HOME
The Info List - Borjigin


--- Advertisement ---



Borjigin
Borjigin
(plural Borjigid; Mongolian: Боржигин, Borjigin; Борджигин, Bordjigin; Mongolian script: , Borjigit), is the last name of the imperial clan of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and his successors. The senior Borjigids provided ruling princes for Mongolia
Mongolia
and Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
until the 20th century.[1] The clan formed the ruling class among the Mongols
Mongols
and some other peoples of Central Asia
Central Asia
and Eastern Europe. Today, the Borjigid are found in most of Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Xinjiang,[1] although genetic research has shown that descent from Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
is common in Central Asia.

Contents

1 Origin 2 Mongol
Mongol
Empire 3 Post- Mongol
Mongol
Empire 4 Genghisids 5 Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
family tree 6 Modern relevance and descent from Genghis Khan 7 List of Kiyad- Borjigin
Borjigin
dynasties 8 Prominent Kiyads or Borjigins

8.1 Rulers of the Khamag Mongol
Mongol
(11th century – 1206) 8.2 Emperors and rulers of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
(1206–1368)

8.2.1 Genghis Khan's brothers 8.2.2 Rulers of the Khanates

8.2.2.1 Yuan dynasty 8.2.2.2 Golden Horde 8.2.2.3 Ilkhanate 8.2.2.4 Chagatai Khanate

8.3 Post- Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
Golden Horde
Golden Horde
(1360–1502) 8.4 Crimean Khanate (1441–1783) 8.5 Kazan
Kazan
Khanate (1438–1552) 8.6 Uzbek Khanates (15th – mid 20th century) 8.7 Kazakh Khanate (1456–1847) 8.8 Northern Yuan dynasty
Northern Yuan dynasty
(1368–1635)

8.8.1 Ruler of the Tumed 8.8.2 Khalkha

8.9 Empress of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1636–1717)

9 Gallery 10 See also 11 References

Origin[edit] See also: Family tree of Genghis Khan The patrilineage began with Blue-grey Wolf
Wolf
(Börte Chino) and Fallow Doe (Gua Maral). As in The Secret History of the Mongols, their 11th generation descendant Dobu Mergen's widow Alan Gua the Fair was impregnated by a ray of light.[2] Her youngest son became the ancestor of the later Borjigid.[3] He was Bodonchar Munkhag, who along with his brothers sired the entire Mongol
Mongol
nation.[4] According to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, many of the older Mongolian clans were founded by members of the Borjigin
Borjigin
— Barlas, Urud, Manghud, Taichiut, Chonos, Kiyat, etc. The first Khan of the Mongol
Mongol
was Bodonchar Munkhag's great-great-grandson Khaidu Khan. Khaidu's grandsons Khabul Khan
Khabul Khan
and Ambaghai Khan (founder of the Taichiut
Taichiut
clan) succeeded him. Thereafter, Khabul's sons, Hotula Khan and Yesugei, and Khabuls grandson Temujin
Temujin
(Genghis Khan, son of Yesugei) ruled the Khamag Mongol. By the unification of the Mongols
Mongols
in 1206, virtually all of Temujin's uncles and first cousins had died, and from then on only the descendants of Yesugei
Yesugei
Baghatur formed the Borjigid. Mongol
Mongol
Empire[edit] See also: Appanage

The Mongol
Mongol
Empire, ca. 1300. The gray area is the later Timurid empire.

The Borjigin
Borjigin
family ruled over the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
from the 13th to 14th century. The rise of Genghis (Chingis) narrowed the scope of the Borjigid-Kiyad clans sharply.[5] This separation was emphasized by the intermarriage of Genghis's descendants with the Barlas, Baarin, Manghud
Manghud
and other branches of the original Borjigid. In the western regions of the Empire, the Jurkin and perhaps other lineages near to Genghis's lineage used the clan name Kiyad but did not share in the privileges of the Genghisids. The Borjigit
Borjigit
clan had once dominated large lands stretching from Java
Java
to Iran
Iran
and from Indo- China
China
to Novgorod. In 1335, with the disintegration of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in Iran, the first of numerous non-Borjigid-Kiyad dynasties appeared. Established by marriage partners of Genghisids, these included the Suldus Chupanids, Jalayirids
Jalayirids
in the Middle East, the Barulas dynasties in Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
and India, the Manghud
Manghud
and Onggirat
Onggirat
dynasties in the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and Central Asia, and the Oirats
Oirats
in western Mongolia. In 1368, under Toghun Temür, the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
was overthrown by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
in China
China
but members of the family continued to rule over Mongolia
Mongolia
homeland into the 17th century, known as the Northern Yuan dynasty. Descendants of Genghis Khan's brothers, Hasar and Belgutei, surrendered to the Ming in the 1380s. By 1470 the Borjigin
Borjigin
lines were severely weakened, and Mongolia
Mongolia
was almost in chaos. Post- Mongol
Mongol
Empire[edit]

