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Borneo
Borneo
(/ˈbɔːrnioʊ/; Malay: Pulau Borneo, Indonesian: Kalimantan) is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.[note 1] At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, and east of Sumatra. The island is politically divided among three countries: Malaysia
Malaysia
and Brunei
Brunei
in the north, and Indonesia
Indonesia
to the south.[1] Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory. In the north, the East Malaysian states of Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
make up about 26% of the island. Additionally, the Malaysian federal territory of Labuan
Labuan
is situated on a small island just off the coast of Borneo. The sovereign state of Brunei, located on the north coast, comprises about 1% of Borneo's land area. A little more than half of the island is in the Northern Hemisphere including Brunei
Brunei
and the Malaysian portion, while the Indonesian portion spans both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Antipodal to an area of Amazon rainforest, Borneo
Borneo
is itself home to one of the oldest rainforests in the world.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Ecology 2.2 Conservation issues

3 History

3.1 Early history 3.2 British and Dutch control 3.3 World War II 3.4 Recent history

4 Demographics

4.1 Largest cities

5 Administration 6 Economy 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology[edit] The island is known by many names. Internationally it is known as Borneo, after Brunei, derived from European contact with the kingdom in the 16th century during the Age of Exploration. The name Brunei possibly derives from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word "váruṇa" (वरुण), meaning either "water" or the mythological Varuna, the Hindu
Hindu
god of rain. Indonesian natives called it Kalimantan, which was derived from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word Kalamanthana, meaning "burning weather island" (to describe its hot and humid tropical weather).[2] In earlier times, the island was known by other names. In 977, Chinese records began to use the term Po-ni to refer to Borneo
Borneo
or Brunei. In 1225, it was also mentioned by the Chinese official Chau Ju-Kua (趙汝适).[3] The Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Majapahit
Majapahit
court poet Mpu Prapanca in 1365, mentioned the island as Nusa Tanjungnagara, which means the island of the Tanjungpura Kingdom.[4] Geography[edit] See also: Geological history of Borneo

Mount Kinabalu
Mount Kinabalu
in Malaysia, the highest summit of the island[5]

Borneo
Borneo
is surrounded by the South China Sea
South China Sea
to the north and northwest, the Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
to the northeast, the Celebes Sea
Celebes Sea
and the Makassar Strait
Makassar Strait
to the east, and the Java Sea
Java Sea
and Karimata Strait
Karimata Strait
to the south. To the west of Borneo
Borneo
are the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
and Sumatra. To the south and east are islands of Indonesia: Java
Java
and Sulawesi, respectively. To the northeast are the Philippine Islands. With an area of 743,330 square kilometres (287,000 sq mi), it is the third-largest island in the world, and is the largest island of Asia (the largest continent). Its highest point is Mount Kinabalu
Mount Kinabalu
in Sabah, Malaysia, with an elevation of 4,095 m (13,435 ft).[5] Before sea levels rose at the end of the last Ice Age, Borneo
Borneo
was part of the mainland of Asia, forming, with Java
Java
and Sumatra, the upland regions of a peninsula that extended east from present day Indochina. The South China Sea
South China Sea
and Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
now submerge the former low-lying areas of the peninsula. Deeper waters separating Borneo
Borneo
from neighbouring Sulawesi
Sulawesi
prevented a land connection to that island, creating the divide known as Wallace's Line
Wallace's Line
between Asian and Australia- New Guinea
New Guinea
biological regions.[6][7]

Kapuas River
Kapuas River
in Indonesia; at 1,000 km (620 mi) in length, it is the longest river in Borneo.[8]

The largest river system is the Kapuas in West Kalimantan, with a length of 1,000 km (620 mi).[8] Other major rivers include the Mahakam in East Kalimantan
East Kalimantan
(920 km long (570 mi)),[9] the Barito in South Kalimantan
South Kalimantan
(900 km long (560 mi)),[10] Rajang in Sarawak
Sarawak
(565 km long (351 mi))[11] and Kinabatangan in Sabah
Sabah
(560 km long (350 mi)).[12] Borneo
Borneo
has significant cave systems. In Sarawak, the Clearwater Cave has one of the world's longest underground rivers while Deer Cave
Deer Cave
is home to over three million bats, with guano accumulated to over 100 metres (330 ft) deep.[13] The Gomantong Caves
Gomantong Caves
in Sabah
Sabah
has been dubbed as the "Cockroach Cave" due to the presence of million of cockroaches inside the cave.[14][15] The Gunung Mulu National Park
Gunung Mulu National Park
in Sarawak
Sarawak
and Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat Karst
Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat Karst
in East Kalimantan
East Kalimantan
which particularly a karst areas contains thousands of smaller caves.[16] Ecology[edit] See also: Biodiversity of Borneo, Fauna of Borneo, Flora of Borneo, List of endemic birds of Borneo, and Mammals of Borneo

