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_BORN IN THE U.S.A._ is the seventh studio album by American rock singer-songwriter Bruce Springsteen . It was released on June 4, 1984, by Columbia Records . It was written by Springsteen and recorded with his E Street Band and producers Chuck Plotkin and Jon Landau at The Power Station and The Hit Factory in New York City
New York City
.

When _Born in the U.S.A._ was first released, it was met with positive reviews and massive commercial success. It produced seven top-10 hit singles and was promoted with a worldwide concert tour by Springsteen. _Born in the U.S.A._ became his most commercially successful album and one of the highest-selling records ever , having sold 30 million copies by 2012. It has also been cited by critics as one of the greatest albums of all time.

CONTENTS

* 1 Music and lyrics * 2 Release and promotion * 3 Critical reception * 4 Legacy * 5 Track listing * 6 Personnel

* 7 Charts

* 7.1 Weekly charts * 7.2 Year-end charts

* 8 Certifications * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

MUSIC AND LYRICS

_Born in the U.S.A._ showed Springsteen embracing a livelier mainstream sound than on his previous records but continued to express political and controversial themes in his lyrics. According to Roger Scott , it was a "defiantly rock 'n' roll" album, while _Rolling Stone '_s Debby Bull said Springsteen incorporated "electronic textures" with music he "kept as its heart all of the American rock you slip into life's gray areas." E Street Band guitarist Steven Van Zandt convinced Springsteen otherwise: "He argued that the portrait of friendship and the song's expression of the inspirational power of rock music was an important part of the picture."

The title track of the album inspired the Annie Leibovitz photo of Springsteen's backside against the backdrop of an American flag, which was used as the album cover. Springsteen commented on the origin of the concept: "We had the flag on the cover because the first song was called "Born in the U.S.A.", and the theme of the record kind of follows from the themes I've been writing about for at least the last six or seven years. But the flag is a powerful image, and when you set that stuff loose, you don't know what's gonna be done with it." Some people thought that the cover depicted Springsteen urinating on the flag. He denied it: "That was unintentional. We took a lot of different types of pictures, and in the end, the picture of my ass looked better than the picture of my face, that's what went on the cover. I didn't have any secret message. I don't do that very much." According to political writer Peter Dreier , the music's "pop-oriented" sound and the marketing of Springsteen as "a heavily muscled rocker with an album cover featuring a giant US flag, may have overshadowed the album's radical politics."

RELEASE AND PROMOTION

_Born in the U.S.A._ became the first compact disc manufactured in the United States for commercial release when CBS and Sony
Sony
opened its CD manufacturing plant in Terre Haute, Indiana in September 1984. Columbia Records' CDs previously had been imported from Japan. Although Springsteen had been a well-known star for almost 10 years before the album was released, Larry Rodgers from the _Arizona Republic _ wrote "it was not until he hit the gym to get buffed up and showed off his rear end in Annie Leibovitz 's famous cover photo for _Born in the U.S.A._ that he became an American pop icon". touching off a wave of "Bossmania", as author Chris Smith called it. According to Bryan K. Garman, in his book _A Race of Singers – Whitman's Working-Class Hero From Guthrie to Springsteen_, this new image helped Springsteen popularize his persona on a new scale, but also brought him a decisive attachment to political and sociocultural issues, in the times when Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
was reviving a patriotic pride by reaffirming the values of prosperity, expansion, and world domination of the United States "within a decidedly masculine framework."

_Born in the U.S.A._ was the best-selling album of 1984 and proved to be the best-selling record of Springsteen's career. It was promoted with a worldwide concert tour and seven singles that became top-10 hits : "Dancing in the Dark ", "Cover Me ", " Born in the U.S.A.
Born in the U.S.A.
", I\'m on Fire ", "Glory Days ", "I\'m Goin\' Down ", and "My Hometown ". It became one of the best-selling albums of all time , and by 2012, it had sold 30 million copies. As the album became a massive commercial success, Springsteen expressed his thoughts on his growing fame in a 1984 interview: "Yeah, there's a change . doesn't make living easier, but it does make certain aspects of your life easier. You don't have to worry about rent, you can buy things for your folks and help out your friends, and you can have a good time, you know? There were moments where it was very confusing. (...) I don't really think does change you. It's an inanimate thing, a tool, a convenience. If you've got to have a problem, it's a good problem to have. (...) Money was kind of part of the dream when I started. I don't think...I never felt like I ever played a note for the money. I think if I did, people would know, and they'd throw you out of the joint. And you'd deserve to go. But at the same time, it was a part of the dream." :3