The Tumens of Mongolia
Mongolia
Proper and vassal states of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire by 1400

After the breakup of the Golden Horde, the Khiyat continued to rule the Crimea and Kazan
Kazan
until the late 18th century. They were annexed by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and the Chinese. In Mongolia, the Kublaids reigned as Khagan
Khagan
of the Mongols, however, descendants of Ögedei
Ögedei
and Ariq Böke usurped the throne briefly. Under Dayan Khan (1480–1517) a broad Borjigid revival reestablished Borjigid supremacy among the Mongols
Mongols
proper. His descendants proliferated to become a new ruling class. The Borjigin
Borjigin
clan was the strongest of the 49 Mongol
Mongol
banners from which the Bontoi clan proper supported and fought for their Khan and for their honor. The eastern Khorchins were under the Hasarids, and the Ongnigud, Abagha Mongols were under the Belguteids and Temüge Odchigenids. A fragment of the Hasarids deported to Western Mongolia
Mongolia
became the Khoshuts. The Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
respected the Borjigin
Borjigin
family and the early emperors married the Hasarid Borjigids of the Khorchin. Even among the pro-Qing Mongols, traces of the alternative tradition survived. Aci Lomi, a banner general, wrote his History of the Borjigid Clan in 1732–35.[6] The 18th century and 19th century Qing nobility was adorned by the descendants of the early Mongol
Mongol
adherents including the Borjigin.[7] Genghisids[edit] Asian dynasties descended from Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
included the Yuan dynasty of China, the Ilkhanids of Persia, the Jochids
Jochids
of the Golden Horde, the Shaybanids
Shaybanids
of Siberia, and the Astrakhanids of Central Asia. As a rule, the Genghisid descent played a crucial role in Tatar
Tatar
politics. For instance, Mamai had to exercise his authority through a succession of puppet khans but could not assume the title of khan himself because he lacked Genghisid lineage. The word "Chingisid" derives from the name of the Mongol
Mongol
conqueror Genghis (Chingis) Khan (c. 1162–1227 CE). Genghis and his successors created a vast empire stretching from the Sea of Japan
Sea of Japan
to the Black Sea.

The Chingisid principle,[8] or golden lineage, was the rule of inheritance laid down in the (Yassa), the legal code attributed to Genghis Khan. A Chingisid prince was one who could trace direct descent from Genghis Khan in the male line, and who could therefore claim high respect in the Mongol
Mongol
and Turkic world. The Chingisid states were the successor states or Khanates after the Mongol
Mongol
empire broke up following the death of the Genghis Khan's sons and their successors. The term Chingisid people was used[by whom?] to describe the people of Genghis Khan's armies who came in contact with Europeans. It applied primarily the Golden Horde, led by Batu Khan, a grandson of Genghis. Members of the Horde were predominantly Oghuz — Turkic-speaking people rather than Mongols. (Although the aristocracy was largely Mongol, Mongols
Mongols
were never more than a small minority in the armies and the lands they conquered.) Europeans often (incorrectly) called the people of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
"Tartars".

Babur
Babur
and Humayun, founders of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in India, asserted their authority as Chinggisids. Because they claimed descent through their maternal lineage, they had never used the clan name Borjigin. The last ruling monarch of Genghisid ancestry, Mohammed Alim Khan
Mohammed Alim Khan
(d. 1944), Emir of Bukhara
Bukhara
from 1911 to 1920, was overthrown by Red Army in 1920. Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
family tree[edit] See also: Yuan and Northern Yuan dynasties emperor's family tree Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
founded the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
in 1206. His grandson, Kublai Khan, after defeating his younger brother Ariq Böke, founded the Yuan dynasty in China
China
in 1271. The dynasty was overthrown by the Ming dynasty during the reign of Toghaghan-Temür in 1368, but it survived in Mongolia
Mongolia
homeland, known as the Northern Yuan dynasty. Although the kingship was usurped by Esen Taishi
Esen Taishi
of the Oirats
Oirats
in 1453, he was overthrown in the next year. A recovery of the khaganate was achieved by Dayan Khan, but the territory was segmented by his descendants. The last khaan Ligden died in 1634 and his son Ejei Khongor submitted himself to Hong Taiji
Hong Taiji
the next year, ending the Northern Yuan regime.[9] However, the Borjigin
Borjigin
nobles continued to rule their subjects until the 20th century under the Qing.[10][11]