NASA
NASA
satellite image of Borneo
Borneo
on 19 May 2002

The Borneo
Borneo
rainforest is estimated to be around 140 million years old, making it one of the oldest rainforests in the world.[17] It is the centre of the evolution and distribution of many endemic species of plants and animals, and the rainforest is one of the few remaining natural habitats for the endangered Bornean orangutan. It is an important refuge for many endemic forest species, including the Borneo elephant, the eastern Sumatran rhinoceros, the Bornean clouded leopard, the hose's palm civet and the dayak fruit bat.[18][19] Peat swamp forests occupy the entire coastline of Borneo.[20] The soil of the peat swamp are comparatively infertile, while it is known to be the home of various bird species such as the hook-billed bulbul, helmeted hornbill and rhinoceros hornbill.[21] There are about 15,000 species of flowering plants with 3,000 species of trees (267 species are dipterocarps), 221 species of terrestrial mammals and 420 species of resident birds in Borneo.[22] There are about 440 freshwater fish species in Borneo
Borneo
(about the same as Sumatra
Sumatra
and Java
Java
combined).[23] In 2010, the World Wide Fund for Nature
World Wide Fund for Nature
(WWF) stated that 123 species have been discovered in Borneo
Borneo
since the "Heart of Borneo" agreement was signed in 2007.[24]

The critically endangered Bornean orangutan, a great ape endemic to Borneo

The WWF has classified the island into seven distinct ecoregions. Most are lowland regions:[25][26][27]

Borneo lowland rain forests
Borneo lowland rain forests
cover most of the island, with an area of 427,500 square kilometres (165,100 sq mi); Borneo
Borneo
peat swamp forests; Kerangas or Sundaland heath forests; Southwest Borneo
Borneo
freshwater swamp forests; and Sunda Shelf mangroves. The Borneo montane rain forests lie in the central highlands of the island, above the 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) elevation. The Tropical
Tropical
and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands on South Kalimantan.

The highest elevations of Mount Kinabalu
Mount Kinabalu
are home to the Kinabalu mountain alpine meadow, an alpine shrubland notable for its numerous endemic species, including many orchids. Conservation issues[edit] See also: Deforestation in Borneo, 1997 Indonesian forest fires, 1997 Southeast Asian haze, 2006 Southeast Asian haze, 2013 Southeast Asian haze, 2015 Southeast Asian haze, and 2016 Southeast Asian haze

Logging
Logging
road in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

The island historically had extensive rainforest cover, but the area was reduced due to heavy logging by the Indonesian and Malaysian wood industry, especially with the large demands of raw materials from industrial countries along with the conversion of forest lands for large-scale agricultural purposes.[25] Half of the annual global tropical timber acquisition comes from Borneo. Palm oil
Palm oil
plantations have been widely developed and are rapidly encroaching on the last remnants of primary rainforest.[28] Forest fires since 1997, started by the locals to clear the forests for plantations were exacerbated by an exceptionally dry El Niño
El Niño
season, worsening the annual shrinkage of the rainforest.[29] During these fires, hotspots were visible on satellite images and the resulting haze frequently affected Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. The haze could also reach southern Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam
Vietnam
and the Philippines
Philippines
as evidenced on the 2015 Southeast Asian haze.[30] History[edit] Early history[edit]

Dayak, the main indigenous people in the island

Territorial loss of the thalassocracy of the Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
from 1400 to 1890 due to the beginning of Western imperialism