CRITICAL RECEPTION

PROFESSIONAL RATINGS

REVIEW SCORES

SOURCE RATING

AllMusic _

Chicago Tribune
Chicago Tribune
_ _

Christgau\'s Record Guide _ A+

_ Encyclopedia of Popular Music _ _

Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
_ _

MusicHound Rock _ 4/5

_Q _ _

Rolling Stone _ _

The Rolling Stone Album
Album
Guide _ _

Saturday Review _

_Born in the U.S.A._ received positive reviews from critics. In a contemporary review for _Rolling Stone_, Dave Marsh called it Springsteen's most accessible listen since _ Born to Run
Born to Run
_ (1975) and said that he knew how to incorporate "technopop elements without succumbing to the genre's banalities". The magazine's Debby Miller wrote that Springsteen has set songs that were as well thought-out as _Nebraska _ to more sophisticated production and spirited music, and that the four story-driven songs that end each side of the album give it an "extraordinary depth" because of his world-beating lyrics. Robert Hilburn from the _ Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
_ felt that, with the album's "richer" musical settings, Springsteen had succeeded in articulating his message to a wider audience. John Swenson of _Saturday Review _ credited him for showing a more disciplined writing style than on his previous albums and for "championing traditional rock values at a time when few newer bands show interest in such a direction". Writing in _ The Village Voice _, Robert Christgau said Springsteen improved upon his previous work by eschewing dejected themes of nostalgia and losers in favor of tougher lyrics, a sense of humor, and an upbeat worldview more honest than the one-dimensional politics of _Nebraska_. He added that the record's vibrant music "reminds me like nothing in years that what teenagers loved about rock and roll wasn't that it was catchy or even rhythmic but that it just plain sounded good". _Born in the U.S.A._ was voted the best album of the year in _The Village Voice_'s annual Pazz -webkit-column-count: 2; column-count: 2;">

* Bruce Springsteen – lead vocals, lead guitar , acoustic guitar

The E Street Band

* Roy Bittan – piano, synthesizer, background vocals * Clarence Clemons – saxophone , percussion, background vocals * Danny Federici – organ , glockenspiel , piano on "Born in the U.S.A." * Garry Tallent
Garry Tallent
– bass guitar, background vocals * Steven Van Zandt – acoustic guitar, mandolin , harmony vocals * Max Weinberg – drums, background vocals

with:

* Richie "La Bamba" Rosenberg – background vocals on "Cover Me" and "No Surrender" * Ruth Davis – background vocals on "My Hometown"

Technical

* Bob Clearmountain – mixing * John Davenport – assistant engineer * Jeff Hendrickson – assistant engineer * Andrea Klein – art direction, design, cover design * Bruce Lampcov – assistant engineer * Annie Leibovitz – photography * Bob Ludwig
Bob Ludwig
– mastering * Bill Scheniman – engineer * Toby Scott – engineer * Billy Straus – assistant engineer * Zoe Yanakis – assistant engineer