Or in a different version (years of reign over the Northern Yuan dynasty [up to 1388] are given in brackets).

v t e

Royal or noble family trees

Monarchies by region

Africa

Ethiopia Madagascar Egypt (House of Muhammad Ali) Tunisia

Americas

Aztec Brazil Mexico

Asia

Cambodia China

Ancient Early Middle Late

India

Mughal Mughal-Mongol

Iran

Pre-Islamic: Achaemenid Arsacid Sasanian post-Islamic dynasties Modern: Safavid Afsharid Zand Qajar Pahlavi

Japan Jerusalem Korea

Silla Goryeo Joseon

Kuwait Malay

Malaysia & Brunei

Mongolia

Borjigin Yuan Ilkhanate Timurid

Myanmar Ottoman

simplified

Anatolian Seljuks Sri Lanka Thailand Vietnam

Europe

Aragon Belgium Bohemia Bosnia Castile Croatia Denmark France

simplified

House of Bonaparte Greece Hungary Leon Luxembourg Naples Navarre Netherlands Norway Orange-Nassau Poland Portugal Holy Roman Empire/Germany House of Habsburg (incl. Holy Roman Empire after 1440) Romania Russia Serbia

Medieval: Vlastimirović Vojislavljević Vukanović Nemanjić Lazarević Branković Modern: Karađorđević Obrenović

Sicily Spain Sweden United Kingdom

England

simplified) (Wessex Mercia East Anglia

Scotland Wales after 1603

Visigoths

Oceania

Bora Bora Hawaii

Kamehameha Lunalilo Kalākaua

Huahine Mangareva Samoa

Malietoa Tui Manua Tupua Tamasese

Tahiti Tonga

Dukes, princes and counts

Norfolk Artois Brittany Aquitaine Brabant Lorraine Burgundy Bourbon Condé Monaco Conti Holland Flanders Swabia Lithuania Jagiello La Fayette Hainault

Noble families

Borgia Braganza Farnese Frankopan Gonzaga Von Graben De Graeff Kabužić Medici Plantagenet Šubić (Princes of Bribir) Visconti Windsor York Zrinski

Monarchies of the ancient world

Egypt

1st 4th 11th 12th 18th 19th 20th 21st 25th 26th

Near East

Yamhad Israel/Judah

Georgia

Iberia Bagrationi of Georgia Kartli Kakheti Imereti

Greece and Hellenistic World

House of Atreus Erechtheids of Athens Alcmaeonids of Athens Heraclidae Kings of Sparta Argead dynasty Ptolemies Attalid Seleucids

Rome

Roman Emperors Caecilii Metelli Scipio–Paullus–Gracchus Julio-Claudian dynasty Severan dynasty Flavian dynasty Constantinian dynasty Valentinian dynasty Eastern Roman/Byzantine Emperors

Modern relevance and descent from Genghis Khan[edit] Further information: Descent from Genghis Khan

Navaanneren, Minister of the Interior, who along with the 23rd Tushiyetu Khan Dorjsurenkhoroljav (1908–1937) was the last of the Borjigin
Borjigin
with the title of Khan in Mongolia. He was executed during the great purges of 1937.