According to ancient Chinese (977),[31]:129 Indian and Japanese manuscripts, western coastal cities of Borneo
Borneo
had become trading ports by the first millennium AD.[32] In Chinese manuscripts, gold, camphor, tortoise shells, hornbill ivory, rhinoceros horn, crane crest, beeswax, lakawood (a scented heartwood and root wood of a thick liana, Dalbergia parviflora), dragon's blood, rattan, edible bird's nests and various spices were described as among the most valuable items from Borneo.[33] The Indians named Borneo
Borneo
Suvarnabhumi (the land of gold) and also Karpuradvipa ( Camphor
Camphor
Island). The Javanese named Borneo Puradvipa, or Diamond Island. Archaeological
Archaeological
findings in the Sarawak river delta reveal that the area was a thriving centre of trade between India and China from the 6th century until about 1300.[33] Stone pillars bearing inscriptions in the Pallava script, found in Kutai
Kutai
along the Mahakam River
Mahakam River
in East Kalimantan
East Kalimantan
and dating to around the second half of the 4th century, constitute some of the oldest evidence of Hindu
Hindu
influence in Southeast Asia.[34] By the 14th century, Borneo
Borneo
became a vassal state of Majapahit
Majapahit
(in present-day Indonesia),[35][36] later changing its allegiance to the Ming dynasty of China.[37] The religion of Islam
Islam
entered the island in the 10th century,[38] following the arrival of Muslim traders who later converted many indigenous peoples in the coastal areas.[39] The Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
declared independence from Majapahit
Majapahit
following the death of Majapahit
Majapahit
Emperor in mid-14th century. During its golden age under Bolkiah
Bolkiah
from the 15th century to the 17th century, the Bruneian Empire
Bruneian Empire
ruled almost the entire coastal area of Borneo (lending its name to the island due to its influence in the region) and several islands in the Philippines.[40] During the 1450s, Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an Arab born in Johor,[41] arrived in Sulu from Malacca. In 1457, he founded the Sultanate of Sulu; he titled himself as "Paduka Maulana Mahasari Sharif Sultan Hashem Abu Bakr".[42] Following their independence in 1578 from Brunei's influence,[43] the Sulu's began to expand their thalassocracy to parts of the northern Borneo.[44][45] Both the sultanates who ruled northern Borneo
Borneo
had traditionally engaged in trade with China by means of the frequently-arriving Chinese junks.[46][47] Despite the thalassocracy of the sultanates, Borneo's interior region remained free from the rule of any kingdoms.[48] British and Dutch control[edit] Main articles: British Borneo
British Borneo
and Dutch East Indies

British flag hoisted for the first time on the island of Labuan
Labuan
on 24 December 1846

Since the fall of Malacca in 1511, Portuguese merchants traded regularly with Borneo, and especially with Brunei
Brunei
from 1530.[49] Having visited Brunei's capital, the Portuguese described the place as surrounded by a stone wall.[50] While Borneo
Borneo
was seen as rich, the Portuguese did not make any attempts to conquer it.[49] The Spanish visit to Brunei
Brunei
led to the Castilian War
Castilian War
in 1578. The English began to trade with Sambas of southern Borneo
Borneo
in 1609, while the Dutch only began their trade in 1644: to Banjar and Martapura, also in the southern Borneo.[51] The Dutch tried to settle the island of Balambangan, north of Borneo, in the second half of the 18th century, but withdrew by 1797.[52] In 1812, the sultan in southern Borneo
Borneo
ceded his forts to the English East India Company. The English, led by Stamford Raffles, then tried to establish an intervention in Sambas but failed. Although they managed to defeat the Sultanate the next year and declared a blockade on all ports in Borneo
Borneo
except Brunei, Banjarmasin
Banjarmasin
and Pontianak, the project was cancelled by the British Governor-General Lord Minto in India as it was too expensive.[52] At the beginning of British and Dutch exploration on the island, they described the island of Borneo
Borneo
as full of head hunters, with the indigenous in the interior practising cannibalism,[53] and the waters around the island infested with pirates, especially between the north eastern Borneo
Borneo
and the southern Philippines.[54][55] The Malay and Sea Dayak pirates preyed on maritime shipping in the waters between Singapore and Hong Kong from their haven in Borneo,[56] along with the attacks by Illanuns of the Moro Pirates
Moro Pirates
from the southern Philippines, such as in the Battle off Mukah.[57]

Map of the island divided between the British and the Dutch, 1898. The present boundaries of Malaysia, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Brunei
Brunei
are largely inherited from the British and Dutch colonial rules.

