the disposition of Malaya.
Sukarno and Mohammad
Yamin meanwhile continuously advocated for a Greater Indonesian
republic. As the President of the new republic, perceiving the
British trying to maintain their presence in northern
Borneo and Malay
Peninsula, he decided to launch a military infiltration later known as
the confrontation between 1962 until 1969. In 1961, Prime Minister
Tunku Abdul Rahman
Tunku Abdul Rahman of the independent
Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya desired to
unite Malaya, the British colonies of Sarawak, North Borneo, Singapore
Brunei under the proposed Federation of
Malaysia. The idea was heavily opposed by the governments in both
Indonesia and the
Philippines as well from Communist sympathisers and
nationalist in Borneo. As a response to the growing
opposition, the British deployed their armed forces to guard their
colonies against Indonesian and communist revolts, which was also
participated by Australia and New Zealand.
Queen's Own Highlanders 1st Battalion conduct a patrol to search for
enemy positions in the jungle of Brunei.
Philippines opposed the newly proposed federation, claiming the
eastern part of North
Borneo (today the Malaysian state of Sabah) as
part of its territory as a former possession of the Sultanate of
Sulu. The Philippine government mostly based their claim on the
Sultanate of Sulu's cession agreement with the British North Borneo
Company, as by now the Sultanate had come under the jurisdiction of
the Philippine republican administration, which therefore should
inherit the Sulu former territories. The Philippine government also
claimed that the heirs of the Sultanate had ceded all their
territorial rights to the republic.
The Sultanate of
Brunei at the first welcomed the proposal of a new
larger federation. Meanwhile, the
Brunei People's Party led by
A.M. Azahari desired to reunify Brunei,
Sarawak and North
one federation known as the
North Borneo Federation
North Borneo Federation (Malay: Kesatuan
Kalimantan Utara), where the Sultan of
Brunei would be the head
of state for the federation—though Azahari had his own intention to
Brunei Monarchy, to make
Brunei more democratic, and to
integrate the territory and other former British colonies in Borneo
into Indonesia, with the support from the latter government. This
directly led to the
Brunei Revolt, which thwarted Azahari's attempt
and forced him to escape to Indonesia.
Brunei withdrew from being part
of the new Federation of
Malaysia due to some disagreements on other
issues while political leaders in
Sarawak and North
to favour inclusion in a larger federation.
With the continuous opposition from
Indonesia and the Philippines, the
Cobbold Commission was established to discover the feeling of the
native populations in northern Borneo; it found the people greatly in
favour of federation, with various stipulations. The
federation was successfully achieved with the inclusion of northern
Borneo through the
Malaysia Agreement on 16 September 1963. Until
present, the area in northern
Borneo still subjected to attacks by
Moro Pirates since the 18th century, and militants such as the Abu
Sayyaf since 2000 in the frequent cross border attacks. During the
administration of Philippine President of Ferdinand Marcos, the
President made some attempts to destabilise the state of Sabah,
although his plan failed and resulted in the
Jabidah massacre and
later in insurgency in the southern Philippines.
Indigenous peoples with their musical instruments, dance and their
respective traditional dress
The demonym for
Borneo is Bornean.
Borneo has 21.3 million inhabitants (in 2014), a population density of
29 inhabitants per square kilometre (75 inhabitants per square mile).
Most of the population lives in coastal cities, although the
hinterland has small towns and villages along the rivers. The
population consists mainly of Dayak ethnic groups, Malay, Banjar,
Orang Ulu, Chinese and Kadazan-Dusun. The Chinese, who make up 29% of
the population of
Sarawak and 17% of total population in West
Kalimantan, Indonesia are descendants of immigrants primarily
from southeastern China.
Sabah during the administration of
Mustapha Harun of the United
Sabah National Organisation (USNO) in the 1970s, thousands of Muslim
immigrants and refugees from the southern
Indonesia were given sanctuary and later identity cards in
the bid to increase the Muslim population of the state: a policy later
known as Project IC. Due to the high number of crimes attributed
to the new migrant populations, ethnic tension between the indigenous
and migrant populations has risen up to the present.
Kalimantan since the 1990s, the Indonesian government has
undertaken an intense transmigration program; to that end it has
financed the relocation of poor, landless families from Java, Madura,
and Bali. By 2001, transmigrants made up 21% of the population in
Central Kalimantan. Since the 1990s, the indigenous Dayak and
Malays have resisted encroachment by these migrants, and violent
conflict has occurred between some transmigrant and indigenous
populations. In the 1999 Sambas riots, Dayaks and Malays joined
together to massacre thousands of the Madurese migrants. In
Kalimantan, thousands were killed in 2001 fighting between Madurese
transmigrants and the
Dayak people in the Sampit conflict.
The following is a list of 20 largest cities in
Borneo by population,
based on 2010 census for Indonesia and 2010 census for
Malaysia. Population data signifies number within official
districts and does not include adjoining or nearby conurbation outside
defined districts—such as
Kota Kinabalu and Banjarbaru. In other
instances, the district area is much larger than the actual city it
represents thereby relatively inflating the population estimate by
including the surrounding rural population—in cases such as Tawau
and Palangka Raya.
Cities and towns of
Borneo by population
Bandar Seri Begawan
Locations of the 10 largest cities of Borneo
Samarinda, East Kalimantan
Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan
Balikpapan, East Kalimantan
Pontianak, West Kalimantan
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei-Muara
Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan
Lahad Datu, Sabah
Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan
Tarakan, North Kalimantan
Singkawang, West Kalimantan
Bontang, East Kalimantan
Political divisions of Borneo
The island of
Borneo is divided administratively by three countries.
The Indonesian provinces of East, South, West, North and Central
The Malaysian states of
Sarawak (The Malaysian Federal
Labuan is located on nearshore islands of Borneo.)
The independent country of
Brunei (main part and eastern exclave of
Part of country
censuses of 2010 3
Bandar Seri Begawan
1) Brunei: Census of Population 2001
2) islands administered as Borneo, geologically part of Borneo, on
nearshore islands (2.5 km off the main island of Borneo)
3) Citypopulation.de reports on Official Decennial Censuses in 2010
Indonesia and Malaysia, independent estimate for Brunei.
Borneo's economy depends mainly on agriculture, logging and mining,
oil and gas, and ecotourism. Brunei's economy is highly dependent
on the oil and gas production sector, and the country has become one
of the largest oil producers in Southeast Asia. The Malaysian states
Sarawak are both top exporters of timber.
also known as the agricultural producer of rubber, cacao, and
vegetables, and for its fisheries, while both
liquefied natural gas (LNG) and petroleum. The Indonesian provinces of
Kalimantan are mostly dependent on mining sectors despite also being
involved in logging and oil and gas explorations.
List of islands of Indonesia
List of islands of Malaysia
List of bats of Borneo
^ See List of islands by area.
^ Donna Marchetti (2 August 1998). "Borneo's Wild Side". The New York
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pp. 286–. ISBN 978-981-4730-43-3.
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Provinces. World Scientific. pp. 338–.
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