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Bordeaux ( , ; Gascon oc, Bordèu ; eu, Bordele; it, Bordò; es, Burdeos) is a port city on the river
Garonne The Garonne (, also , ; Occitan language , Occitan, Catalan language , Catalan, Basque language, Basque, and es, Garona, ; la, Garumna or ) is a river of southwest France and northern Spain. It flows from the central Spanish Pyrenees to the ...

Garonne
in the
Gironde Gironde ( American English, US usually, , ; oc, Gironda, ) is the largest Departments of France, department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine Regions of France, region of Southwestern France. Named after the Gironde estuary, a major waterway, its Pre ...

Gironde
department, Southwestern France. It is the capital of the
Nouvelle-Aquitaine Nouvelle-Aquitaine (; oc, Nòva Aquitània or ; eu, Akitania Berria; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ''Novéle-Aguiéne'') is the largest Regions of France, administrative region in France, spanning the west and southwest of the Metropolitan France ...
region, as well as the
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin ''Praefectura'') is an administrative jurisdiction traditionally governed by an appointed prefect. This can be a regional or local government subdivision in various countries, or a subdivision in certain international ...
of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called ''"Bordelais"'' (masculine) or ''"Bordelaises"'' (feminine). The term "Bordelais" may also refer to the city and its surrounding region. The city of Bordeaux proper had a population of 260,958 in 2019 within its small municipal territory of , With its 27 suburban municipalities it forms the
Bordeaux Metropolis
Bordeaux Metropolis
, in charge of metropolitan issues. With a population of 814,049 at the Jan. 2019 census. it is the fifth most populated in France, after
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,165,423 residents in 2019 in an area of more than 105 km² (41 sq mi), ma ...

Paris
,
Lyon Lyon,, ; Occitan: ''Lion'', hist. ''Lionés'' also spelled in English as Lyons, is the third-largest city and second-largest metropolitan area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, to the northwest of t ...

Lyon
,
Marseille Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the France, French Departments of France, department of Bouches-du-Rhône and capital of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regio ...

Marseille
and
Lille Lille ( , ; nl, Rijsel ; pcd, Lile; vls, Rysel) is a city in the northern part of France, in French Flanders. On the river Deûle, near France's border with Belgium, it is the capital of the Hauts-de-France Regions of France, region, the Pref ...

Lille
and ahead of
Toulouse Toulouse ( , ; oc, Tolosa ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Departments of France, French department of Haute-Garonne and of the larger Regions of France, region of Occitania (administrative region), Occitania. The city is on t ...

Toulouse
. Together with its
suburb A suburb (more broadly suburban area) is an area within a metropolitan area, which may include Commercial area, commercial and mixed-use development, mixed-use, that is primarily a residential area. A suburb can exist either as part of a ...
s and
exurb An exurb (or alternately: exurban area) is an area outside the typically denser inner suburbs, suburban area, at the edge of a metropolitan area, which has some economic and commuting connection to the metro area, low housing density, and grow ...
s, except satellite cities of
Arcachon Arcachon ( ; ) is a Communes of France, commune in the southwestern French Departments of France, department of Gironde. It is a popular seaside resort on the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic coast southwest of Bordeaux, in the Landes forest. It has a sa ...

Arcachon
and Libourne, the Bordeaux metropolitan area had a population of 1,363,711 that same year (Jan. 2019 census), making it the sixth most populated in France, after Paris, Lyon, Marseille, Lille, and
Toulouse Toulouse ( , ; oc, Tolosa ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Departments of France, French department of Haute-Garonne and of the larger Regions of France, region of Occitania (administrative region), Occitania. The city is on t ...

Toulouse
. Bordeaux is a world capital of wine: many castles and
vineyards A vineyard (; also ) is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science, practice and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture. Vineyards ...
stand on the hillsides of the
Gironde Gironde ( American English, US usually, , ; oc, Gironda, ) is the largest Departments of France, department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine Regions of France, region of Southwestern France. Named after the Gironde estuary, a major waterway, its Pre ...

Gironde
, and the city is home to the world's main wine fair, Vinexpo. Bordeaux is also one of the centers of gastronomy and business tourism for the organization of international congresses. It is a central and strategic hub for the aeronautics, military and space sector, home to international companies such as
Dassault Aviation Dassault Aviation SA () is a French Aerospace manufacturer, manufacturer of military aircraft and business jets. It was founded in 1929 by Marcel Dassault, Marcel Bloch as Société des Avions Marcel Bloch or "MB". After World War II, Marc ...
, Ariane Group,
Safran Safran S.A. is a French multinational company that designs, develops and manufactures aircraft engines, rocket engines as well as various aerospace and defense-related equipment or their components. It was formed by a merger between SNECM ...

Safran
and Thalès. The link with aviation dates back to 1910, the year the first airplane flew over the city. A crossroads of knowledge through university research, it is home to one of the only two megajoule lasers in the world, as well as a university population of more than 130,000 students within the Bordeaux Metropolis. Bordeaux is an international tourist destination for its architectural and cultural heritage with more than 350 historic monuments, making it, after Paris, the city with the most listed or registered monuments in France. The "''Pearl of Aquitaine''" has been voted European Destination of the year in a 2015 online poll. The metropolis has also received awards and rankings by international organizations such as in 1957, Bordeaux was awarded the Europe Prize for its efforts in transmitting the European ideal. In June 2007, the Port of the Moon in historic Bordeaux was inscribed on the
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) aimed at promoting world peace and security through international coope ...

UNESCO
World Heritage List A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNES ...
, for its outstanding architecture and urban ensemble and in recognition of Bordeaux's international importance over the last 2000 years. Bordeaux is also ranked as a Sufficiency city by the
Globalization and World Cities Research Network The Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) is a think tank that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization Globalization, or globalisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling diff ...
.


History


5th century BC to 11th century AD

Around 300 BC, the region was the settlement of a
Celtic tribe Celtic, Celtics or Keltic may refer to: Language and ethnicity *pertaining to Celts, a collection of Indo-European peoples in Europe and Anatolia ** Celts (modern) * Celtic languages ** Proto-Celtic language * Celtic music * Celtic nations Spor ...
, the , named the town Burdigala, probably of Aquitanian origin. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the
Allobroges The Allobroges (Gaulish language, Gaulish: *''Allobrogis'', 'foreigner, exiled'; grc, Ἀλλοβρίγων, Ἀλλόβριγες) were a Gauls, Gallic people dwelling in a large territory between the Rhône river and the Alps during the Iron Age ...
, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, and the Tigurini led by
Divico Divico was a Celts, Celtic king and the leader of the Helvetii, Helvetian tribe of the Tigurini. During the Cimbrian War, in which the Cimbri and Teutons invaded the Roman Republic, he led the Tigurini across the Rhine to invade Gaul in 109 BC. He ...
. The Romans were defeated and their commander, the
consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin plural ''consules'') was the title of one of the two chief Roman magistrate, magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently also an important title under the Roman Empire. The title was used in other European ...
Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in battle. The city came under
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter ...
rule around 60 BC, and it became an important commercial centre for
tin Tin is a chemical element with the Chemical symbol, symbol Sn (from la, :la:Stannum, stannum) and atomic number 50. Tin is a silvery-coloured metal. Tin is soft enough to be cut with little force and a bar of tin can be bent by hand wit ...

tin
and
lead Lead is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Pb (from the Latin ) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metals, heavy metal that is density, denser than most common materials. Lead is Mohs scale of mineral hardness#Intermediate ...

lead
. During this period were built the amphitheatre and the monument ''Les Piliers de Tutelle''. File:Bordeaux - Pilliers de Tutelle.jpg, ''Les Piliers de Tutelle'' File:Bordeaux - Palais Gallien 2.jpg, The Roman amphitheatre In 276, it was sacked by the
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland. They established Vandal Kingdom, Vandal kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean islands, and North Africa in the fifth century. The ...
. The Vandals attacked again in 409, followed by the
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in late antiquity, or what is kno ...
in 414, and the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire.H. Schutz: Tools, ...

Franks
in 498, and afterwards the city fell into a period of relative obscurity. In the late sixth century the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the
Merovingian The Merovingian dynasty () was the ruling family of the Franks from the middle of the 5th century until 751. They first appear as "Kings of the Franks" in the Roman army of northern Gaul. By 509 they had united all the Franks and northern Gauli ...

Merovingian
kingdom of the Franks Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks ( la, Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankland or Frankish Empire ( la, Imperium Francorum), was the largest History of the Roman Empire, post-Roman barbarian kingdom in Western Europe. It ...

kingdom of the Franks
, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish
Duchy of Vasconia A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a medieval In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the late 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history. It ...

Duchy of Vasconia
. Around 585 Gallactorius was made Count of Bordeaux and fought the Basques. In 732, the city was plundered by the troops of who stormed the fortifications and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force to engage the
Umayyads Umayyads may refer to: * Umayyad dynasty, a Muslim ruling family of the Caliphate (661–750) and in Spain (756–1031) * Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) :* Emirate of Córdoba (756–929) :* Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031) {{dab ...
, eventually engaging them in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne. The battle had a high death toll, and although Eudes was defeated he had enough troops to engage in the
Battle of Poitiers The Battle of Poitiers was fought on 19September 1356 between a Kingdom of France, French army commanded by King John II of France, King JohnII and an Kingdom of England, Anglo-Gascony, Gascon force under Edward, the Black Prince, during the ...
and so retain his grip on Aquitaine. In 737, following his father Eudes's death, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion to which
Charles Charles is a masculine given name predominantly found in English language, English and French language, French speaking countries. It is from the French form ''Charles'' of the Proto-Germanic, Proto-Germanic name (in runic alphabet) or ''*k ...

Charles
responded by launching an expedition that captured Bordeaux. However, it was not retained for long, during the following year the Frankish commander clashed in battle with the Aquitanians but then left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745 Aquitaine faced another expedition where Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman challenged Hunald's power and defeated him. Hunald's son Waifer replaced him and confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city (along with Bourges in the north). During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine (760–768), it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to the troops of King
Pepin the Short Pepin the Short (french: Pépin le Bref; – 24 September 768), also called the Younger (german: Pippin der Jüngere), was King of the Franks from 751 until his death in 768. He was the first Carolingian The Carolingian dynasty (; known ...
. Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac (''Frontiacus'', ''Franciacus'') near Bordeaux on a hill across the border with the Basques (''Wascones''), where Basque commanders came and pledged their loyalty (769). In 778, Seguin (or Sihimin) was appointed count of Bordeaux, probably undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, and possibly leading to the
Battle of Roncevaux Pass The Battle of Roncevaux Pass (French language, French and English spelling, ''Roncesvalles'' in Spanish, ''Orreaga'' in Basque language, Basque) in 778 saw a large force of Basque people, Basques ambush a part of Charlemagne's army in Roncevaux ...

Battle of Roncevaux Pass
. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of , but was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress a Basque rebellion. Under the
Carolingians The Carolingian dynasty (; known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings, Karolinger or Karlings) was a Franks, Frankish noble family named after Charlemagne, grandson of Mayor of the palace, mayor Charles Martel and a descendant ...
, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia. They were to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the
Viking Vikings ; non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people originally from Scandinavia (present-day Denmark, Norway and Sweden), who from the late 8th to the late 11th centuries raided, pirated, traded and se ...
s when they appeared in c. 844. In Autumn 845, the Vikings were raiding Bordeaux and Saintes, count Seguin II marched on them but was captured and executed. Although the port of Bordeaux was a buzzing trade center, the stability and success of the city was threatened by
Viking Vikings ; non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people originally from Scandinavia (present-day Denmark, Norway and Sweden), who from the late 8th to the late 11th centuries raided, pirated, traded and se ...
and Norman incursions and political instability. The restoration of the Ramnulfid
Dukes of Aquitaine The Duke of Aquitaine ( oc, Duc d'Aquitània, french: Duc d'Aquitaine, ) was the ruler of the Duchy of Aquitaine, medieval region of Aquitaine (not to be confused with modern-day Aquitaine) under the supremacy of List of Frankish kings, Frankish, ...
under
William IV William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837. The third son of George III, William succeeded hi ...
and his successors (known as the
House of Poitiers The Ramnulfids, or the House of Poitiers, were a French dynasty ruling the County of Poitou and Duchy of Aquitaine The Duchy of Aquitaine ( oc, Ducat d'Aquitània, ; french: Duché d'Aquitaine, ) was a historical fiefdom in western, central, ...
) brought continuity of government.