The Dutch began to intervene in the southern part of the island upon resuming contact in 1815, posting Residents to Banjarmasin, Pontianak and Sambas and Assistant-Residents to Landak and Mampawa.[58][59] The Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
in 1842 granted large parts of land in Sarawak
Sarawak
to the English adventurer James Brooke, as a reward for his help in quelling a local rebellion. Brooke established the Kingdom of Sarawak and was recognised as its rajah after paying a fee to the Sultanate. He established a monarchy, and the Brooke dynasty (through his nephew and great-nephew) ruled Sarawak
Sarawak
for 100 years; the leaders were known as the White Rajahs.[60] Brooke also acquired the island of Labuan
Labuan
for Britain in 1846 through the Treaty of Labuan
Labuan
with the Sultan of Brunei, Omar Ali Saifuddin II
Omar Ali Saifuddin II
on 18 December 1846.[61] The region of northern Borneo
Borneo
came under the administration of North Borneo Chartered Company following the acquisition of territory from the Sultanates of Brunei
Brunei
and Sulu by a German businessman and adventurer named Baron von Overbeck, before it was passed to British Dent brothers (comprising Alfred Dent
Alfred Dent
and Edward Dent).[45][62] Further enroachment by the British reduced the territory of Brunei.[63] This led the 26th Sultan of Brunei, Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin
Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin
to appeal the British to stop, and as a result a Treaty of Protection was signed in 1888, rendering Brunei
Brunei
a British protectorate.[64]

Dutch imperial imagery representing the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
(1916). The text reads "Our most precious jewel" which includes the whole island of Borneo.

Before the acquisition by the British, the Americans also managed to establish their temporary presence in northwestern Borneo
Borneo
after acquiring a parcel of land from the Sultanate of Brunei. A company known as American Trading Company of Borneo
American Trading Company of Borneo
was formed by Joseph William Torrey, Thomas Bradley Harris
Thomas Bradley Harris
and several Chinese investors, establishing a colony named "Ellena" in the Kimanis
Kimanis
area.[65] The colony failed and was abandoned, due to denials of financial backing, especially by the US government, and to diseases and riots among the workers.[66] Before Torrey left, he managed to sell the land to the German businessman, Overbeck.[67] Meanwhile, the Germans under William Frederick Schuck was awarded a parcel of land in northeastern Borneo of the Sandakan
Sandakan
Bay from the Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
where he operate business and export large quantities of arms, opium, textiles and tobacco to Sulu before the land were also passed to Overbeck by the Sultanate.[68][69] Prior to the recognition of Spanish presence in the Philippine archipelago, a protocol known as the Madrid Protocol of 1885
Madrid Protocol of 1885
was signed between the governments of the United Kingdom, Germany and Spain in Madrid
Madrid
to cement Spanish influence and recognise their sovereignty over the Sultanate of Sulu—in return for Spain's relinquishing its claim to the former possessions of the Sultanate in northern Borneo.[70][71] The British administration then established the first railway network in northern Borneo, known as the North Borneo
Borneo
Railway.[72][73] During this time, the British sponsored a large number of Chinese workers to migrate to northern Borneo
Borneo
to work in European plantation and mines,[74] and the Dutch followed suit to increase their economic production.[75] By 1888, North Borneo, Sarawak and Brunei
Brunei
in northern Borneo
Borneo
had become British protectorate.[76] The area in southern Borneo
Borneo
was made Dutch protectorate in 1891.[53] The Dutch who already claimed the whole Borneo
Borneo
were asked by Britain to delimit their boundaries between the two colonial territories to avoid further conflicts.[76] The British and Dutch governments had signed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 to exchange trading ports in Malay Peninsula and Sumatra
Sumatra
that were under their controls and assert spheres of influence. This resulted in indirectly establishing British- and Dutch-controlled areas in the north (Malay Peninsula) and south ( Sumatra
Sumatra
and Riau Islands) respectively.[77] World War II[edit] See also: Japanese occupation of British Borneo
British Borneo
and Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies

Japanese troops march through the streets of Labuan
Labuan
on 14 January 1942.

American support craft moving towards Victoria and Brown beach to assist the landing of the members of Australian 24th Infantry Brigade on the island during Operation Oboe Six, 10 June 1945