CHARTS

WEEKLY CHARTS

CHART POSITION

AUSTRALIAN KENT MUSIC REPORT 1

AUSTRIAN ALBUMS CHART 1

CANADIAN RPM ALBUMS CHART 1

DUTCH ALBUMS CHART 1

FRENCH SNEP ALBUMS CHART 2

ITALIAN ALBUMS CHART 2

JAPANESE ORICON LPS CHART 6

NEW ZEALAND ALBUMS CHART 1

NORWEGIAN VG-LISTA ALBUMS CHART 1

SPANISH ALBUMS CHART 2

SWEDISH ALBUMS CHART 1

SWISS ALBUMS CHART 1

UK ALBUMS CHART 1

US _BILLBOARD_ 200 1

WEST GERMAN MEDIA CONTROL ALBUMS CHART 1

YEAR-END CHARTS

CHART (1984) POSITION

AUSTRALIAN ALBUMS CHART 7

CANADIAN ALBUMS CHART 1

DUTCH ALBUMS CHART 61

JAPANESE ALBUMS CHART 53

UK ALBUMS CHART 37

U.S. BILLBOARD YEAR-END 28

CHART (1985) POSITION

AUSTRALIAN ALBUMS CHART 2

AUSTRIAN ALBUMS CHART 4

CANADIAN ALBUMS CHART 7

DANISH ALBUMS CHART 5

DUTCH ALBUMS CHART 1

FRENCH ALBUMS CHART 19

ITALIAN ALBUMS CHART 3

SWISS ALBUMS CHART 3

UK ALBUMS CHART 4

U.S. BILLBOARD YEAR-END 1

CHART (1986) POSITION

CANADIAN ALBUMS CHART 67

SPANISH ALBUMS CHART 11

U.S. BILLBOARD YEAR-END 16

CERTIFICATIONS

REGION CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED UNITS /SALES

AUSTRALIA (ARIA ) 13× Platinum 910,000^

CANADA (MUSIC CANADA ) Diamond 1,000,000^

FINLAND (MUSIIKKITUOTTAJAT ) 2× Platinum 108,913

FRANCE ( SNEP ) Platinum 458,500

GERMANY (BVMI ) 2× Platinum 1,000,000^

JAPAN (ORICON CHARTS)

212,700

NEW ZEALAND (RMNZ ) 17× Platinum 255,000^

SPAIN (PROMUSICAE ) Gold 50,000^

UNITED KINGDOM (BPI ) 3× Platinum 1,120,000

UNITED STATES (RIAA ) 15× Platinum 15,000,000^

*sales figures based on certification alone ^shipments figures based on certification alone

SEE ALSO

* List of best-selling albums * List of best-selling albums in Australia * List of best-selling albums in Italy * List of best-selling albums in New Zealand * List of best-selling albums in the United States * Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
in music