The Borjigin
Borjigin
held power over Mongolia
Mongolia
for many centuries (even during Qing period) and only lost power when Communists
Communists
took control in the 20th century. Aristocratic descent was something to be forgotten in the socialist period.[12] Joseph Stalin's henchmen executed some 30,000 Mongols
Mongols
including Borjigin
Borjigin
nobles in a series of campaigns against their culture and religion.[13] Clan association has lost its practical relevance in the 20th century, but is still considered a matter of honour and pride by many Mongolians. In 1920s the communist regime banned the use of clan names. When the ban was lifted again in 1997, and people were told they had to have surnames, most families had lost knowledge about their clan association. Because of that, a disproportionate number of families registered the most prestigious clan name Borjigin, many of them without historic justification.[14][15] The label Borjigin
Borjigin
is used as a measure of cultural supremacy.[16] In Inner Mongolia, the Borjigid or Kiyad name became the basis for many Chinese surnames adopted by ethnic Inner Mongols.[5] The Inner Mongolian Borjigin
Borjigin
Taijis took the surname Bao (鲍, from Borjigid) and in Ordos Qi (奇, Qiyat). A genetic research has proposed that as many as 16 million men from populations as far apart as Hazaras
Hazaras
in the West and Hezhe people
Hezhe people
to the east may have Borjigid-Kiyad ancestry,[17] but the professionalism of that study is being criticised.[citation needed] The Qiyat clan name is still found among the Kazakhs, Uzbeks
Uzbeks
and Karakalpaks. List of Kiyad- Borjigin
Borjigin
dynasties[edit]

Mongol
Mongol
Empire:

Golden Horde

Kazan
Kazan
Khanate

Qasim Khanate

Shaibanid

Uzbek Khanate

Kazakh Khanate Manghit
Manghit
Dynasty Khanate of Khiva Khanate of Bukhara

Giray Dynasty

Crimean Khanate

Astrakhan Khanate

Chagatai Khanate Yuan dynasty Ilkhanate

Northern Yuan dynasty

Prominent Kiyads or Borjigins[edit]

The division of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, c. 1300, with the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
in the middle, the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in the southwest, and the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in the east

Rulers of the Khamag Mongol
Mongol
(11th century – 1206)[edit]

Khaidu Khabul Khan Yesugei

Emperors and rulers of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
(1206–1368)[edit]

Genghis Khan Tolui
Tolui
Khan Ögedei
Ögedei
Khan Güyük Khan Möngke Khan

Genghis Khan's brothers[edit]

Hasar Belgutei Temüge

Rulers of the Khanates[edit] Yuan dynasty[edit]

Kublai Khan Temür Khan Toghon Temür
Toghon Temür
Khan

Golden Horde[edit]

Batu Khan
Batu Khan
on his throne.

Jochi Orda Khan Batu Khan Berke Shiban Toqta Uzbeg Khan

Ilkhanate[edit]

Hulagu Abaqa Ghazan

Chagatai Khanate[edit]

Chagatai Khan Kaidu Duwa Esen Buqa I Kebek Tarmashirin

Timurid Empire

Mughal Empire

Post- Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
Golden Horde
Golden Horde
(1360–1502)[edit]

Urus Khan Toqtamish Mamai[18] Olug Moxammat

Crimean Khanate (1441–1783)[edit]

Mengli Giray

Kazan
Kazan
Khanate (1438–1552)[edit]

Olug Moxammat

Uzbek Khanates (15th – mid 20th century)[edit]

Mohammed Alim Khan, last Emir of the Manghit
Manghit
lineage, 1911. Early color photograph by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky.

Muhammad Shaybani Abulghazi Bahadur Mohammed Alim Khan

Kazakh Khanate (1456–1847)[edit]

Janybek Khan

Northern Yuan dynasty
Northern Yuan dynasty
(1368–1635)[edit]

Öljei Temür Khan Dayan Khan Ligdan Khan Ejei Khan

Ruler of the Tumed[edit]

Altan Khan

Khalkha[edit]

Zanabazar

Empress of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1636–1717)[edit] The royals of the Khorchin
Khorchin
Mongols
Mongols
were descended from Khasar, the brother of Genghis Khan.

Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang Empress Xiaohuizhang Borjigit, Demoted Empress

Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang
Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang
of the Borjigit