During World War II, Japanese forces gained control and occupied most areas of Borneo
Borneo
from 1941–45. In the first stage of the war, the British saw the Japanese advance to Borneo
Borneo
as motivated by political and territorial ambitions rather than economic factors.[78] The occupation drove many people in the coastal towns to the interior, searching for food and escaping the Japanese.[79] The Chinese residents in Borneo, especially with the Sino-Japanese War in Mainland China mostly resisted the Japanese occupation.[80] Following the formation of resistance movements in northern Borneo
Borneo
such as the Jesselton Revolt, many innocent indigenous and Chinese people were executed by the Japanese for their alleged involvement.[81] In Kalimantan, the Japanese also killed many Malay intellectuals, executing all the Malay Sultans of West Kalimantan
West Kalimantan
in the Pontianak incidents, together with Chinese people who were already against the Japanese for suspecting them to be threats.[82] Sultan Muhammad Ibrahim Shafi ud-din II of Sambas was executed in 1944. The Sultanate was thereafter suspended and replaced by a Japanese council.[83] The Japanese also set-up Pusat Tenaga Rakjat (PUTERA)[84] in the Indonesian archipelago in 1943, although it was abolished the following year when it become too nationalistic.[85] Some of the Indonesian nationalist like Sukarno
Sukarno
and Hatta who had returned from Dutch exile began to co-operate with the Japanese. Shortly after his release, Sukarno
Sukarno
became President of the Central Advisory Council, an advisory council for south Borneo, Celebes, and Lesser Sunda, set up in February 1945.[85] Since the fall of Singapore, the Japanese sent several thousand of British and Australian prisoners of war to camps in Borneo
Borneo
such as Batu Lintang camp. From the Sandakan camp
Sandakan camp
site, only six of some 2,500 prisoners survived after they were forced to march in an event known as the Sandakan
Sandakan
Death March.[86] In addition, of the total of 17,488 Javanese labourers brought in by the Japanese during the occupation, only 1,500 survived mainly due to starvation, harsh working conditions and maltreatment.[79] The Dayak and other indigenous people played a role in guerrilla warfare against the occupying forces, particularly in the Kapit Division. They temporarily revived headhunting of Japanese toward the end of the war,[87] with Allied Z Special
Special
Unit provided assistance to them.[88] Australia contributed significantly to the liberation of Borneo.[89] The Australian Imperial Force was sent to Borneo
Borneo
to fight off the Japanese.[90] Together with other Allies, the island was completely liberated in 1945. Recent history[edit]

Sukarno
Sukarno
visiting Pontianak, West Kalimantan
West Kalimantan
in 1963

Towards the end of the war, Japan decided to give an early independence to a new proposed country of Indonesia
Indonesia
on 17 July 1945, with an Independence Committee meeting scheduled for 19 August 1945.[85] However, following the surrender of Japan to the Allied forces, the meeting was shelved. Sukarno
Sukarno
and Hatta continued the plan by unilaterally declaring independence, although the Dutch tried to retake their colonial possession in Borneo.[85] The southern part of the island achieved its independence through the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence on 17 August 1945. The reaction was relatively muted with little open fighting in Pontianak or in the Chinese majority areas.[91] While nationalist guerrillas supporting the inclusion of southern Borneo
Borneo
in the new Indonesian republic were active in Ketapang, and to lesser extent in Sambas where they rallied with the red-white flag which became the flag of Indonesia, most of the Chinese residents in southern Borneo
Borneo
expected to be liberate by Chinese Nationalist troops from Mainland China
Mainland China
and to integrate their districts as an overseas province of China.[91] In May 1945, officials in Tokyo suggested that whether northern Borneo should be included in the proposed new country of Indonesia
Indonesia
should be separately determined based on the desires of its indigenous people and following the disposition of Malaya.[92] Sukarno
Sukarno
and Mohammad Yamin meanwhile continuously advocated for a Greater Indonesian republic.[93] As the President of the new republic, perceiving the British trying to maintain their presence in northern Borneo
Borneo
and Malay Peninsula, he decided to launch a military infiltration later known as the confrontation between 1962 until 1969.[94] In 1961, Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman
Tunku Abdul Rahman
of the independent Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
desired to unite Malaya, the British colonies of Sarawak, North Borneo, Singapore and the Protectorate of Brunei
Brunei
under the proposed Federation of Malaysia.[95] The idea was heavily opposed by the governments in both Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Philippines
Philippines
as well from Communist sympathisers and nationalist in Borneo.[96][97] As a response to the growing opposition, the British deployed their armed forces to guard their colonies against Indonesian and communist revolts,[98] which was also participated by Australia and New Zealand.[99][100]

Queen's Own Highlanders 1st Battalion conduct a patrol to search for enemy positions in the jungle of Brunei.