12th century to 15th century, the English era

From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux flourished once more following the marriage of Eléonore, Duchess of
Aquitaine Aquitaine ( , , ; oc, Aquitània ; eu, Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ''Aguiéne''), archaic Guyenne or Guienne ( oc, Guiana), is a historical region of southwestern France and a former regions of France, administrative region of the count ...
and the last of the
House of Poitiers The Ramnulfids, or the House of Poitiers, were a French dynasty ruling the County of Poitou and Duchy of Aquitaine The Duchy of Aquitaine ( oc, Ducat d'Aquitània, ; french: Duché d'Aquitaine, ) was a historical fiefdom in western, central, ...
, to Henry II Plantagenêt,
Count of Anjou The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the County of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong. Ingelger and his son, Fulk the Red, were viscounts until Fulk assumed the title of Count of Anjou. The Robertians ...
and the grandson of
Henry I of England Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death in 1135. He was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and was educated in Latin and the liberal arts. On William's death in ...
, who succeeded to the English crown months after their wedding, bringing into being the vast
Angevin Empire The Angevin Empire (; french: Empire Plantagenêt) describes the possessions of the House of Plantagenet during the 12th and 13th centuries, when they ruled over an area covering roughly half of France, all of England, and parts of Lordship of I ...
, which stretched from the
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineu ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to C ...
to Ireland. After granting a tax-free trade status with England, Henry was adored by the locals as they could be even more profitable in the wine trade, their main source of income, and the city benefited from imports of cloth and wheat. The belfry (Grosse Cloche) and city cathedral St-André were built, the latter in 1227, incorporating the artisan quarter of Saint-Paul. Under the terms of the Treaty of Brétigny it became briefly the capital of an independent state (1362–1372) under
Edward, the Black Prince Edward of Woodstock, known to history as the Black Prince (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), was the eldest son of King Edward III of England, and the List of heirs to the English throne, heir apparent to the English throne. He died before his fat ...
, but after the
Battle of Castillon The Battle of Castillon between the forces of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lie ...
(1453) it was annexed by France.


15th century to 17th century

In 1462, Bordeaux created a local parliament. Bordeaux adhered to the
Fronde The Fronde () was a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659), Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635. King Louis XIV confronted the combined opposition of the pr ...
, being effectively annexed to the
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or umbrella term given to various political entities of France France (), officially the Fr ...
only in 1653, when the army of
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was List of French monarchs, King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the Li ...
entered the city.


18th century, the golden era

The 18th century saw another golden age of Bordeaux. The Port of the Moon supplied the majority of Europe with coffee, cocoa, sugar, cotton and indigo, becoming France's busiest port and the second busiest port in the world after London. Many downtown buildings (about 5,000), including those on the quays, are from this period. Bordeaux was also a major trading centre for slaves. In total, the Bordeaux shipowners deported 150,000 Africans in some 500 expeditions.


French Revolution: political disruption and loss of the most profitable colony

At the beginning of the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, ...
(1789), many local revolutionaries were members of the
Girondists The Girondins ( , ), or Girondists, were members of a loosely knit political faction A political faction is a group of individuals that share a common political purpose but differs in some respect to the rest of the entity. A faction within a ...
. This Party represented the provincial bourgeoisie, favorable towards abolishing aristocracy privileges, but opposed to the Revolution's social dimension. In 1793, the Montagnards led by
Robespierre Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (; 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and statesman who became one of the best-known, influential and controversial figures of the French Revolution The French Re ...
and
Marat Marat may refer to: People *Marat (given name) *Marat (surname) **Jean-Paul Marat (1743-1793), French political theorist, physician and scientist Arts, entertainment, and media *''Marat/Sade'', a 1963 play by Peter Weiss *Marat/Sade (film), ' ...
came to power. Fearing a bourgeois misappropriation of the Revolution, they executed a great number of Girondists. During the purge, the local Montagnard Section renamed the city of Bordeaux "Commune-Franklin" (Franklin-municipality) in homage to
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was an American polymath who was active as a writer, scientist, Invention, inventor, Statesman (politician), statesman, diplomat, printer (publishing), printer, publisher, and Political philosophy, politi ...
. At the same time, in 1791, a
slave revolt A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by enslaved people, as a way of fighting for their freedom. Rebellions of enslaved people have occurred in nearly all societies that practice slavery or have practiced slavery in the past. A desire for freed ...
broke out at
Saint-Domingue Saint-Domingue () was a French colonization of the Americas, French colony in the western portion of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, in the area of modern-day Haiti, from 1659 to 1804. The name derives from the Spanish main city in the islan ...
(current
Haiti Haiti (; ht, Ayiti ; French: ), officially the Republic of Haiti (); ) and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, east of Cuba and Jamaica, and ...
), the most profitable of the French colonies. Three years later, the Montagnard Convention abolished slavery. In 1802, Napoleon revoked the manumission law but lost the war against the army of former slaves. In 1804, Haiti became independent. The loss of this "Pearl" of the West Indies generated the collapse of Bordeaux's port economy, which was dependent on the colonial trade and trade in slaves. Towards the end of the
Peninsular War The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was the war, military conflict fought in the Iberian Peninsula by Spain, Kingdom of Portugal, Portugal, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom against the invading and occupying ...
of 1814, the
Duke of Wellington Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish people, Anglo-Irish soldier and Tories (British political party), Tory statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of Uni ...
sent William Beresford with two divisions and seized Bordeaux, encountering little resistance. Bordeaux was largely anti-
Bonapartist Bonapartism (french: Bonapartisme) is the political ideology supervening from Napoleon Bonaparte and his followers and successors. The term was used to refer to people who hoped to restore the House of Bonaparte and its style of government. In t ...
and the majority supported the
Bourbons The House of Bourbon (, also ; ) is a European dynasty of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty, the royal House of France. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Kingdom of Navarre, Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, memb ...
. The British troops were treated as liberators.


19th century, rebirth of the economy

From the
Bourbon Restoration Bourbon Restoration may refer to: France under the House of Bourbon: * Bourbon Restoration in France (1814, after the French revolution and Napoleonic era, until 1830; interrupted by the Hundred Days in 1815) Spain under the House of Bourbon-Anjou, ...
, the economy of Bordeaux was rebuilt by traders and shipowners. They engaged to construct the first bridge of Bordeaux, and customs warehouses. The shipping traffic grew through the new African colonies. Georges-Eugène Haussmann, a longtime prefect of Bordeaux, used Bordeaux's 18th-century large-scale rebuilding as a model when he was asked by Emperor
Napoleon III Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 18089 January 1873) was the first President of France (as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte) from 1848 to 1852 and the last monarch of France as Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870. A neph ...
to transform the quasi-medieval Paris into a "modern" capital that would make France proud.
Victor Hugo Victor-Marie Hugo (; 26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French Romanticism, Romantic writer and politician. During a literary career that spanned more than sixty years, he wrote in a variety of genres and forms. He is considered to be one ...
found the town so beautiful he said: "Take
Versailles The Palace of Versailles ( ; french: Château de Versailles ) is a former royal residence built by King Louis XIV located in Versailles, Yvelines, Versailles, about west of Paris, France. The palace is owned by the French Republic and since 19 ...
, add
Antwerp Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ; es, Amberes) is the largest city in Belgium by area at and the capital of Antwerp Province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 530,504,
, and you have Bordeaux". In 1870, at the beginning of the Franco-Prussian war against
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian: ''Prūsa'' or ''Prūsija'' was a Germans, German state on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It formed the German Empire under Prussian rule when it united the German states in 1871. It was ''de facto'' dissolved ...
, the French government temporarily relocated to Bordeaux from Paris. That recurred during
World War I World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
and again very briefly during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
, when it became clear that Paris would fall into German hands.


20th century

During World War II, Bordeaux fell under German occupation. In May and June 1940, Bordeaux was the site of the life-saving actions of the Portuguese consul-general,
Aristides de Sousa Mendes Aristides de Sousa Mendes do Amaral e Abranches () GCC, OL (July 19, 1885 – April 3, 1954) was a Portuguese consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin plural ''consules'') was the title of one of the two chief Roman magistrate, magist ...
, who illegally granted thousands of Portuguese visas, which were needed to pass the Spanish border, to refugees fleeing the German occupation. From 1941 to 1943, the Italian Royal Navy established
BETASOM BETASOM (an Italian language acronym An acronym is a word or name formed from the initial components of a longer name or phrase. Acronyms are usually formed from the initial letters of words, as in ''NATO'' (''North Atlantic Treaty Organizati ...
, a submarine base at Bordeaux. Italian submarines participated in the
Battle of the Atlantic The Battle of the Atlantic, the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, ran from 1939 to the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, covering a major part of the naval history of World War II. At its core was the Allied naval block ...
from that base, which was also a major base for German
U-boats U-boats were Submarine#Military, naval submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the World War I, First and Second World War, Second World Wars. Although at times they were efficient fleet weapons against enemy naval warships, they were ...
as headquarters of 12th U-boat Flotilla. The massive, reinforced concrete U-boat pens have proved impractical to demolish and are now partly used as a cultural center for exhibitions.


21st century, listed as World heritage

In 2007, 40% of the city surface area, located around the Port of the Moon, was listed as World heritage sites. Unesco inscribed Bordeaux as "an inhabited historic city, an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble, created in the age of the Enlightenment, whose values continued up to the first half of the 20th century, with more protected buildings than any other French city except Paris".


Geography

Bordeaux is located close to the European
Atlantic The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of about . It covers approximately 20% of Earth's surface and about 29% of its water surface area. It is known to separate the " Old World" of Africa, Europe ...
coast, in the southwest of France and in the north of the Aquitaine region. It is around southwest of Paris. The city is built on a bend of the river Garonne, and is divided into two parts: the right bank to the east and left bank in the west. Historically the left bank is more developed because when flowing outside the bend, the water makes a furrow of the required depth to allow the passing of merchant ships, which used to offload on this side of the river. But, today, the right bank is developing, including new urban projects. In Bordeaux, the Garonne River is accessible to
ocean liner An ocean liner is a passenger ship primarily used as a form of transportation across seas or oceans. Ocean liners may also carry cargo or mail, and may sometimes be used for other purposes (such as for pleasure cruises or as hospital ships). Ca ...
s through the
Gironde estuary The Gironde estuary ( , American English, US usually ; french: estuaire de la Gironde, ; oc, estuari de aGironda, ) is a navigable estuary (though often referred to as a river) in southwest France and is formed from the meeting of the riv ...
. The right bank of the Garonne is a low-lying, often marshy plain.


Climate

Bordeaux's climate was last officially classified as a temperate
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a marine climate, is the humid temperate climate sub-type in Köppen climate classification, Köppen classification ''Cfb'', typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, generally featuring ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, nota ...
''Cfb''), although in more recent temperature records, from 1991 to 2020, it has warmed to become a
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents (except Antarctica), generally between latitudes 25° and 40° ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, nota ...
''Cfa''). In the
Trewartha climate classification The Trewartha climate classification (TCC) or the Köppen–Trewartha climate classification (KTC) is a climate classification Climate classifications are systems that categorize the world's climates. A climate classification may correlate cl ...
system it was classified as temperate oceanic or ''Do'' climate, but more recent temperature numbers have shown it to have eight months greater than and classify it as subtropical (''Cf''). Winters are cool because of the prevalence of westerly winds from the Atlantic. Summers are warm and long due to the influence from the Bay of Biscay (surface temperature reaches ). The average seasonal winter temperature is , but recent winters have been warmer than this. Frosts in the winter occur several times during a winter, but snowfall is very rare, occurring only once every three years. The average summer seasonal temperature is . The summer of 2003 set a record with an average temperature of . February 1956 was the coldest month on record with an average temperature of −2.00 °C at Bordeaux Mérignac-Airport.


Economy

Bordeaux is a major centre for business in France as it has the sixth largest metropolitan population in France. It serves as a major regional center for trade, administration, services and industry.