During the initial building of the Qing dynasty, the Manchu
Manchu
Aisin Gioro clan had the tradition of diplomatic marriages with Mongols
Mongols
to earn their support. Qing rulers would make Mongol
Mongol
ladies empresses and major concubines. As the Khorchin
Khorchin
were the strongest banner, the Manchus were anxious to make alliances from the Borjigit. These marriages produced two empresses and three dowager empresses of the Qing dynasty, from which Xiaozhuang subsequently became a notable grand empress dowager. Hence, it is not surprising to note that from Nurhaci
Nurhaci
to the Shunzhi Emperor, all the empresses and major concubines were Mongols. Empress Xiaoduanwen (Jere) was made empress in 1636, Empress of Emperor Hung Taiji. Daughter of Prince Manjusri. Known as a benevolent empress and the most virtuous of all. Made "Motherly Empress Dowager Empress" (Mu Hou Huang Tai Hou) in 1643 after the death Of Emperor Hung Taiji. She died in 1649 (Shunzhi's 6th year of rule). Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang
Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang
(Bumbutai) was historically considered the mother of Qing dynasty. She was a concubine of Huang Taiji. Daughter of Prince Jaisang and niece of Empress Xiaoduan. Made the "Enlightened Mother Dowager Empress" (Sheng Mu Huang Tai Hou) in 1643 after the death of Emperor Hung Taiji. She died in 1688 having helped Shunzhi Emperor, her son, run the country till his death and Kangxi Emperor, her grandson, for 25 years of his reign. This makes all Qing dynasty emperors who ruled China
China
proper descendants of Genghis Khan. Xiaozhuang was an excellent politician who did not like to interfere in politics, unlike the notorious Empress Dowager Cixi. However, when the conditions required, she rendered her efforts. Gallery[edit]

Genghis Khan

Ögedei
Ögedei
Khan

Tolui
Tolui
with his wife Sorghaghtani Beki

Mengli Giray at the court of Bayezid II

Altan Khan

Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang

Tokhtamysh

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Borjigin.

Mongol
Mongol
Empire Family tree of Genghis Khan List of Mongol
Mongol
Khans Tatar Mongolian name List of medieval Mongolian tribes and clans History of Mongolia Khalkha Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty List of family trees

References[edit]

Footnotes

^ a b Caroline Humphrey, David Sneath The end of Nomadism?, p.27 ^ The Secret History of the Mongols, Ch.1 $17 ^ Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907-1368, p.330 ^ Kahn, Paul. The Secret History of the Mongols, p. 10. ^ a b C. P. Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia
Mongolia
and the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, p.45 ^ Peter C. Perdue China
China
marches west, p.487 ^ Pamela Kyle Crossley A Translucent Mirror, p.213 ^ Russia
Russia
and the Golden Horde: The Mongol
Mongol
Impact on Medieval Russian History (Chapter VIII) by Charles J. Halperin, Indiana University Press, 1985 ISBN 0-253-20445-3, ISBN 978-0-253-20445-5 ^ Ann Heirman, Stephan Peter Bumbacher The spread of Buddhism, p.395 ^ David Sneath Changing Inner Mongolia: pastoral Mongolian society and the Chinese state, p.21 ^ Wada Sei did pioneer work on this field, and Honda Minobu and Okada Hidehiro modified it, using newly discovered Persian (Timurid) records and Mongol
Mongol
chronicles. ^ Caroline Humphrey, David Sneath The end of Nomadism?, p.28 ^ Jack Weatherford Genghis Khan, p.XV ^ "In Search of Sacred Names", Mongolia
Mongolia
Today, archived from the original on 2007-06-07  ^ Magnier, Mark (October 23, 2004). "Identity Issues in Mongolia". Los Angeles Times.  ^ Carole Pegg Mongolian music, dance, & oral narrative, p.22 ^ Genetic legacy of the Mongols, American journal of Human genetics 72. p. 717-721 ^ According to H.H.Howorth, Mamai used the clan name Kiyad which is near to Genghisid lineage. However, he was not direct descendant of Genghis Khan, The History of the Mongols, part.II, D.II, p.190

Further reading

Wada Sei 和田清. Tōashi Kenkyū (Mōko Hen) 東亜史研究 (蒙古編). Tokyo, 1959. Honda Minobu 本田實信. On the genealogy of the early Northern Yüan, Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher, XXX-314, 1958. Okada Hidehiro 岡田英弘. Dayan Hagan no nendai ダヤン・ハガンの年代. Tōyō Gakuhō, Vol. 48, No. 3 pp. 1–26 and No. 4 pp. 40–61, 1965. Okada Hidehiro 岡田英弘. Dayan Hagan no sensei ダヤン・ハガンの先世. Shigaku Zasshi. Vol. 75, No. 5, pp. 1–38, 1966.