The Philippines
Philippines
opposed the newly proposed federation, claiming the eastern part of North Borneo
Borneo
(today the Malaysian state of Sabah) as part of its territory as a former possession of the Sultanate of Sulu.[101] The Philippine government mostly based their claim on the Sultanate of Sulu's cession agreement with the British North Borneo Company, as by now the Sultanate had come under the jurisdiction of the Philippine republican administration, which therefore should inherit the Sulu former territories. The Philippine government also claimed that the heirs of the Sultanate had ceded all their territorial rights to the republic.[102] The Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
at the first welcomed the proposal of a new larger federation.[103] Meanwhile, the Brunei
Brunei
People's Party led by A.M. Azahari desired to reunify Brunei, Sarawak
Sarawak
and North Borneo
Borneo
into one federation known as the North Borneo Federation
North Borneo Federation
(Malay: Kesatuan Negara Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Utara), where the Sultan of Brunei
Brunei
would be the head of state for the federation—though Azahari had his own intention to abolish the Brunei
Brunei
Monarchy, to make Brunei
Brunei
more democratic, and to integrate the territory and other former British colonies in Borneo into Indonesia, with the support from the latter government.[104] This directly led to the Brunei
Brunei
Revolt, which thwarted Azahari's attempt and forced him to escape to Indonesia. Brunei
Brunei
withdrew from being part of the new Federation of Malaysia
Malaysia
due to some disagreements on other issues while political leaders in Sarawak
Sarawak
and North Borneo
Borneo
continued to favour inclusion in a larger federation.[105] With the continuous opposition from Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Philippines, the Cobbold Commission
Cobbold Commission
was established to discover the feeling of the native populations in northern Borneo; it found the people greatly in favour of federation, with various stipulations.[106][107] The federation was successfully achieved with the inclusion of northern Borneo
Borneo
through the Malaysia
Malaysia
Agreement on 16 September 1963.[108] Until present, the area in northern Borneo
Borneo
still subjected to attacks by Moro Pirates
Moro Pirates
since the 18th century, and militants such as the Abu Sayyaf since 2000 in the frequent cross border attacks. During the administration of Philippine President of Ferdinand Marcos, the President made some attempts to destabilise the state of Sabah,[109] although his plan failed and resulted in the Jabidah massacre
Jabidah massacre
and later in insurgency in the southern Philippines.[110][111] Demographics[edit]

Indigenous peoples with their musical instruments, dance and their respective traditional dress

The demonym for Borneo
Borneo
is Bornean.[112] Borneo
Borneo
has 21.3 million inhabitants (in 2014), a population density of 29 inhabitants per square kilometre (75 inhabitants per square mile). Most of the population lives in coastal cities, although the hinterland has small towns and villages along the rivers. The population consists mainly of Dayak ethnic groups, Malay, Banjar, Orang Ulu, Chinese and Kadazan-Dusun. The Chinese, who make up 29% of the population of Sarawak
Sarawak
and 17% of total population in West Kalimantan, Indonesia[113] are descendants of immigrants primarily from southeastern China.[114] In Sabah
Sabah
during the administration of Mustapha Harun
Mustapha Harun
of the United Sabah
Sabah
National Organisation (USNO) in the 1970s, thousands of Muslim immigrants and refugees from the southern Philippines
Philippines
of Mindanao
Mindanao
and Sulawesi
Sulawesi
of Indonesia
Indonesia
were given sanctuary and later identity cards in the bid to increase the Muslim population of the state: a policy later known as Project IC.[115] Due to the high number of crimes attributed to the new migrant populations, ethnic tension between the indigenous and migrant populations has risen up to the present.[116] In Kalimantan
Kalimantan
since the 1990s, the Indonesian government has undertaken an intense transmigration program; to that end it has financed the relocation of poor, landless families from Java, Madura, and Bali. By 2001, transmigrants made up 21% of the population in Central Kalimantan.[117] Since the 1990s, the indigenous Dayak and Malays have resisted encroachment by these migrants, and violent conflict has occurred between some transmigrant and indigenous populations. In the 1999 Sambas riots, Dayaks and Malays joined together to massacre thousands of the Madurese migrants. In Kalimantan, thousands were killed in 2001 fighting between Madurese transmigrants and the Dayak people
Dayak people
in the Sampit conflict.[118] Largest cities[edit] The following is a list of 20 largest cities in Borneo
Borneo
by population, based on 2010 census for Indonesia[119][120] and 2010 census for Malaysia.[121] Population data signifies number within official districts and does not include adjoining or nearby conurbation outside defined districts—such as Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
and Banjarbaru. In other instances, the district area is much larger than the actual city it represents thereby relatively inflating the population estimate by including the surrounding rural population—in cases such as Tawau and Palangka Raya.[citation needed]