Wine

The vine was introduced to the Bordeaux region by the Romans, probably in the mid-first century, to provide wine for local consumption, and wine production has been continuous in the region since. Bordeaux wine growing area has about of
vineyard A vineyard (; also ) is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science, practice and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture. Vineyards ...
s, 57
appellations An appellation is a legally defined and protected geographical indication primarily used to identify where the grapes for a wine were grown, although other types of food often have appellations as well. Restrictions other than geographical boun ...
, 10,000 wine-producing estates (châteaux) and 13,000 grape growers. With an annual production of approximately 960 million bottles, the Bordeaux area produces large quantities of everyday wine as well as some of the most expensive wines in the world. Included among the latter are the area's five ''premier cru'' (
First Growth First Growth (french: Premier Cru) status is a classification of wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it ...
) red wines (four from Médoc and one, Château Haut-Brion, from
Graves A grave is a location where a dead body (typically that of a human, although sometimes that of an animal) is buried or interred after a funeral A funeral is a ceremony connected with the Disposal of human corpses, final disposition of ...
), established by the
Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855 The Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855 resulted from the 1855 Exposition Universelle de Paris, when Emperor Napoleon III Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 18089 January 1873) was the first President of F ...
: Both red and
white wines White wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat ...
are made in the Bordeaux region. Red Bordeaux wine is called
claret Bordeaux wine ( oc, vin de Bordèu, french: vin de Bordeaux) is produced in the Bordeaux wine regions, Bordeaux region of southwest France, around the city of Bordeaux, on the Garonne, Garonne River. To the north of the city the Dordogne (river) ...
in the United Kingdom. Red wines are generally made from a blend of grapes, and may be made from
Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet Sauvignon () is one of the world's most widely recognized red wine grape List of grape varieties, varieties. It is grown in nearly every major List of wine-producing countries, wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates ...
,
Merlot Merlot is a dark blue–colored wine grape variety, that is used as both a Blending (alcohol production), blending grape and for varietal wines. The name ''Merlot'' is thought to be a diminutive of ''merle'', the French language, French name fo ...
,
Cabernet Franc Cabernet Franc is one of the major black grape varieties worldwide. It is principally grown for blending with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot in the Bordeaux (wine), Bordeaux style, but can also be vinified alone, as in the Loire (wine), Loire's C ...
,
Petit verdot Petit Verdot is a variety of red wine grape, principally used in classic Bordeaux wine, Bordeaux blends. It ripens much later than the other varieties in Bordeaux, often too late, so it fell out of favour in its home region. When it does ripen it ...
,
Malbec Malbec () is a purple grape variety used in making red wine. The grapes tend to have an inky dark color and robust grape tannins, tannins, and are known as one of the six grapes allowed in the blend of red Bordeaux wine. In France, plantations ...
, and, less commonly in recent years, Carménère. White Bordeaux is made from
Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety that originates from the Bordeaux region of France (wine), France. The grape most likely gets its name from the French words ''sauvage'' ("wild") and ''blanc'' ("white") due to its early origins as an indige ...
, Sémillon, and
Muscadelle Muscadelle is a white wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing ...
. Sauternes is a sub-region of Graves known for its intensely sweet, white,
dessert wine Dessert wines, sometimes called pudding wines in the United Kingdom, are sweet wines typically served with dessert. There is no simple definition of a dessert wine. In the UK, a dessert wine is considered to be any sweet wine drunk with a meal ...
s such as Château d'Yquem. Because of a wine glut (
wine lake The wine lake refers to a perceived overproduction of wine in the European Union, particularly around 2005–2007. The EU's Common Agricultural Policy contained a number of subsidies for wine producers, leading to a supply glut; this surplus forc ...
) in the generic production, the price squeeze induced by an increasingly strong international competition, and vine pull schemes, the number of growers has recently dropped from 14,000 and the area under vine has also decreased significantly. In the meantime, the global demand for first growths and the most famous labels markedly increased and their prices skyrocketed. The Cité du Vin, a museum as well as a place of exhibitions, shows, movie projections and
academic An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (socio ...
seminar A seminar is a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization. It has the function of bringing together small groups for recurring meetings, focusing each time on some parti ...
s on the theme of wine opened its doors in June 2016.


Others

The Laser Mégajoule will be one of the most powerful lasers in the world, allowing
fundamental research Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is a type of scientific research with the aim of improving scientific theory, theories for better understanding and prediction of natural or other phenomena. In contrast, applied ...
and the development of the
laser A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The word "laser" is an acronym for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation". The fi ...
and
plasma Plasma or plasm may refer to: Science * Plasma (physics) Plasma () 1, where \nu_ is the electron gyrofrequency and \nu_ is the electron collision rate. It is often the case that the electrons are magnetized while the ions are not. Magnetized ...
technologies. Some 20,000 people work for the aeronautic industry in Bordeaux. The city has some of the biggest companies including
Dassault Dassault Group (; also GIM Dassault or Groupe Industriel Marcel Dassault SAS) is a French group of companies established in 1929 with the creation of Société des Avions Marcel Bloch (now Dassault Aviation) by Marcel Dassault, and led by son ...
, EADS Sogerma,
Snecma Safran Aircraft Engines, previously Snecma (''Société nationale d'études et de construction de moteurs d'aviation'') or Snecma Moteurs, is a French aerospace engine manufacturer headquartered in Courcouronnes and a subsidiary of Safran. It ...
,
Thales Thales of Miletus ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Θαλῆς, Θαλῆς; ) was a Greeks, Greek Greek Mathematics, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, and Pre-Socratic philosophy, pre-Socratic philosopher from Miletus in Ionia, Asia Minor. He was one of ...
, SNPE, and others. The
Dassault Falcon The Dassault Falcon is a family of business jets, manufactured by Dassault Aviation. July 2017 saw the 2,500th Falcon delivered – a Dassault Falcon 900, Falcon 900LX – since the first Dassault Falcon 20, Falcon 20 was handed over to a ...
private jets are built there as well as the
military aircraft A military aircraft is any Fixed-wing aircraft, fixed-wing or rotorcraft, rotary-wing aircraft that is operated by a legal or insurrectionary armed service of any type. Military aircraft can be either combat or non-combat: * Combat aircraft are ...
Rafale The Dassault Rafale (, literally meaning "gust of wind", and "burst of fire" in a more military sense) is a French Twinjet, twin-engine, Canard (aeronautics), canard delta wing, Multirole combat aircraft, multirole fighter aircraft designed and ...
and
Mirage 2000 The Dassault Mirage 2000 is a French multirole, single-engine, fourth-generation jet fighter manufactured by Dassault Aviation. It was designed in the late 1970s as a lightweight fighter to replace the Mirage III for the French Air Force (''Arm ...
, the
Airbus A380 The Airbus A380 is a large wide-body airliner that was developed and produced by Airbus. It is the world's largest passenger airliner and only full-length double-deck jet airliner. Airbus studies started in 1988, and the project was ann ...
cockpit A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a Pilot in command, pilot controls the aircraft. The cockpit of an aircraft contains flight instruments on an instrument panel, and the ...
, the boosters of
Ariane 5 Ariane 5 is a European Heavy-lift launch vehicle, heavy-lift space launch vehicle developed and operated by Arianespace for the European Space Agency (ESA). It is launched from the Guiana Space Centre, Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) in French Gu ...
, and the
M51 SLBM The M51 SLBM is a French submarine-launched ballistic missile, built by ArianeGroup, and deployed with the French Navy. Designed to replace the M45 (missile), M45 SLBM (In French terminology the MSBS – ''Mer-Sol-Balistique-Stratégique'' "Sea-gr ...
missile In military terminology, a missile is a guided airborne ranged weapon A ranged weapon is any weapon that can engage targets beyond hand-to-hand distance, i.e. at distances greater than the physical reach of the user holding the weapon itsel ...
. Tourism, especially
wine tourism Enotourism, oenotourism, wine tourism, or vinitourism refers to tourism whose purpose is or includes the tasting, consumption or purchase of wine, often at or near the source. Where other types of tourism are often passive in nature, enotourism ca ...
, is a major industry. Globelink.co.uk mentioned Bordeaux as the best tourist destination in Europe in 2015. Access to the
port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility comprising one or more Wharf, wharves or loading areas, where ships load and discharge Affreightment, cargo and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, ports can a ...
from the Atlantic is via the
Gironde estuary The Gironde estuary ( , American English, US usually ; french: estuaire de la Gironde, ; oc, estuari de aGironda, ) is a navigable estuary (though often referred to as a river) in southwest France and is formed from the meeting of the riv ...
. Almost nine million tonnes of goods arrive and leave each year.


Major companies

This list includes indigenous Bordeaux-based companies and companies that have major presence in Bordeaux, but are not necessarily headquartered there. *
Arena An arena is a large enclosed platform, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theatre, Music, musical performances, or Sport, sporting events. It is composed of a large open space surrounded on most or all sides by tiered seating f ...
* Groupe Bernard *
Groupe Castel Castel Group (French Groupe Castel) is a French beverage company. It was established in 1949 by Pierre Castel, who continues to run the company as a family-owned concern. Castel is the largest French wine producer and owns the biggest French an ...
* Cdiscount *
Dassault Dassault Group (; also GIM Dassault or Groupe Industriel Marcel Dassault SAS) is a French group of companies established in 1929 with the creation of Société des Avions Marcel Bloch (now Dassault Aviation) by Marcel Dassault, and led by son ...
* Jock * Marie Brizard *
McKesson Corporation McKesson Corporation is an American company distributing pharmaceuticals and providing health information technology, medical supplies, and care management tools. The company delivers a third of all pharmaceuticals used in North America and emplo ...
*
Oxbow __NOTOC__ An oxbow is a U-shaped metal pole (or larger wooden frame) that fits the underside and the sides of the neck of an ox or wikt:bullock, bullock. A bow pin holds it in place. The term "oxbow lake, oxbow" is widely used to refer to a U-sh ...
* Ricard * Sanofi Aventis * Smurfit Kappa *
Snecma Safran Aircraft Engines, previously Snecma (''Société nationale d'études et de construction de moteurs d'aviation'') or Snecma Moteurs, is a French aerospace engine manufacturer headquartered in Courcouronnes and a subsidiary of Safran. It ...
* Solectron *
Thales Group Thales Group () is a French multinational company that designs, develops and manufactures electrical systems Electricity is the set of physics, physical Phenomenon, phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a pr ...


Population

In January 2019, there were 260,958 inhabitants in the city proper (commune) of Bordeaux. The commune (including Caudéran which was annexed by Bordeaux in 1965) had its largest population of 284,494 at the 1954 census. The majority of the population is French, but there are sizable groups of Italians,
Spaniards Spaniards, or Spanish people, are a Romance peoples, Romance ethnic group native to Spain. Within Spain, there are a number of National and regional identity in Spain, national and regional ethnic identities that reflect the country's complex Hist ...
(Up to 20% of the Bordeaux population claim some degree of Spanish heritage), Portuguese, Turks,
Germans , native_name_lang = de , region1 = , pop1 = 72,650,269 , region2 = , pop2 = 534,000 , region3 = , pop3 = 157,000 3,322,405 , region4 = , pop4 = ...
. The built-up area has grown for more than a century beyond the municipal borders of Bordeaux due to the small size of the commune () and
urban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is defined as "the spreading of urban developments (such as houses and shopping centers) on undeveloped land near a city." Urban sprawl has been described as the unrestricted growt ...
, so that by January 2019 there were 1,363,711 people living in the overall metropolitan area (''aire d'attraction'') of Bordeaux, only a fifth of whom lived in the city proper. Largest communities of foreigners :


Politics


Municipal administration

The Mayor of the city is the environmentalist
Pierre Hurmic Pierre Hurmic (born 10 April 1955) is a French politician serving as Mayor (France), Mayor of Bordeaux since 2020. A member of Europe Ecology – The Greens (EELV), he was first elected to the Municipal council (France), municipal council of Bor ...
. Bordeaux is the capital of five cantons and the Prefecture of the
Gironde Gironde ( American English, US usually, , ; oc, Gironda, ) is the largest Departments of France, department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine Regions of France, region of Southwestern France. Named after the Gironde estuary, a major waterway, its Pre ...