— Royal house — House of Borjigin

Preceded by Liao dynasty Ruling House of Mongolia 11th century–1691 Succeeded by Qing dynasty

New title Ruling House of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire 1206–1368 Succeeded by Northern Yuan dynasty

Preceded by Song dynasty Ruling House of China 1271–1368 Succeeded by Ming dynasty

New title Protector of Tibet 1270–1354 Succeeded by Phagmodrupa Dynasty

Preceded by Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty Ruling House of Persian Empire 1247–1335 Succeeded by Jalayirids Chupanid Suldus

Preceded by The Khanate established Ruling House of the Golden Horde 1236–1502 Succeeded by Kiyat Girays Tatars

v t e

Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
(1206–1368)

Terminology

Titles

Khagan Khan Khatun Khanum Jinong Khong Tayiji Noyan Tarkhan

Political Military

Jarlig Örtöö Orda Pax Mongolica Yassa Kurultai Paiza / Gerege Manghit / Mangudai Tümen Kheshig

Politics Organization Life

Topics

Administrative divisions and vassals Banner (Bunchuk) Invasions and conquests Destructiveness Imperial Seal Military tactics and organization Organization under Genghis Khan Religion Society and economy

House of Borjigin House of Ögedei Mongol
Mongol
Armenia Byzantine– Mongol
Mongol
alliance Franco- Mongol
Mongol
alliance List of Mongol
Mongol
and Tatar
Tatar
raids against Rus' Mongol
Mongol
and Tatar
Tatar
states in Europe

Khanates

Yuan dynasty Chagatai Khanate

House of Ögedei

Golden Horde

Wings

Ilkhanate

Major cities

Almalik Avarga Azov
Azov
(Azaq) Bukhara Bolghar Karakorum Dadu Majar Maragheh Qarshi Samarkand Sarai Batu/Berke Saray-Jük Shangdu
Shangdu
(Xanadu) Soltaniyeh Tabriz Ukek Xacitarxan

Campaigns Battles

Asia

Central

Siberia
Siberia
(1207) Qara Khitai (1216–18) Khwarezmia (1218–1221)

East

Western Xia (1205 / 1207 / 1209–10 / 1225–27) Northern China
China
and Manchuria (1211–34) Southern China
China
(1235–79) Kingdom of Dali (1253–56) Tibet
Tibet
(1236 / 1240 / 1252) Korea (1231–60) Japan (1274 / 1281) Sakhalin (1264–1308)

Southeast

Burma (1277 / 1283 / 1287) Java
Java
(1293) Vietnam (1257 / 1284–88) Burma (1300–02)

South

India (1221–1327)

Europe

Georgia (1220–22 / 1226–31 / 1237–64) Chechnya (1237–1300s) Volga Bulgaria (1229–36) Rus' (1223 / 1236–40) Poland and Bohemia (1240–41) Hungary (1241-42) Serbia (1242) Bulgaria (1242) Latin Empire (1242) Lithuania (1258-59) Poland (1259–60) Thrace (1264-65) Hungary (1285–86) Poland (1287–88) Serbia (1291) Poland (1340-1341)

Middle East

Anatolia (1241–43) Iraq (1258) Syria (1260–1323) Palestine (1260 / 1301)

Civil wars

Division of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire Toluid Civil War
Toluid Civil War
(1260–64) Berke– Hulagu
Hulagu
war (1262) Kaidu–Kublai war
Kaidu–Kublai war
(1268–1301) Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war
Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war
(1314–1318)

People

Great Khans

Genghis Khan Tolui
Tolui
(regent) Ögedei
Ögedei
Khan Töregene Khatun (regent) Güyük Khan Oghul Qaimish (regent) Möngke Khan Kublai Khan (Khagans of the Yuan)

Khans

Jochi Batu Khan Sartaq Khan Orda Khan Berke Toqta Öz Beg Khan Chagatai Khan Duwa Kebek Hulagu Abaqa Arghun Ghazan

Military

Subutai Jebe Muqali Negudar Bo'orchu Guo Kan Borokhula Jelme Chilaun Khubilai Aju Bayan Kadan Boroldai Nogai Khan

Timeline of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire

v t e

Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
topics

History

Division of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire

Toluid Civil War Kaidu–Kublai war

Kublai Khan's Campaigns

Mongol
Mongol
invasion of China

conquest of the Song dynasty

Battle of Xiangyang Yamen

Japan Vietnam

Battle of Bạch Đằng (1288)

Burma

Battle of Ngasaunggyan Pagan

Java

Second Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Burma Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war War of the Two Capitals 1344 Yellow River flood Red Turban Rebellion