Cities and towns of Borneo
Borneo
by population

Samarinda

Banjarmasin

Kuching

Balikpapan

Pontianak

Kota Kinabalu

Tawau

Sandakan

Miri

Bandar Seri Begawan

Locations of the 10 largest cities of Borneo

Rank City/Town Population Density (/km2) Country

1 Samarinda, East Kalimantan 727,500 929 Indonesia

2 Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan 625,481 8,687 Indonesia

3 Kuching, Sarawak 617,886 332 Malaysia

4 Balikpapan, East Kalimantan 557,579 1,058 Indonesia

5 Pontianak, West Kalimantan 554,764 5,146 Indonesia

6 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah 462,963 1,319 Malaysia

7 Tawau, Sabah 412,375 67 Malaysia

8 Sandakan, Sabah 409,056 181 Malaysia

9 Miri, Sarawak 300,543 64 Malaysia

10 Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei-Muara 300,000 490 Brunei

11 Sibu, Sarawak 247,995 111 Malaysia

12 Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan 220,962 92 Indonesia

13 Lahad Datu, Sabah 206,861 28 Malaysia

14 Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan 199,627 538 Indonesia

15 Tarakan, North Kalimantan 193,370 771 Indonesia

16 Bintulu, Sarawak 189,146 26 Malaysia

17 Singkawang, West Kalimantan 186,462 370 Indonesia

18 Keningau, Sabah 177,735 50 Malaysia

19 Bontang, East Kalimantan 143,683 353 Indonesia

20 Victoria, Labuan 85,272 950 Malaysia

Administration[edit]

Political divisions of Borneo

The island of Borneo
Borneo
is divided administratively by three countries.

The Indonesian provinces of East, South, West, North and Central Kalimantan, Kalimantan The Malaysian states of Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
(The Malaysian Federal Territory of Labuan
Labuan
is located on nearshore islands of Borneo.) The independent country of Brunei
Brunei
(main part and eastern exclave of Temburong)

Federal State or Province Capital Part of country Area km2 Area % Population censuses of 2010[122][123] 3 Population %

Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan Independent Sultanate 5,770 0.77 406,200 (2009 est)[124] 2.1

Sarawak Kuching Malaysia 124,450 16.55 2,420,009 12.2

Sabah Kota Kinabalu Malaysia 73,619 9.79 3,120,040 15.7

Labuan Victoria Malaysia Federal territory 92 0.01 85,272 0.4

East Malaysia

Malaysia 198,161 26.4 5,625,321 28.4

West Kalimantan Pontianak Indonesia 146,760 19.5 4,393,239 22.2

Central Kalimantan Palangka Raya Indonesia 152,600 20.3 2,202,599 11.1

South Kalimantan Banjarmasin Indonesia 37,660 5.0 3,626,119 18.3

East Kalimantan Samarinda Indonesia 210,985 28.1 3,550,586 17.9

North Kalimantan Tanjung Selor Indonesia 71,177 9.46 525,000 2.65

Kalimantan

Indonesia 548,005 72.9 13,772,543 69.5

Borneo – 3 countries 751,936 100.0 19,804,064 100.0

1) Brunei: Census of Population 2001 2) islands administered as Borneo, geologically part of Borneo, on nearshore islands (2.5 km off the main island of Borneo) 3) Citypopulation.de reports on Official Decennial Censuses in 2010 for both Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia, independent estimate for Brunei. Economy[edit] Borneo's economy depends mainly on agriculture, logging and mining, oil and gas, and ecotourism.[125] Brunei's economy is highly dependent on the oil and gas production sector, and the country has become one of the largest oil producers in Southeast Asia. The Malaysian states of Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
are both top exporters of timber.[125] Sabah
Sabah
is also known as the agricultural producer of rubber, cacao, and vegetables, and for its fisheries, while both Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
export liquefied natural gas (LNG) and petroleum. The Indonesian provinces of Kalimantan
Kalimantan
are mostly dependent on mining sectors despite also being involved in logging and oil and gas explorations.[125] See also[edit]

Hikayat Banjar Kutai
Kutai
basin List of islands of Indonesia List of islands of Malaysia Maphilindo List of bats of Borneo

Brunei
Brunei
portal Indonesia
Indonesia
portal Malaysia
Malaysia
portal Islands portal

Notes[edit]

^ See List of islands by area.