Gironde
and
Aquitaine Aquitaine ( , , ; oc, Aquitània ; eu, Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ''Aguiéne''), archaic Guyenne or Guienne ( oc, Guiana), is a historical region of southwestern France and a former regions of France, administrative region of the count ...
. The town is divided into three districts, the first three of Gironde. The headquarters of Urban Community of Bordeaux Mériadeck is located in the neighbourhood and the city is at the head of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry that bears his name. The number of inhabitants of Bordeaux is greater than 250,000 and less than 299,999 so the number of municipal councilors is 65. They are divided according to the following composition:


Mayors of Bordeaux

Since the Liberation (1944), there have been 6 mayors of Bordeaux: * RPR was renamed to UMP in 2002 which was later renamed to LR in 2015


Elections


Presidential elections of 2007

At the 2007 presidential election, the Bordelais gave 31.37% of their votes to Ségolène Royal of the Socialist Party against 30.84% to
Nicolas Sarkozy Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa (; ; born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France from 2007 to 2012. Born in Paris, he is of Hungarian, Greek Jewish, and French origin. Mayor of Neuilly-sur-Sei ...
, president of the UMP. Then came François Bayrou with 22.01%, followed by
Jean-Marie Le Pen Jean Louis Marie Le Pen (, born 20 June 1928) is a French History of far-right movements in France, far-right politician who served as President of the National Rally, National Front from 1972 to 2011. He also served as Honorary President of the ...
who recorded 5.42%. None of the other candidates exceeded the 5% mark. Nationally, Nicolas Sarkozy led with 31.18%, then Ségolène Royal with 25.87%, followed by François Bayrou with 18.57%. After these came Jean-Marie Le Pen with 10.44%, none of the other candidates exceeded the 5% mark. In the second round, the city of Bordeaux gave Ségolène Royal 52.44% against 47.56% for Nicolas Sarkozy, the latter being elected President of the Republic with 53.06% against 46.94% for Ségolène Royal. The abstention rates for Bordeaux were 14.52% in the first round and 15.90% in the second round.


Parliamentary elections of 2007

In the parliamentary elections of 2007, the left won eight constituencies against only three for the right. It should be added that after the partial 2008 elections, the eighth district of Gironde switched to the left, bringing the count to nine. In Bordeaux, the left was for the first time in its history the majority as it held two of three constituencies following the elections. In the first division of the Gironde, the outgoing UMP MP Chantal Bourragué was well ahead with 44.81% against 25.39% for the Socialist candidate Beatrice Desaigues. In the second round, it was Chantal Bourragué who was re-elected with 54.45% against 45.55% for his socialist opponent. In the second district of Gironde the UMP mayor and all new Minister of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea Alain Juppé confronted the General Counsel PS Michèle Delaunay. In the first round, Alain Juppé was well ahead with 43.73% against 31.36% for Michèle Delaunay. In the second round, it was finally Michèle Delaunay who won the election with 50.93% of the votes against 49.07% for Alain Juppé, the margin being only 670 votes. The defeat of the so-called constituency "Mayor" showed that Bordeaux was rocking increasingly left. Finally, in the third constituency of the Gironde, Noël Mamère was well ahead with 39.82% against 28.42% for the UMP candidate Elizabeth Vine. In the second round, Noël Mamère was re-elected with 62.82% against 37.18% for his right-wing rival.


Municipal elections of 2008

In 2008 municipal elections saw the clash between mayor of Bordeaux, Alain Juppé and the President of the Regional Council of Aquitaine Socialist
Alain Rousset Alain Rousset (born 16 February 1951) is the Socialist Socialism is a left-wing Economic ideology, economic philosophy and Political movement, movement encompassing a range of economic systems characterized by the dominance of social owne ...
. The PS had put up a Socialist heavyweight in the Gironde and had put great hopes in this election after the victory of Ségolène Royal and Michèle Delaunay in 2007. However, after a rather exciting campaign it was Alain Juppé who was widely elected in the first round with 56.62%, far ahead of Alain Rousset who has managed to get 34.14%. At present, of the eight cantons that has Bordeaux, five are held by the PS and three by the UMP, the left eating a little each time into the right's numbers.


European elections of 2009

In the European elections of 2009, Bordeaux voters largely voted for the UMP candidate Dominique Baudis, who won 31.54% against 15.00% for PS candidate Kader Arif. The candidate of Europe Ecology José Bové came second with 22.34%. None of the other candidates reached the 10% mark. The 2009 European elections were like the previous ones in eight constituencies. Bordeaux is located in the district "Southwest", here are the results: UMP candidate Dominique Baudis: 26.89%. His party gained four seats. PS candidate Kader Arif: 17.79%, gaining two seats in the European Parliament. Europe Ecology candidate Bove: 15.83%, obtaining two seats. MoDem candidate Robert Rochefort: 8.61%, winning a seat. Left Front candidate Jean-Luc Mélenchon: 8.16%, gaining the last seat. At regional elections in 2010, the Socialist incumbent president Alain Rousset won the first round by totaling 35.19% in Bordeaux, but this score was lower than the plan for Gironde and Aquitaine. Xavier Darcos, Minister of Labour followed with 28.40% of the votes, scoring above the regional and departmental average. Then came Monique De Marco, Green candidate with 13.40%, followed by the member of Pyrenees-Atlantiques and candidate of the MoDem Jean Lassalle who registered a low 6.78% while qualifying to the second round on the whole Aquitaine, closely followed by Jacques Colombier, candidate of the National Front, who gained 6.48%. Finally the candidate of the Left Front Gérard Boulanger with 5.64%, no other candidate above the 5% mark. In the second round, Alain Rousset had a tidal wave win as national totals rose to 55.83%. If Xavier Darcos largely lost the election, he nevertheless achieved a score above the regional and departmental average obtaining 33.40%. Jean Lassalle, who qualified for the second round, passed the 10% mark by totaling 10.77%. The ballot was marked by abstention amounting to 55.51% in the first round and 53.59% in the second round. ''Only candidates obtaining more than 5% are listed''


2017 elections

Bordeaux voted for
Emmanuel Macron Emmanuel Macron (; born 21 December 1977) is a French politician who has served as President of France since 2017. ''Ex officio'', he is also one of the two Co-Princes of Andorra. Prior to his presidency, Macron served as Minister of Eco ...
in the
presidential election A presidential election is the election of any head of state whose official title is President (government title), President. Elections by country Albania The president List of heads of state of Albania, of Albania is elected by the Assembly of ...
. In the 2017 parliamentary election, La République En Marche! won most of the constituencies in Bordeaux.


2019 European elections

Bordeaux voted in the
2019 European Parliament election in France The 2019 European Parliament election in France were held on 26 May 2019 (and on 25 May in parts of overseas France and for some nationals abroad), electing members of the 9th French delegation to the European Parliament as part of the 2019 Europe ...
.


Municipal elections of 2020

After 73 years of right-of-centre rule, the ecologist Pierre Hurmic ( EELV) came in ahead of Nicolas Florian ( LR/ LaREM).


Parliamentary representation

The city area is represented by the following
constituencies An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, or (election) precinct is a subdivision of a larger state (a country A country is a distinct part o ...
: Gironde's 1st, Gironde's 2nd, Gironde's 3rd, Gironde's 4th, Gironde's 5th, Gironde's 6th, Gironde's 7th.


Education


University

During Antiquity, a first university had been created by the Romans in 286. The city was an important administrative centre and the new university had to train administrators. Only
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or speakers utilize to inform, persuad ...
and
grammar In linguistics, the grammar of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. The term can also refer to the study of such constraint ...
were taught.
Ausonius Decimius Magnus Ausonius (; – c. 395) was a Roman poet and teacher A teacher, also called a schoolteacher or formally an educator, is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence, or virtue, via the practice of te ...
and
Sulpicius Severus Sulpicius Severus (; c. 363 – c. 425) was a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in ...
were two of the teachers. In 1441, when Bordeaux was an English town, the
Pope Eugene IV Pope Eugene IV ( la, Eugenius IV; it, Eugenio IV; 1383 – 23 February 1447), born Gabriele Condulmer, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 3 March 1431 to his death in February 1447. Condulmer was a Venetian, and ...
created a university by demand of the archbishop
Pey Berland Blessed Pey Berland (or ''Peyberland'', from ''Pierre Berland''; c. 1380 – January 1458) was the Archbishop of Bordeaux from 1430 until his abdication, during a pivotal time in the history of the city and of Gascony Gascony (; fren ...
. In 1793, during the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, ...
, the
National Convention The National Convention (french: link=no, Convention nationale) was the parliament of the Kingdom of France for one day and the French First Republic for the rest of its existence during the French Revolution, following the two-year National ...
abolished the university, and replace them with the École centrale in 1796. In Bordeaux, this one was located in the former buildings of the college of Guyenne. In 1808, the university reappeared with
Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte ; it, Napoleone Bonaparte, ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821), later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French military commander and political leader who ...
. Bordeaux accommodates approximately 70,000 students on one of the largest campuses of Europe (235 ha). The University of Bordeaux is divided into four: *The University Bordeaux 1, (Maths, Physical sciences and Technologies), 10,693 students in 2002 *The University Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux Segalen (Medicine and Life sciences), 15,038 students in 2002 *The University Bordeaux 3, Michel de Montaigne (
Liberal arts Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") is the traditional academic course in Western higher education. ''Liberal arts'' takes the term ''skill, art'' in the sense of a learned skill rather than specifica ...
, Humanities, Languages, History), 14,785 students in 2002 *The University Bordeaux 4, Montesquieu (Law, Economy and Management), 12,556 students in 2002 * Institut of Political Sciences of Bordeaux. Although technically a part of the fourth university, it largely functions autonomously.


Schools

Bordeaux has numerous public and private schools offering undergraduate and postgraduate programs. Engineering schools: *
Arts et Métiers ParisTech Arts et Métiers ParisTech is a French engineering and research institute of higher education. It is a '' grande école'', recognized for leading in the fields of mechanics and industrialization. Founded in 1780, it is among the oldest French in ...
, graduate school of industrial and mechanical engineering * ESME-Sudria, graduate school of engineering *École d'ingénieurs en modélisation mathématique et mécanique *École nationale supérieure d'électronique, informatique, télécommunications, mathématique et mécanique de Bordeaux (ENSEIRB-MATMECA) *École supérieure de technologie des biomolécules de Bordeaux * École nationale supérieure des sciences agronomiques de Bordeaux Aquitaine * École nationale supérieure de chimie et physique de Bordeaux * École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies *Institut des sciences et techniques des aliments de Bordeaux * Institut de cognitique *École supérieure d'informatique * École privée des sciences informatiques Business and management schools: *The Bordeaux MBA (International College of Bordeaux) *IUT Techniques de Commercialisation of Bordeaux (business school) * INSEEC Business School ( Institut des hautes études économiques et commerciales) * KEDGE Business School (former BEM – Bordeaux Management School) *Vatel Bordeaux International Business School * E-Artsup * Institut supérieur européen de gestion group * Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action Other: * ''École nationale de la magistrature'' (National school for the judiciary) * * * (EFAP) * (CNAM) * (law school)


Weekend education

The ''École Compleméntaire Japonaise de Bordeaux'' (ボルドー日本語補習授業校 ''Borudō Nihongo Hoshū Jugyō Kō''), a part-time Japanese supplementary school, is held in the ''Salle de L'Athénée Municipal'' in Bordeaux.欧州の補習授業校一覧(平成25年4月15日現在)


.
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology The , also known as MEXT or Monka-shō, is one of the eleven Ministries of Japan that composes part of the executive branch of the Government of Japan. Its goal is to improve the development of Japan in relation with the international communi ...
(MEXT). Retrieved on 10 May 2014. "Salle de L'Athénée Municipal Place St. Christoly, 33000 Bordeaux, FRANCE"


Main sights


Heritage and architecture

Bordeaux is classified "City of Art and History". The city is home to 362 ''
monuments historiques ''Monument historique'' () is a designation given to some national heritage sites in France. It may also refer to the state procedure in France by which National Heritage protection is extended to a building, a specific part of a building, a coll ...
'' (only Paris has more in France) with some buildings dating back to Roman times. Bordeaux, Port of the Moon, has been inscribed on
UNESCO World Heritage List A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ...
as ''"an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble"''. Bordeaux is home to one of Europe's biggest 18th-century architectural urban areas, making it a sought-after destination for tourists and cinema production crews. It stands out as one of the first French cities, after Nancy, to have entered an era of
urbanism Urbanism is the study of how inhabitants of urban areas, such as towns and cities A city is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. ...
and metropolitan big scale projects, with the team Gabriel father and son, architects for King
Louis XV Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (french: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Until he reached ...
, under the supervision of two intendants (Governors), first Nicolas-François Dupré de Saint-Maur then the Marquis de Tourny. Saint-André Cathedral, Saint-Michel Basilica and Saint-Seurin Basilica are part of the World Heritage Sites of the Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France. The organ in Saint-Louis-des-Chartrons is registered on the French
monuments historiques ''Monument historique'' () is a designation given to some national heritage sites in France. It may also refer to the state procedure in France by which National Heritage protection is extended to a building, a specific part of a building, a coll ...
.