REFERENCES

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Talk
About a Dream: The Essential Interviews of Bruce Springsteen_. Bloomsbury Publishing USA . p. 131. ISBN 1620400723 . _Born in the U.S.A._ was such a defiantly rock 'n' roll album, the reviews were surprisingly favourable. * ^ _A_ _B_ Perone, James E. (2012). _The Album: A Guide to Pop Music\'s Most Provacative, Influential, and Important Creations_. ABC-CLIO . p. 239. ISBN 0313379068 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kurt Loder (December 6, 1984). "The Rolling Stone Interview: Bruce Springsteen". Retrieved December 30, 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Rodgers, Larry (June 4, 2009). "Bruce Springsteen, Born in the USA, 25 Years Old Today". _The Arizona Republic _. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dreier, Peter (2012). _The 100 Greatest Americans of the 20th Century: A Social Justice Hall of Fame_. Nation Books . p. 436. ISBN 1568586817 . * ^ Horowitz, Is. "First Domestic CD Plant Opens" _Billboard_ October 6, 1984: 6 * ^ Wiersema, Robert J. (2011). _Walk Like a Man: Coming of Age with the Music of Bruce Springsteen_. Greystone. pp. 21–. ISBN 9781553658467 . Retrieved 18 July 2013. * ^ Garman, Bryan K. (August 9, 1985). _A race of singers: Whitman\'s working ... – Google Libros_. Books.google.com.ar. ISBN 978-0-8078-4866-1 . Retrieved November 30, 2009. * ^ Burger, Jeff (2013). _Springsteen on Springsteen: Interviews, Speeches, and Encounters_. Chicago Review Press . p. 131. ISBN 1613744374 . Retrieved August 4, 2015. * ^ Forde, Ian (July 13, 2013). " Bruce Springsteen still shows who\'s boss". _ Irish Examiner _. Retrieved September 21, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ruhlmann, William. " Born in the U.S.A.
Born in the U.S.A.
– Bruce Springsteen". AllMusic . Retrieved July 8, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kot, Greg (August 23, 1992). "The Recorded History of Springsteen". _ Chicago Tribune
Chicago Tribune
_. Retrieved July 8, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Christgau, Robert (1990). _Christgau's Record Guide: The '80s_. Pantheon Books . p. 382. ISBN 067973015X . * ^ Larkin, Colin (2011). "Bruce Springsteen". _Encyclopedia of Popular Music _ (5th ed.). Omnibus Press . ISBN 0857125958 . * ^ Atkinson, Terry; et al. (December 16, 1984). "Guiding the Unitiated Through the Top 40". _ Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
_. p. T68. Retrieved July 8, 2013. (subscription required) * ^ Graff, Gary; Durchholz, Daniel (eds) (1999). _ MusicHound Rock: The Essential Album
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Guide_. Farmington Hills, MI: Visible Ink Press. p. 1076. ISBN 1-57859-061-2 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Williams, Richard (December 1989). "All or Nothing: The Springsteen back catalogue". _Q _. p. 149. * ^ _A_ _B_ Marsh, Dave (July 1984). "Record Rack". _Rolling Stone _. New York: 23. * ^ Sheffield, Rob ; et al. (2004). Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian, eds. _The Rolling Stone Album
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Guide _ (4th ed.). pp. 771–2. ISBN 0743201698 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Swenson, John (November–December 1984). "Championing Traditional Rock Values". _Saturday Review _. 10 (1–2): 70. * ^ Miller, Debby (July 19, 1984). "Born in the U.S.A". _Rolling Stone _. New York. Retrieved July 8, 2013. * ^ Hilburn, Robert (July 1, 1984). "Pop Music Top Midyear LPs: Prince, Springsteen". _ Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
_. Calendar section, p. T62. Retrieved July 8, 2013. (subscription required) * ^ _A_ _B_ Christgau, Robert (February 18, 1985). "Pazz & Jop 1984: The Rise of the Corporate Single". _The Village Voice_. New York. Retrieved July 8, 2013. * ^ Christgau, Robert (June 26, 1984). "Consumer Guide". _The Village Voice _. New York. Retrieved July 8, 2013. * ^ Christgau, Robert (February 18, 1985). " Pazz & Jop 1984: Dean\'s List". _The Village Voice_. New York. Retrieved July 8, 2013. * ^ Christgau, Robert (1990). "Decade Personal Best: \'80s". _The Village Voice_ (January 2). New York. Retrieved May 10, 2015. * ^ Williams, Richard (December 1989). "All or Nothing: The Springsteen back catalogue". _Q _. p. 150. * ^ Taylor, Jonathan (March 25, 1987). "Pop Critics Pick Rock\'s Top 100". _ Los Angeles Daily News _. Retrieved August 4, 2015. * ^ "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". _Rolling Stone_. New York: 116. December 11, 2003. * ^ Kaye, Ben (October 25, 2013). "The Top 500 Albums of All Time, according to NME". _ Consequence of Sound _. Retrieved August 4, 2014. * ^ Redmond, Mike (January 23, 1992). "Mellencamp is real force in American music". _ Indianapolis Star _. Free Time section, p. F.4. Retrieved July 8, 2013. (subscription required) * ^ Andy Greene (2013-12-17). " Bruce Springsteen on New Album \'High Hopes\': Exclusive Interview Music News". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2014-02-13. * ^ "Springsteen Offers Live Born In The U.S.A. DVD With High Hopes Pre-Order". American Songwriter. 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2014-02-13. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kent, David (1993). _Australian Chart Book 1970–1992_. St Ives , N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-11917-6 . * ^ "austriancharts.at Bruce Springsteen – _Born in the U.S.A._" (ASP). _Hung Medien_ (in German). Retrieved October 31, 2011. * ^ Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 2012-04-04 * ^ "dutchcharts.nl Bruce Springsteen – _Born in the U.S.A._" (ASP). _Hung Medien_. MegaCharts . Retrieved April 4, 2012. * ^ "InfoDisc : Tous les Albums classés par Artiste > Choisir Un Artiste Dans la Liste" (in French). infodisc.fr. Archived from the original on May 6, 2013. Retrieved April 4, 2012. Note: user must select 'Bruce SPRINGSTEEN' from drop-down * ^ _A_ _B_ "Hit Parade Italia – Gli album più venduti del 1985" (in Italian). hitparadeitalia.it. Retrieved October 12, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _ Oricon Album
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EXTERNAL LINKS

* _Born in the U.S.A._ ( Adobe Flash ) at Radio3Net (streamed copy where licensed) * _Born in the U.S.A._ at Discogs