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

L. W. W Gudgeon; Allan Stewart (1913), British North Borneo
Borneo
/ by L. W. W. Gudgeon ; with twelve full-page illustrations in colour by Allan Stewart, Adam and Charles Black  Redmond O'Hanlon (1984). Into the Heart of Borneo: An Account of a Journey Made in 1983 to the Mountains of Batu Tiban with James Fenton. Salamander Press. ISBN 978-0-9075-4055-7.  Eric Hansen (1988). Stranger in the Forest: On Foot Across Borneo. Century. ISBN 978-0-7126-1158-9.  Gordon Barclay Corbet; John Edwards Hill (1992). The mammals of the Indomalayan Region: a systematic review. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-854693-1.  Robert Young Pelton (1995). Fielding's Borneo. Fielding Worldwide. ISBN 978-1-5695-2026-0.  Ghazally Ismail (1996–2001). A Scientific Journey Through Borneo. Kota Samarahan: Universiti Malaysia
Malaysia
Sarawak.  K. M. Wong; Chew Lun Chan (1997). Mount Kinabalu: Borneo's Magic Mountain: An Introduction to the Natural History of One of the World's Great Natural Monuments. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications. ISBN 978-983-812-014-2.  Dennis Lau (1999). Borneo: a photographic journey. Travelcom Asia. ISBN 978-983-99431-1-5.  John Wassner (2001). Espresso with the Headhunters: A Journey Through the Jungles of Borneo. Summersdale. ISBN 978-1-84024-137-2.  Less S. Hall; Greg Richards; Mohamad Tajuddin Abdullah (2002), "The bats of Niah National Park, Sarawak", The Sarawak
Sarawak
Museum Journal, Sarawak
Sarawak
Museum Department  Mohd Azlan J.; Ibnu Martono; Agus P. Kartono; Mohamad Tajuddin Abdullah (2003), "Diversity, Relative Abundance and Conservation of Chiropterans in Kayan Mentarang National Park, East Kalimantan, Indonesia", The Sarawak
Sarawak
Museum Journal, Sarawak
Sarawak
Museum Department  Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah (2003), Biogeography and variation of Cynopterus brachyotis in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
(PhD thesis ed.), Brisbane: University of Queensland  Catherine Karim; Andrew Alek Tuen; Mohamad Tajuddin Abdullah (2004), "Mammals", The Sarawak
Sarawak
Museum Journal, University Malaysia
Malaysia
Sarawak, Sarawak
Sarawak
Museum Department  Less S. Hall; Gordon G. Grigg; Craig Moritz; Besar Ketol; Isa Sait; Wahab Marni; M.T. Abdullah (2004), "Biogeography of fruit bats in Southeast Asia", The Sarawak
Sarawak
Museum Journal, Sarawak
Sarawak
Museum Department  Stephen Holley (2004). A White Headhunter in Borneo. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications. ISBN 978-983-812-081-4.  Wild Borneo: The Wildlife and Scenery of Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, and Kalimantan. New Holland Publishers. 2006. ISBN 978-1-84537-378-8.  Mel White (November 2008), Borneo's Moment of Truth, National Geographic  Anton Willem Nieuwenhuis (2009). Quer durch Borneo
Borneo
(in Dutch). BoD – Books on Demand. ISBN 978-3-86195-028-8.  G. W. H. Davison (2010). A Photographic Guide to Birds of Borneo: Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei
Brunei
and Kalimantan. New Holland. ISBN 978-1-84773-828-8.  John Mathai (2010), Hose's Civet: Borneo's mysterious carnivore, Nature Watch 18/4: 2–8  John Mathai; Jason Hon; Ngumbang Juat; Amanda Peter; Melvin Gumal (2010), Small carnivores in a logging concession in the Upper Baram, Sarawak, Borneo, Small Carnivore Conservation 42: 1–9  Charles M. Francis (2013). A Photographic Guide to Mammals of South-East Asia. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. ISBN 978-1-84773-531-7. 

External links[edit]

Borneo
Borneo
travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Borneo
Borneo
at Wikimedia Commons Environmental Profile of Borneo
Borneo
– Background on Borneo, including natural and social history, deforestation statistics, and conservation news.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 248054003 GND: 40077

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