Buildings

Main sights include: * ''
Place de la Bourse Place de la Bourse is a square in Bordeaux, France and one of the city's most recognisable sights. Built from 1730 to 1775 along the river Garonne, it was a multi-building development designed by architect Ange-Jacques Gabriel. It is within the hi ...
'' (1735–1755), designed by the Royal architect
Jacques Gabriel Ancient and noble French family names, Jacques, Jacq, or James are believed to originate from the Middle Ages in the historic northwest Brittany region in France, and have since spread around the world over the centuries. To date, there are over ...
as landscape for an
equestrian statue An equestrian statue is a statue of a rider mounted on a horse, from the Latin ''eques'', meaning 'knight', deriving from ''equus'', meaning 'horse'. A statue of a riderless horse is strictly an equine statue. A full-sized equestrian statue is a d ...
of Louis XV, now replaced by the ''Fountain of the Three Graces''. * '' Grand Théâtre'' (1780), a large neoclassical theater built in the 18th century. * ''Allées de Tourny'' * ''Cours de l'Intendance'' * ''Place du Chapelet'' * ''Place du Parlement'' * '' Place des Quinconces'', the largest square in France. * ''Monument aux Girondins'' * ''Place Saint-Pierre'' *'' Pont de pierre (1822)'' * '' Saint Andrew's Cathedral'', consecrated by
Pope Urban II Pope Urban II ( la, Urbanus II;  – 29 July 1099), otherwise known as Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 12 March 1088 to his death. He is best known for convening th ...
in 1096. Of the original Romanesque edifice only a wall in the nave remains. The Royal Gate is from the early 13th century, while the rest of the construction is mostly from the 14th and 15th centuries. * '' Tour Pey-Berland'' (1440–1450), a massive, quadrangular Gothic tower annexed to the cathedral. * '' Église Sainte-Croix'' (Church of the Holy Cross). It lies on the site of a seventh-century abbey destroyed by the Saracens. Rebuilt under the Carolingians, it was again destroyed by the Normans in 845 and 864. It is annexed to a Benedictine abbey founded in the seventh century, and was built in the late 11th and early 12th centuries. The façade is in
Romanesque style Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Middle Ages, medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 11th century ...
* The Gothic '' Basilica of Saint Michael'', constructed between the end of the 14th century and the 16th century. * Basilica of Saint Severinus, the most ancient church in Bordeaux. It was built in the early sixth century on the site of a palaeochristian necropolis. It has an 11th-century
portico A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls. This idea was widely used in ancient Greece and has influenced many cult ...
, while the
apse In architecture, an apse (plural apses; from Latin 'arch, vault' from Ancient Greek 'arch'; sometimes written apsis, plural apsides) is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical Vault (architecture), vault or semi-dome, also known ...
and
transept A transept (with two semitransepts) is a transverse part of any building, which lies across the main body of the building. In cruciform plan, cruciform churches, a transept is an area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform ("cross-shaped") ...
are from the following century. The 13th-century nave has chapels from the 11th and the 14th centuries. The ancient crypt houses sepulchres of the Merovingian family. * ''Église Saint-Pierre'', gothic church * ''Église Saint-Éloi'', gothic church * ''Église Saint-Bruno'', baroque church decorated with frescoes * ''Église Notre-Dame'', baroque church * ''Église Saint-Paul-Saint-François-Xavier'', baroque church * '' Palais Rohan'', former mansion of the archbishop, now city hall * ''Palais Gallien'', the remains of a late second-century
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter ...
amphitheatre An amphitheatre (British English) or amphitheater (American English; both ) is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports. The term derives from the ancient Greek ('), from ('), meaning "on both sides" or "around" and ...
* ''Porte Cailhau'', a medieval
gatehouse A gatehouse is a type of fortified gateway, an entry control point building, enclosing or accompanying a gateway for a town, religious house, castle, manor house, or other fortification building of importance. Gatehouses are typically the most ...
of the old city walls. * ''La Grosse Cloche'' (15th century), the second remaining gate of the Medieval walls. It was the belfry of the old Town Hall. It consists of two circular towers and a central
bell tower A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none. Such a tower commonly serves as part of a Christian church, and will contain church bells, but there are also many secular bell tow ...
housing a
bell A bell is a struck idiophone, directly struck idiophone percussion instrument. Most bells have the shape of a hollow cup that when struck vibrates in a single strong strike tone, with its sides forming an efficient resonator. The strike may be ...
weighing . The watch is from 1759. * '' Grande Synagogue'', completed 1882 * '' Rue Sainte-Catherine'', the longest pedestrian street of France * ''Darwin ecosystem'', alternative place into former military barracks * The
BETASOM BETASOM (an Italian language acronym An acronym is a word or name formed from the initial components of a longer name or phrase. Acronyms are usually formed from the initial letters of words, as in ''NATO'' (''North Atlantic Treaty Organizati ...
submarine base File:Le Palais Gallien vestige gallo-romain à Bordeaux.jpg, Remains of the Roman amphitheatre File:Cathédrale St André Bordeaux 3.jpg, Saint Andrew's Cathedral File:Bordeaux Porte Cailhau R02.jpg, Porte Cailhau File:Grand Théâtre Bordeaux.jpg, Grand Théâtre File:Bordeaux Notre-Dame R01.jpg, the church Notre Dame File:151 - Le Pont de Pierre - Bordeaux.jpg, Pont de Pierre File:Bordeaux - Basilique Saint-Michel - Vue générale.jpg, Basilica of Saint Michael File:Puerta de Burdeos.JPG, Grosse cloche File:026 - Hôtel de ville Place Pey-Berland - Bordeaux.jpg, Palais Rohan (town hall) File:FacadeSainteCroixBordeauxsoir.jpg, Église Sainte-Croix File:Bordeaux Place du Parlement R01.jpg, Place du Parlement File:Synagogue Bx 5.jpg, The Grand Synagogue File:Façades de deux ouvrages Art Déco du Quartier Lescure (Bordeaux).jpg, Facades of the Art déco district File:Darwin - Magasin général.jpg, Darwin district File:Basesousmarine.JPG, Submarine Pen


Contemporary architecture

* ''Cité Frugès'', district of Pessac, built by
Le Corbusier Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 188727 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier ( , , ), was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now regarded as modern architecture. He was ...
, 1924–1926, listed as UNESCO heritage *Fire Station, ''la Benauge'', Claude Ferret/Adrien Courtois/Yves Salier, 1951–1954 *Mériadeck district, 1960-70's *''
Court of first instance A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally ...
'',
Richard Rogers Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside (23 July 1933 – 18 December 2021) was a British architect noted for his modernist and Functionalism (architecture), functionalist designs in high-tech architecture. He was a senior partner a ...
, 1998 *CTBA, wood and furniture research center, A. Loisier, 1998 *Hangar 14 on the ''Quai des Chartrons'', 1999 *The Management Science faculty on the Bastide, Anne Lacaton/Jean-Philippe Vassal, 2006 *The '' Jardin botanique de la Bastide'', Catherine Mosbach/Françoise Hélène Jourda/ Pascal Convert, 2007 *The Nuyens School complex on the Bastide, Yves Ballot/Nathalie Franck, 2007 *Seeko'o Hotel on the Quai de Bacalan, King Kong architects, 2007 * Matmut Atlantique stadium,
Herzog & de Meuron Herzog & de Meuron Basel Ltd.,
" Herzog & de Meuron. Retrieved on 11 October 2012. "Herzog & de Meuron Basel Ltd. R ...
, 2015 * Cité du Vin, XTU architects, Anouk Legendre & Nicolas Desmazières, 2016 * MECA, Maison de l'Economie Créative et de la culture de la Région Nouvelle-Aquitaine,
Bjarke Ingels Bjarke Bundgaard Ingels (; born 2 October 1974) is a Danish architect, founder and creative partner of Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG). In Denmark, Ingels became well known after designing two housing complexes in Ørestad: VM Houses and Mountain Dwe ...
, 2019 File:Bordeaux Meriadeck.JPG, Mériadeck district File:Bordeaux Palais de Justice 23.JPG, Court of first instance File:Seeko'o Hotel, Bordeaux, July 2014 (03).JPG, Seeko'o hotel File:Cite du vin Bordeaux 2017 (37500642606).jpg, Cité du Vin File:RB 20200222 Bordeaux-11.jpg, MECA


Museums

* ''Musée des Beaux-Arts'' (''Fine arts museum''), one of the finest painting galleries in France with paintings by painter such as Tiziano, Veronese,
Rubens Sir Peter Paul Rubens (; ; 28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish people, Flemish artist and diplomat from the Duchy of Brabant in the Southern Netherlands (modern-day Kingdom of Belgium, Belgium). He is considered the most influential art ...
,
Van Dyck Sir Anthony van Dyck (, many variant spellings; 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Brabantian Brabantian or Brabantish, also Brabantic or Brabantine ( nl, Brabants, Standard Dutch pronunciation: , ), is a dialect group of the D ...
,
Frans Hals Frans Hals the Elder (, , ; – 26 August 1666) was a Dutch Golden Age painter, chiefly of individual and group portraits and of Genre painting, genre works, who lived and worked in Haarlem. Hals played an important role in the evolution of 17t ...
, Claude, Chardin, Delacroix,
Renoir Pierre-Auguste Renoir (; 25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionism, Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty and especially femininity, feminine sensuality ...
,
Seurat Georges Pierre Seurat ( , , ; 2 December 1859 – 29 March 1891) was a French post-Impressionist artist. He devised the painting techniques known as chromoluminarism and pointillism and used conté crayon for drawings on paper with a rough ...
,
Redon Redon (; ) is a Communes of France, commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine Departments of France, department in Brittany (administrative region), Brittany in northwestern France. It is a Subprefectures in France, sub-prefecture of the department. Geogra ...
,
Matisse Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (; 31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French visual artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a drawing, draughtsman, printmaking, printmaker, and sculptur ...
and
Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist and Scenic design, theatre designer who spent most of his adult life in France. One of the most influential artists of the 20th ce ...
. *'' Musée d'Aquitaine'' (archeological and history museum) *''Musée du Vin et du Négoce'' (museum of the wine trade) *'' Musée des Arts Décoratifs et du Design'' (museum of decorative arts and design) *''Musée d'Histoire Naturelle'' (natural history museum) *''Musée Mer Marine'' (Sea and Navy museum) *'' Cité du Vin'' *'' CAPC musée d'art contemporain de Bordeaux'' (modern art museum) *'' Musée national des douanes'' (history of French customs) *''Bordeaux Patrimoine Mondial'' (architectural and heritage interpretation centre) *''Musée d'ethnologie'' (ethnology museum) *''Institut culturel Bernard Magrez'', modern and streetart museum into an 18th-century mansion *Cervantez Institute (into the house of
Goya Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (; ; 30 March 174616 April 1828) was a Spanish Romanticism, romantic painter and Printmaking, printmaker. He is considered the most important Spanish artist of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. His p ...
) * ''Cap Sciences'' *''Centre Jean Moulin'' File:Beaux arts bordeaux.jpg, ''Musée des Beaux-Arts'' File:Musée Aquitaine.JPG, '' Musée d'Aquitaine'' File:Hôtel de Lalande - Musée des arts décoratifs et du design de Bordeaux.jpg, '' Musée des Arts Décoratifs et du Design'' File:CAPC janvier 2018.jpg, '' CAPC musée d'art contemporain de Bordeaux'' File:Musée du vin et du négoce de Bordeaux (3).jpg, ''Musée du vin et du négoce de Bordeaux''