Red Turban invasions of Goryeo Battle of Lake Poyang

Ispah rebellion

Government

List of emperors

family tree

Empresses Imperial Preceptor Zhongshu Sheng Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs Administrative divisions of the Yuan dynasty Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in Inner Asia Mongolia
Mongolia
under Yuan rule Manchuria under Yuan rule Tibet
Tibet
under Yuan rule

Dpon-chen

Korea under Yuan rule

Science and technology

Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns Chao (currency) Coinage Shiyi Dexiaofang Nong Shu

Architecture

Cloud Platform at Juyong Pass Gulou and Zhonglou (Beijing) Miaoying Temple Pagoda of Bailin Temple Temple of Azure Clouds Jinan Great Southern Mosque

Society and culture

Yuan poetry History of Liao Jin Song Menggu Ziyun Wenxian Tongkao Zhongyuan Yinyun The Twenty-four Filial Exemplars Zaju

The Chalk Circle The Injustice to Dou E The Orphan of Zhao The Story of the Western Wing

Semu Islam
Islam
during the Yuan dynasty

Other topics

Mongols Borjigin 'Phags-pa script History of Yuan Khanbaliq Shangdu Mongol
Mongol
Empire Northern Yuan dynasty

v t e

Northern Yuan dynasty
Northern Yuan dynasty
(1368–1635)

Political organization List of Khans Terms and prominent people

Six Tumen Mongols Four Oirat Notable cities

Three Eastern Tumens Khalkha Chahar Uriankhai Three Western Tumens Ordos Tumed Yunshebu Tümen

Choros Torghut Khoid Dörbet Oirat

Yingchang Karakorum Hohhot Chagaan

Ukhaantu Khan Toghun-Temur (1368–1370) Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara (1370–1378) Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür (1378–1388) Jorightu Khan Yesüder (1388–1392)? Engke Khan (?–1392) Elbeg Nigülesügchi Khan (1392–1399) Gün Temür Khan
Temür Khan
(1400–1402) Örüg Temür Khan
Temür Khan
Gulichi (1402–1408) Öljei Temür Khan
Temür Khan
Bunyashiri (1403–1412) Delbeg Khan (1415) Oyiradai Khan (1415–1425) Adai Khan (1425–1438) Tayisung Khan Toghtoa Bukha (1433–1452) Agbarjin (1453) Esen Taishi
Esen Taishi
(1453–1454) Markörgis Khan (Ükegtü) (1454–1465) Molon Khan (1465–1466) Manduul Khan (1475–1478) Dayan Khan (1478–1516) Bars Bolud Jinong (deputy) Bodi Alagh Khan (1516–1547) Darayisung Gödeng Khan (1547–1557) Tümen Jasaghtu Khan (1557–1592) Buyan Sechen Khan (1592–1604) Ligdan Khan
Ligdan Khan
(1604–1634) Ejei Khan (1634–1635)

Titles Prominent politicians and generals

Khagan Khan Khatun Taishi Jinong Khong Tayiji Noyan Tarkhan Councellor Wang

Köke Temür Arugjtai Bahamu Toghan taishi Örüg Temür Khan Bek Arslan Unebolad wang Altan Khan

v t e

Mongolic peoples

History

Timeline Mongolian Plateau States Rulers Slab Grave culture Ordos culture Proto-Mongolic language Medieval tribes Modern clans Mongolian nobility Writing systems Languages Soyombo symbol Religion

Ethnic groups

Eastern Mongols

Darkhad Dariganga Eljigin Khalkha Khotogoyd Sartuul

Western Mongols

Altai Uriankhai Baatud Bayad Chantuu Choros Dörben Oyrad Khoyd Khoshuud Khoton Kalmyk Oyrad Myangad Ӧlӧӧd Sart Kalmak Torguud Zakhchin

Northern Mongols

Buriad Barga Hamnigan

Southern Mongols

Abaga Abaganar Aohans Asud Baarin Chahar Eastern Dorbed Gorlos Kharchin Khishigten Khorchin Khuuchid Jalaid Jaruud Muumyangan Naiman Onnigud Ordos Sunud Tumed Urad Üzemchin

Other

Bonan Daur Dongxiang Mughal Moghol Monguor Khatso
Khatso
(Yunnan Mongol) Sichuan Mongo

.