Memory of slavery

Slavery was part of a growing drive for the city. Firstly, during the 18th and 19th centuries, Bordeaux was an important slave port, which saw some 500 slave expeditions that cause the deportation of 150,000 Africans by Bordeaux shipowners. Secondly, even though the "
Triangular trade Triangular trade or triangle trade is trade between three ports or regions. Triangular trade usually evolves when a region has export commodities that are not required in the region from which its major imports come. It has been used to offset t ...
" represented only 5% of Bordeaux's wealth, the city's direct trade with the Caribbean, that accounted for the other 95%, concerns the colonial stuffs made by the slave (sugar, coffee, cocoa). And thirdly, in that same period, a major migratory movement by Aquitanians took place to the Caribbean colonies, with
Saint-Domingue Saint-Domingue () was a French colonization of the Americas, French colony in the western portion of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, in the area of modern-day Haiti, from 1659 to 1804. The name derives from the Spanish main city in the islan ...
(now
Haiti Haiti (; ht, Ayiti ; French: ), officially the Republic of Haiti (); ) and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, east of Cuba and Jamaica, and ...
) being the most popular destination. 40% of the white population of the island came from
Aquitaine Aquitaine ( , , ; oc, Aquitània ; eu, Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ''Aguiéne''), archaic Guyenne or Guienne ( oc, Guiana), is a historical region of southwestern France and a former regions of France, administrative region of the count ...
. They prospered with
plantations A plantation is an agricultural estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that specializes in cash crops, usually mainly planted with a single crop, with perhaps ancillary areas for vegetables for eating and so on. Th ...
incomes, until the first slave revolts which concluded in 1848 in the final abolition of slavery in France. A statue of
Modeste Testas Al Pouessi, baptized Marthe Adélaïde Modeste Testas and known under the name of Modeste Testas (1765–1870) was an Ethiopian woman who was enslaved, purchased by Bordeaux merchants and subsequently freed after living on three continents. One of ...
, an Ethiopian woman who was enslaved by the Bordeaux-based Testas brothers was unveiled in 2019. She was trafficked by them from West Africa, to Philadelphia (where one of the brother coerced her to have two children by him) and was ultimately freed and lived in Haiti. The bronze sculpture was created by the Haitian artists Woodly Caymitte. A number of traces and memorial sites are visible in the city. Moreover, in May 2009, the Museum of Aquitaine opened the spaces dedicated to "Bordeaux in the 18th century, trans-Atlantic trading and slavery". This work, richly illustrated with original documents, contributes to disseminate the state of knowledge on this question, presenting above all the facts and their chronology. The region of Bordeaux was also the land of several prominent
abolitionists Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, is the movement to end slavery. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and liberate the enslaved people. The British ...
, as
Montesquieu Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, Lot-et-Garonne, Montesquieu (; ; 18 January 168910 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, intellectual, man of letters, historian, and p ...
, Laffon de Ladébat and Elisée Reclus. Others were members of the
Society of the Friends of the Blacks The Society of the Friends of the Blacks (''Société des amis des Noirs'' or ''Amis des noirs'') was a French abolitionist Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, is the movement to end slavery Slavery and enslavement ...
as the revolutionaries Boyer-Fonfrède, Gensonné, Guadet and Ducos. File:Bordeaux place de la Bourse mascaron visage africain.JPG, African face mascaron on the
place de la Bourse Place de la Bourse is a square in Bordeaux, France and one of the city's most recognisable sights. Built from 1730 to 1775 along the river Garonne, it was a multi-building development designed by architect Ange-Jacques Gabriel. It is within the hi ...
. File:Détail de la fresque du Grand-Théâtre de Bordeaux.jpg, Allegory of Bordeaux and her wealth, including two African slaves, ceiling of the Grand-Théâtre de Bordeaux. File:Salles consacrées à l'esclavage au Musée d'Aquitaine, Bordeaux.jpg, Spaces dedicaded to slave trade, Musée d'Aquitaine. File:Statue-fétiche Fon-Musée d'Aquitaine (1).jpg, Fon fetish, Musée d'Aquitaine. File:Buste en bronze de Toussaint Louverture, Bordeaux.jpg, Bronze bust of
Toussaint Louverture François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture (; also known as Toussaint L'Ouverture or Toussaint Bréda; 20 May 1743 – 7 April 1803) was a Haitian general and the most prominent leader of the Haitian Revolution. During his life, Louverture ...
. File:Statue de Modeste Testas, quai des Chartrons, Bordeaux.jpg, Bronze Statue of
Modeste Testas Al Pouessi, baptized Marthe Adélaïde Modeste Testas and known under the name of Modeste Testas (1765–1870) was an Ethiopian woman who was enslaved, purchased by Bordeaux merchants and subsequently freed after living on three continents. One of ...
, Ethiopian woman enslaved by two Bordeaux plantation owners.


Parks and gardens

*'' Jardin public de Bordeaux'', with inside the '' Jardin botanique de Bordeaux'' *'' Jardin botanique de la Bastide'' *''Parc bordelais'' *''Parc aux Angéliques'' *''Jardin des Lumières'' *''Parc Rivière'' *''Parc Floral'' File:Bordeaux Jardin Public R02.jpg, ''Jardin public'' File:Jardin botanique de Bordeaux 7.jpg, ''Jardin botanique'' File:Bordeaux Quai Louis XVIII R01.jpg, ''Jardin des Lumières'' File:Parc floral de Bordeaux 3298.jpg, ''Parc floral'', Casablanca pavilion


Pont Jacques Chaban-Delmas

Europe's longest-span
vertical-lift bridge A vertical-lift bridge or just lift bridge is a type of movable bridge in which a span rises vertically while remaining parallel with the deck. The vertical lift offers several benefits over other movable bridges such as the bascule and sw ...
, the Pont Jacques Chaban-Delmas, was opened in 2013 in Bordeaux, spanning the River Garonne. The central lift span is and can be lifted vertically up to to let tall ships pass underneath. The €160 million bridge was inaugurated by President
François Hollande François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (; born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France from 2012 to 2017. He previously was First Secretary of the Socialist Party (France), First Secretary of the Socialist P ...
and Mayor Alain Juppé on 16 March 2013. The bridge was named after the late
Jacques Chaban-Delmas Jacques Chaban-Delmas (; 7 March 1915 – 10 November 2000) was a French Gaullism, Gaullist politician. He served as Prime Ministers of France, Prime Minister under Georges Pompidou from 1969 to 1972. He was the Mayor (France), Mayor of Bordeau ...
, who was a former Prime Minister and
Mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government A municipality is usually a single administrative division having municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as ...
of Bordeaux.


Shopping

Bordeaux has many shopping options. In the heart of Bordeaux is '' Rue Sainte-Catherine''. This pedestrian-only shopping street has of shops, restaurants and cafés; it is also one of the longest shopping streets in Europe. ''Rue Sainte-Catherine'' starts at ''Place de la Victoire'' and ends at ''Place de la Comédie'' by the ''Grand Théâtre''. The shops become progressively more upmarket as one moves towards ''Place de la Comédie'' and the nearby ''Cours de l'Intendance'' is where one finds the more exclusive shops and boutiques.


Culture

Bordeaux is also the first city in France to have created, in the 1980s, an architecture exhibition and research centre, '' Arc en rêve''. Bordeaux offers a large number of cinemas, theatres, and is the home of the Opéra national de Bordeaux. There are many music venues of varying capacity. The city also offers several festivals throughout the year. In October 2021, Bordeaux was shortlisted for the
European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the Executive (government), executive of the European Union (EU). It operates as a cabinet government, with 27 European Commissioner, members of the Commission (informally known as "Commissioners") headed by a P ...
's 2022 European Capital of Smart Tourism award along with
Copenhagen Copenhagen ( or .; da, København ) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark, with a proper population of around 815.000 in the last quarter of 2022; and some 1.370,000 in the urban area; and the wider Copenhagen metropolitan ar ...
,
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. On a bay at the mouth of the River Liffey, it is in the Provinces of Ireland, province of Leinster, bordered on the south by the Dublin Mountains, a part of th ...
,
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany region. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants in 2016, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.Bilancio demografico ...
,
Ljubljana Ljubljana (also known by other Ljubljana#Name, historical names) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovenia. It is the country's cultural, educational, economic, political and administrative center. During antiquity, a Roman city ...
,
Palma de Mallorca Palma (; ; also known as ''Palma de Mallorca'', officially between 1983–88, 2006–08, and 2012–16) is the capital and largest city of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain. It is situate ...
and
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-most populated municipality in Spain, with 791,413 inhabitants. It is ...
. File:GrandTheatreBordeaux2.jpg, '' Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux'' File:Bordeaux - Théâtre Femina.jpg, ''Théâtre Femina'' File:RB 20200222 Bordeaux-11.jpg, ''MECA, Maison de l’Économie Créative et de la Culture en Aquitaine''


Transport


Road

Bordeaux is an important road and motorway junction. The city is connected to Paris by the A10 motorway, with Lyon by the A89, with Toulouse by the A62, and with Spain by the A63. There is a
ring road A ring road (also known as circular road, beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop, bypass or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country. The most common purpose of a ring road is to assist i ...
called the " Rocade" which is often very busy. Another ring road is under consideration. Bordeaux has five road bridges that cross the
Garonne The Garonne (, also , ; Occitan language , Occitan, Catalan language , Catalan, Basque language, Basque, and es, Garona, ; la, Garumna or ) is a river of southwest France and northern Spain. It flows from the central Spanish Pyrenees to the ...

Garonne
, the Pont de pierre built in the 1820s and three modern bridges built after 1960: the Pont Saint Jean, just south of the Pont de pierre (both located downtown), the Pont d'Aquitaine, a suspension bridge downstream from downtown, and the Pont François Mitterrand, located upstream of downtown. These two bridges are part of the ring-road around Bordeaux. A fifth bridge, the Pont Jacques-Chaban-Delmas, was constructed in 2009–2012 and opened to traffic in March 2013. Located halfway between the Pont de pierre and the Pont d'Aquitaine and serving downtown rather than highway traffic, it is a
vertical-lift bridge A vertical-lift bridge or just lift bridge is a type of movable bridge in which a span rises vertically while remaining parallel with the deck. The vertical lift offers several benefits over other movable bridges such as the bascule and sw ...
with a height in closed position comparable to that of Pont de pierre, and to the Pont d'Aquitaine when open. All five road bridges, including the two highway bridges, are open to cyclists and pedestrians as well. Another bridge, the Pont Jean-Jacques Bosc, is to be built in 2018. Lacking any steep hills, Bordeaux is relatively friendly to cyclists. Cycle paths (separate from the roadways) exist on the highway bridges, along the riverfront, on the university campuses, and incidentally elsewhere in the city. Cycle lanes and
bus lane A bus lane or bus-only lane is a lane restricted to bus, buses, often on certain days and times, and generally used to speed up public transport that would be otherwise held up by traffic congestion. The related term busway describes a road ...
s that explicitly allow cyclists exist on many of the city's boulevards. A paid
bicycle-sharing system A bicycle-sharing system, bike share program, public bicycle scheme, or public bike share (PBS) scheme, is a shared transport service where bicycles are available for shared use by individuals at low cost. The programmes themselves include bot ...
with automated stations was established in 2010.


Rail

The main railway station, Gare de Bordeaux Saint-Jean, near the center of the city, has 12 million passengers a year. It is served by the French national (
SNCF The Société nationale des chemins de fer français (; abbreviated as SNCF ; French for "National society of French railroads") is France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Eur ...
) railway's high speed train, the
TGV The TGV (french: Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train"; previously french: TurboTrain à Grande Vitesse, label=none) is France's intercity high-speed rail High-speed rail (HSR) is a type of rail system that runs significantly faste ...
, that gets to Paris in two hours, with connections to major European centers such as
Lille Lille ( , ; nl, Rijsel ; pcd, Lile; vls, Rysel) is a city in the northern part of France, in French Flanders. On the river Deûle, near France's border with Belgium, it is the capital of the Hauts-de-France Regions of France, region, the Pref ...

Lille
, Brussels,
Amsterdam Amsterdam ( , , , lit. ''The Dam on the River Amstel'') is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands, with The Hague being the seat of government. It has a population ...
,
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of the German western States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city of Germany with 1.1 m ...
, Geneva and London. The TGV also serves
Toulouse Toulouse ( , ; oc, Tolosa ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Departments of France, French department of Haute-Garonne and of the larger Regions of France, region of Occitania (administrative region), Occitania. The city is on t ...

Toulouse
and
Irun Irun ( es, Irún, eu, Irun) is a town of the Bidasoaldea region in the province of Gipuzkoa in the Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque Autonomous Community, Spain. History It lies on the foundations of the ancient Oiasso, cited as ...
(Spain) from Bordeaux. A regular train service is provided to
Nantes Nantes (, , ; Gallo language, Gallo: or ; ) is a city in Loire-Atlantique on the Loire, from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic coast. The city is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, sixth largest in France, with a popul ...
, Nice,
Marseille Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the France, French Departments of France, department of Bouches-du-Rhône and capital of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regio ...

Marseille
and
Lyon Lyon,, ; Occitan: ''Lion'', hist. ''Lionés'' also spelled in English as Lyons, is the third-largest city and second-largest metropolitan area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, to the northwest of t ...

Lyon
. The Gare Saint-Jean is the major hub for regional trains ( TER) operated by the SNCF to
Arcachon Arcachon ( ; ) is a Communes of France, commune in the southwestern French Departments of France, department of Gironde. It is a popular seaside resort on the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic coast southwest of Bordeaux, in the Landes forest. It has a sa ...

Arcachon
,
Limoges Limoges (, , ; oc, Lemòtges, locally ) is a city and commune, and the prefecture of the Haute-Vienne Haute-Vienne (; oc, Nauta Vinhana, ; English: Upper Vienne) is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwest-central Franc ...
,
Agen The communes of France, commune of Agen (, ; ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Lot-et-Garonne Departments of France, department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, southwestern France. It lies on the river Garonne southeast of Bordeaux. ...
, Périgueux, Langon, Pau, Le Médoc, Angoulême and
Bayonne Bayonne (; eu, Baiona ; oc, label=Gascon dialect, Gascon, Baiona ; es, Bayona) is a city in Southwestern France near the France–Spain border, Spanish border. It is a Communes of France, commune and one of two Subprefectures in France, subp ...
. Historically the train line used to terminate at a station on the right bank of the river Garonne near the Pont de Pierre, and passengers crossed the bridge to get into the city. Subsequently, a double-track steel railway bridge was constructed in the 1850s, by Gustave Eiffel, to bring trains across the river direct into Gare de Bordeaux Saint-Jean. The old station was later converted and in 2010 comprised a cinema and restaurants. The two-track Eiffel bridge with a speed limit of became a bottleneck and a new bridge was built, opening in 2009. The new bridge has four tracks and allows trains to pass at . During the planning there was much lobbying by the Eiffel family and other supporters to preserve the old bridge as a footbridge across the Garonne, with possibly a museum to document the history of the bridge and Gustave Eiffel's contribution. The decision was taken to save the bridge, but by early 2010 no plans had been announced as to its future use. The bridge remains intact, but unused and without any means of access. Since July 2017, the
LGV Sud Europe Atlantique The LGV Sud Europe Atlantique (LGV SEA), also known as the LGV Sud-Ouest or LGV L'Océane, is a high-speed railway line between Tours and Bordeaux, in France. It is used by TGV trains operated by SNCF. It is an extension of the LGV Atlantique. T ...
is fully operational and makes Bordeaux city 2h04 from Paris.


Air

Bordeaux is served by Bordeaux–Mérignac Airport, located from the city centre in the suburban city of Mérignac.


Trams, buses and boats

Bordeaux has an important public transport system called Transports Bordeaux Métropole (TBM). This company is run by the Keolis group. The network consists of: * 4 tram lines ( A, B, C and D) * 75 bus routes, all connected to the tramway network (from 1 to 96) * 13 night bus routes (from 1 to 16) * An
electric bus An electric bus is a bus that is propelled using electric motors as opposed to an internal combustion engine. Electric buses can store the needed electricity on-board, or be fed continuously from an external source. The majority of buses s ...
shuttle in the city centre * A boat shuttle on the Garonne river This network is operated from 5 am to 2 am. There had been several plans for a subway network to be set up, but they stalled for both geological and financial reasons. Work on the Tramway de Bordeaux system was started in the autumn of 2000, and services started in December 2003 connecting Bordeaux with its suburban areas. The tram system uses Alstom APS a form of
ground-level power supply Ground-level power supply, also known as surface current collection or, in French, ''alimentation par le sol'' ("feeding via the ground"), is a concept and group of technologies whereby electric vehicles collect electric power at ground level fro ...
technology developed by French company
Alstom Alstom SA is a French multinational corporation, multinational rolling stock manufacturer operating worldwide in rail transport markets, active in the fields of passenger transportation, signalling, and locomotives, with products including the A ...
and designed to preserve the aesthetic environment by eliminating overhead cables in the historic city. Conventional overhead cables are used outside the city. The system was controversial for its considerable cost of installation, maintenance and also for the numerous initial technical problems that paralysed the network. Many streets and squares along the tramway route became pedestrian areas, with limited access for cars. The planned Bordeaux tramway system is to link with the airport to the city centre towards the end of 2019.


Taxis

There are more than 400
taxicab A taxi, also known as a taxicab or simply a cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a Driving, driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of thei ...
s in Bordeaux.


Public transportation statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Bordeaux, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 51 min. 12.% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 13 min, while 15.5% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is , while 8% travel for over in a single direction.


Sport

The 41,458-capacity Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux is the largest stadium in Bordeaux. The stadium was opened in 2015 and replaced the Stade Chaban-Delmas, which was a venue for the
FIFA World Cup The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior List of men's national association football teams, men's national teams of the members of the ' (FIFA), the ...
in 1938 and 1998, as well as the
2007 Rugby World Cup The 2007 Rugby World Cup was the sixth Rugby World Cup, a Anniversary#Latin-derived numerical names, quadrennial international rugby union competition inaugurated in 1987 Rugby World Cup, 1987. Twenty nations competed for the Webb Ellis Cup in ...
. In the
1938 FIFA World Cup The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third edition of the FIFA World Cup, World Cup, the quadrennial international Association football, football championship for senior men's national teams and was held in France from 4 June until 19 June 1938. Italy ...
, it hosted a violent quarter-final known as the Battle of Bordeaux. The ground was formerly known as the ''Stade du Parc Lescure'' until 2001, when it was renamed in honour of the city's long-time mayor,
Jacques Chaban-Delmas Jacques Chaban-Delmas (; 7 March 1915 – 10 November 2000) was a French Gaullism, Gaullist politician. He served as Prime Ministers of France, Prime Minister under Georges Pompidou from 1969 to 1972. He was the Mayor (France), Mayor of Bordeau ...
. There are two major sport teams in Bordeaux,
Girondins de Bordeaux Football Club des Girondins de Bordeaux (), commonly referred to as Girondins de Bordeaux ( oc, Girondins de Bordèu) or simply Bordeaux, is a French professional football Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying deg ...
is the
football Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, Kick (football), kicking a Football (ball), ball to score a Goal (sport), goal. Unqualified, Football (word), the word ''football'' normally means the form of football tha ...
team, playing in
Ligue 2 Ligue 2 (, League 2), also known as Ligue 2 BKT due to sponsorship by Balkrishna Industries, is a French professional football league. The league serves as the second division of French football and is one of two divisions making up the Ligu ...
, the second tier of
French football Association football Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of 11 Football player, players who primarily use their feet to propel the Ball (association football), ball ar ...
. Union Bordeaux Bègles is a rugby team in the
Top 14 The Top 14 () is a professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who works in a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the professio ...
in the Ligue Nationale de Rugby. Skateboarding, rollerblading, and BMX biking are activities enjoyed by many young inhabitants of the city. Bordeaux is home to a beautiful quay which runs along the Garonne river. On the quay there is a skate-park divided into three sections. One section is for Vert tricks, one for street style tricks, and one for little action sports athletes with easier features and softer materials. The skate-park is very well maintained by the municipality. Bordeaux is also the home to one of the strongest
cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail (cricket), bails b ...
teams in France and are champions of the South West League. There is a wooden
velodrome A velodrome is an arena for track cycling. Modern velodromes feature steeply banked oval tracks, consisting of two 180-degree circular bends connected by two straights. The straights transition to the circular turn through a moderate Track tran ...
, Vélodrome du Lac, in Bordeaux which hosts international cycling competition in the form of
UCI Track Cycling World Cup The UCI Track Cycling World Cup (formerly known as the UCI Track Cycling World Cup Classics) is a multi race tournament held over a track cycling season - usually between October and February. Each series is divided into several rounds, each held i ...
events. The 2015 Trophee Eric Bompard was in Bordeaux. But the Free Skate was cancelled in all of the divisions due to the Paris and aftermath. The Short Program occurred hours before the bombing. French skaters Chafik Besseghier (68.36) in tenth place, Romain Ponsart (62.86) in 11th. Mae-Berenice-Meite (46.82) in 11th and Laurine Lecavelier (46.53) in 12th. Vanessa James/Morgan Cipres (65.75) in second. Between 1951 and 1955, an annual Formula 1 motor race was held on a 2.5-kilometre circuit which looped around the Esplanade des Quinconces and along the waterfront, attracting drivers such as
Juan Manuel Fangio Juan Manuel Fangio (American Spanish: , ; 24 June 1911 – 17 July 1995), nicknamed ''El Chueco'' ("the bowlegged" or "bandy legged one") or ''El Maestro'' ("The Master" or "The Teacher"), was an Argentine racing car driver. He dominated t ...
,
Stirling Moss Sir Stirling Craufurd Moss (17 September 1929 – 12 April 2020) was a British Formula One racing driver. An inductee into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, he won 212 of the 529 races he entered across several categories of comp ...
,
Jean Behra Jean Marie Behra (16 February 1921 – 1 August 1959) was a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for open-wheel single-seater formula racing cars sanctioned by the F ...
and
Maurice Trintignant Maurice Bienvenu Jean Paul Trintignant (30 October 1917 – 13 February 2005) was a Motorsport#Racing, motor racing driver and winemaker, vintner from France. He competed in the Formula One World Championship for fourteen years, between 1950 and ...
.


Notable people

File:Ausonius.jpg,
Ausonius Decimius Magnus Ausonius (; – c. 395) was a Roman poet and teacher A teacher, also called a schoolteacher or formally an educator, is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence, or virtue, via the practice of te ...
File:Anthony Frederick Sandys - Queen Eleanor.JPG,
Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor ( – 1 April 1204; french: Aliénor d'Aquitaine, ) was Queen of France from 1137 to 1152 as the wife of King Louis VII, List of English royal consorts, Queen of England from 1154 to 1189 as the wife of Henry II of England, King Henry I ...
File:Richard II King of England.jpg,
Richard II of England Richard II (6 January 1367 – ), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was List of deposed politicians, deposed in 1399. He was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan, Countess o ...
File:Montaigne-Dumonstier.jpg,
Michel de Montaigne Michel Eyquem, Sieur de Montaigne ( ; ; 28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592), also known as the Lord of Montaigne, was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance. He is known for popularizing the essay as a liter ...
File:Sta. Joana de Lestonnac.jpg, Sainte Jeanne de Lestonnac File:Charles Montesquieu.jpg,
Montesquieu Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, Lot-et-Garonne, Montesquieu (; ; 18 January 168910 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, intellectual, man of letters, historian, and p ...
File:Rosa Bonheur, 1865, wearing the Legion of Honour.jpg,
Rosa Bonheur Rosa Bonheur (born Marie-Rosalie Bonheur; 16 March 1822 – 25 May 1899) was a French artist known best as a painter of animals (animalière). She also made sculpture in a Realism (arts), realist style. Her paintings include ''Ploughing in the Ni ...
File:095 Odilon Redon Mon portrait.jpg,
Odilon Redon Odilon Redon (born Bertrand Redon; ; 20 April 18406 July 1916) was a French Symbolism (arts), symbolist painter, printmaker, Drawing, draughtsman and pastellist. Early in his career, both before and after fighting in the Franco-Prussian War, he ...
File:Self-Portrait Albert Marquet (1904).jpg,
Albert Marquet Albert Marquet (27 March 1875 – 14 June 1947) was a French painter, associated with the Fauvist movement. He initially became one of the Fauve painters and a lifelong friend of Henri Matisse Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (; 31 Decemb ...
*
Ausonius Decimius Magnus Ausonius (; – c. 395) was a Roman poet and teacher A teacher, also called a schoolteacher or formally an educator, is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence, or virtue, via the practice of te ...
(310–395), Roman poet and teacher of rhetoric *
Jean Alaux Jean Alaux, called "''le Romain''" ("the Roman"), (1786 – 2 March 1864) was a French history History (derived ) is the systematic study and the documentation of the human activity. The time period of event before the invention o ...
(1786–1864), painter * Bertrand Andrieu (1761–1822), engraver *
Jean Anouilh Jean Marie Lucien Pierre Anouilh (; 23 June 1910 – 3 October 1987) was a French dramatist whose career spanned five decades. Though his work ranged from high drama to absurdist farce, Anouilh is best known for his 1944 play ''Antigone (Anouilh ...
(1910–1987), dramatist * Lucien Arman (1811–1873), shipbuilder and politician * Yvonne Arnaud (1892–1958), pianist, singer and actress * Xavier Arnozan (1852–1928), physician * Floyd Ayité (born 1988), Togolese footballer * Jonathan Ayité (born 1985), Togolese footballer * Christine Barbe, winemaker *
Jean-Baptiste Barrière Jean-Baptiste Barrière (2 May 1707 – 6 June 1747) was a French cellist The cello ( ; plural ''celli'' or ''cellos'') or violoncello ( ; ) is a Bow (music), bowed (sometimes pizzicato, plucked and occasionally col legno, hit) string instrum ...
(1707-1747), cellist, composer * Gérard Bayo (born 1936), writer and poet, * François Bigot (1703–1778), last "Intendant" of New France * Arnaud Binard (born 1971), actor and producer *
Rosa Bonheur Rosa Bonheur (born Marie-Rosalie Bonheur; 16 March 1822 – 25 May 1899) was a French artist known best as a painter of animals (animalière). She also made sculpture in a Realism (arts), realist style. Her paintings include ''Ploughing in the Ni ...
(1822–1899), animal painter and sculptor * Grégory Bourdy (born 1982), golfer * Samuel Boutal (born 1969), footballer * Edmond de Caillou (died c. February 1316) Gascon knight fighting in Scotland * Gérald Caussé, Presiding Bishop of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints * René Clément (1913–1996), actor, director, writer * Jean-René Cruchet (1875–1959), pathologist * Boris Cyrulnik (born 1937), psychiatrist and psychoanalyst * Damia (1899–1978), singer and actress * Étienne Noël Damilaville (1723–1768), encyclopédiste * Lili Damita (1901–1994), actress * Frédéric Daquin, (born 1978), footballer * Danielle Darrieux (born 1917), actress * Bernard Delvaille (1931–2006), poet, essayist * David Diop (1927–1960), poet * Jean-Francois Domergue, footballer *
Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor ( – 1 April 1204; french: Aliénor d'Aquitaine, ) was Queen of France from 1137 to 1152 as the wife of King Louis VII, List of English royal consorts, Queen of England from 1154 to 1189 as the wife of Henry II of England, King Henry I ...
(1122–1204), duchess of Aquitaine, queen of France and queen of England *
Jacques Ellul Jacques Ellul (; ; January 6, 1912 – May 19, 1994) was a French philosopher, sociology, sociologist, lay theologian, and professor who was a noted Christian anarchist. Ellul was a longtime Professor of History and the Sociology of Institu ...
(1912–1994), sociologist, theologian, Christian anarchist * Marie Fel (1713–1794), opera singer * Jean-Luc Fournet (1965), papyrologist * Pierre-Jean Garat (1762–1823), singer * Armand Gensonné (1758–1793), politician * Sébastien Gervais (born 1976), professional footballer * Stephen Girard (1750–1831), merchant, banker, and
Philadelphia Philadelphia, often called Philly, is the List of municipalities in Pennsylvania#Municipalities, largest city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the List of United States cities by population, sixth-largest city i ...
philanthropist * Jérôme Gnako (born 1968), footballer * Randolphe Gohi (born 1969), former professional footballer * Eugène Goossens (1867–1958), conductor, violinist * Anna Hamilton (1864–1935), doctor, superintendent of the Protestant Hospital at Bordeaux (1901–1934) * Adolphe Jacquies (c. 1798–1860), Canadian shopkeeper, printer, trade unionist, and newspaper publisher * Pierre Lacour (1745–1814), painter * Léopold Lafleurance (1865–1953), flautist * Joseph Henri Joachim Lainé (1767–1835), statesman * Sainte Jeanne de Lestonnac (1556–1640), Roman Catholic saint and foundress of the Sisters of the Company of Mary, Our Lady * Christophe Lestrade (born 1969), former professional footballer * André Lhote (1885–1962), cubist painter * Jeanne Henriette Louis, (1938), professor of North American civilization * Jean-Baptiste Lynch (1749–1835), politician *
Lucenzo Luís Filipe Fraga Oliveira (; born 27 May 1983), better known by his stage name Lucenzo (), is a Portuguese–French reggaeton Reggaeton (, ), also known as reggaetón and reguetón (), is a music style that originated in Panama during th ...
(born 1983), singer * Jean-Jacques Magendie (1766–1835), officer * François Magendie (1783–1855), physiologist * Bruno Marie-Rose (born 1965), athlete (sprinter) *
Albert Marquet Albert Marquet (27 March 1875 – 14 June 1947) was a French painter, associated with the Fauvist movement. He initially became one of the Fauve painters and a lifelong friend of Henri Matisse Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (; 31 Decemb ...
, (1875–1947), painter * François Mauriac (1885–1970), writer, Nobel laureate 1952 * Benjamin Millepied (born 1977), dancer and choreographer * Édouard Molinaro (1928–2013), film director, screenwriter * Pierre Molinier (1900–1976), painter, photographer *
Michel de Montaigne Michel Eyquem, Sieur de Montaigne ( ; ; 28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592), also known as the Lord of Montaigne, was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance. He is known for popularizing the essay as a liter ...
(1533–1592), essayist *
Montesquieu Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, Lot-et-Garonne, Montesquieu (; ; 18 January 168910 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, intellectual, man of letters, historian, and p ...
(1689–1755), man of letters and political philosopher * Olivier Mony (1966–), writer and literary critic * Étienne Marie Antoine Champion de Nansouty (1768–1815), general * Elie Okobo, basketball player * Pierre Palmade (born 1968), actor and comedian * St. Paulinus of Nola (354–431), educator, religious figure * Émile Péreire (1800–1875), banker and industrialist * Sophie Pétronin (born 1945), aid worker and humanitarian * Albert Pitres (1848–1928), neurologist * Hippolyte Pradelles (1824–1913), naturalist painter * Georges Antoine Pons Rayet (1839–1906), astronomer, discoverer of the Wolf-Rayet stars, & founder of the Bordeaux Observatory *
Odilon Redon Odilon Redon (born Bertrand Redon; ; 20 April 18406 July 1916) was a French Symbolism (arts), symbolist painter, printmaker, Drawing, draughtsman and pastellist. Early in his career, both before and after fighting in the Franco-Prussian War, he ...
(1840–1916), painter *
Richard II of England Richard II (6 January 1367 – ), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was List of deposed politicians, deposed in 1399. He was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan, Countess o ...
(1367–1400), king *
Pierre Rode Jacques Pierre Joseph Rode (16 February 1774 – 25 November 1830) was a French violinist and composer. Life and career Born in Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France, Pierre Rode traveled in 1787 to Paris and soon became a favourite pupil of the great Giov ...
(1774–1830), violinist *
Olinde Rodrigues Benjamin Olinde Rodrigues (6 October 1795 – 17 December 1851), more commonly known as Olinde Rodrigues, was a French banker, mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in their work, typically t ...
(1795–1851), mathematician, banker and social reformer * Marie-Sabine Roger (born 1957), writer *
Bernard Sarrette Bernard Sarrette (27 November 1765April 1858), founded what would become the ''Conservatoire de Paris The Conservatoire de Paris (), also known as the Paris Conservatory, is a college of music and dance founded in 1795. Officially known as the ...
(1765–1858), conductor and music pedagogue * Jean-Jacques Sempé (1932–2022), cartoonist * Florent Serra (born 1981), tennis player * Alfred Smith, (1854–1932), painter * Philippe Sollers, (born 1936), writer * Wilfried Tekovi, (born 1989), Togolese footballer * Elie Vinet (1509–1587), historian and humanist of the Renaissance


International relationships


Twin towns – sister cities

Bordeaux is twinned with: *
Ashdod Ashdod ( he, ''ʾašdōḏ''; ar, أسدود or إسدود ''ʾisdūd'' or ''ʾasdūd'' ; Philistine language, Philistine: 𐤀𐤔𐤃𐤃 *''ʾašdūd'') is the List of Israeli cities, sixth-largest city in Israel. Located in the country's So ...
, Israel, since 1984 *
Bilbao ) , motto = , image_map = , mapsize = 275 px , map_caption = Interactive map outlining Bilbao , pushpin_map = Spain Basque Country#Spain#Europe , pushpin_map_caption ...
, Spain *
Baku Baku (, ; az, Bakı ) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea is the world's largest inland body of water, often described as the List of lakes by area, world's largest ...
, Azerbaijan, since 1985 *
Bristol Bristol () is a city A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. Lond ...
, United Kingdom, since 1947 *
Casablanca Casablanca, also known in Arabic as Dar al-Bayda ( ar, الدَّار الْبَيْضَاء, al-Dār al-Bayḍāʾ, ; ber, ⴹⴹⴰⵕⵍⴱⵉⴹⴰ, ḍḍaṛlbiḍa, : "White House") is the largest city in Morocco and the country's econom ...
, Morocco, since 1988 *
Fukuoka is the List of Japanese cities by population, sixth-largest city in Japan, the second-largest port city after Yokohama, and the capital city of Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. The city is built along the shores of Hakata Bay, and has been a center ...
, Japan, since 1982 *
Kraków Kraków (), or Cracow, is the second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces called Voivodeships of Pol ...
, Poland, since 1993 *
Lima Lima ( ; ), originally founded as Ciudad de Los Reyes (City of The Kings) is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón River, Chillón, Rímac River, Rímac and Lurín Rivers, in the desert zone of t ...
, Peru, since 1957 *
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; es, Los Ángeles, link=no , ), often referred to by its initials L.A., is the largest city in the state of California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, located along the West Coast of ...
, California United States, since 1968 *
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4 million inhabitants and a Madrid metropolitan area, metropolitan area population of approximately 6.7 million. It is the Largest cities of the Europ ...
, Spain, since 1984 *
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the States of Germany, German state of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by popu ...
, Germany, since 1964 *
Oran Oran ( ar, وَهران, Wahrān) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria. It is considered the second most important city of Algeria after the capital Algiers, due to its population and commercial, industrial, and cultural ...
, Algeria, since 2003 *
Porto Porto or Oporto () is the List of cities in Portugal, second-largest city in Portugal, the capital of the Porto District, and one of the Iberian Peninsula's major urban areas. Porto city proper, which is the entire concelho, municipality of Port ...
, Portugal, since 1978 *
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec), officially Québec (), is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2021, the city had a population of 549,459, and the Communauté métrop ...
, Quebec Canada, since 1962 *
Ramallah Ramallah ( , ; ar, رام الله, , God's Height) is a Palestinians, Palestinian city in the central West Bank that serves as the ''de facto'' administrative capital of the State of Palestine. It is situated on the Judaean Mountains, nor ...
, Palestine *
Riga Riga (; lv, Rīga , liv, Rīgõ) is the capital and largest city of Latvia and is home to 605,802 inhabitants which is a third of Latvia's population. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga at the mouth of the Daugava (river), Daugava river where ...
, Latvia *
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), i ...
, Russia, since 1993 *
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei, Hubei Province in the China, People's Republic of China. It is the largest city in Hubei and the most populous city in Central China, with a population of over eleven million, the List of cities in China ...
, China, since 1998


Partnerships

*
Samsun Samsun, historically known as Sampsounta ( gr, Σαμψούντα) and Amisos (Ancient Greek: Αμισός), is a List of largest cities and towns in Turkey, city on the north coast of Turkey and is a major Black Sea port. In 2021, Samsun reco ...
, Turkey, since 2010


See also

*
Bordeaux wine regions The wine regions of Bordeaux are a large number of wine growing areas, differing widely in size and sometimes overlapping, which lie within the overarching wine region of Bordeaux, centred on the city of Bordeaux and covering the whole area of the ...
*
Bordeaux–Paris The Bordeaux–Paris professional cycle race was one of Europe's classic cycle races The classic cycle races are the most prestigious one-day professional Road bicycle racing, road cycling races in the List of road bicycle racing events, inte ...
, a formerly professional
road bicycle racing Road bicycle racing is the cycle sport Cycle sport is competitive physical activity using bicycles. There are several categories of bicycle racing including road bicycle racing, cyclo-cross, mountain bike racing, track cycling, BM ...
annual event *The
Burdigalian The Burdigalian is, in the geologic timescale The geologic time scale, or geological time scale, (GTS) is a representation of time based on the Geologic record, rock record of Earth. It is a system of chronological dating that uses chronost ...
Age of the
Miocene The Miocene ( ) is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma). The Miocene was named by Scottish geologist Charles Lyell; the name comes from the Greek words (', "less") and (', "new") and means "less recent ...
Epoch is named for Bordeaux * Canelé, a local pastry *
Communes of the Gironde department The following is a list of the 535 Communes of France, communes of the Gironde Departments of France, department of France. The communes cooperate in the following Communes of France#Intercommunality, intercommunalities (as of 2020):
* Dogue de Bordeaux, a
breed A breed is a specific group of domestic animals having homogeneous appearance (phenotype), homogeneous behavior, and/or other characteristics that distinguish it from other organisms of the same species. In literature, there exist several slight ...
of dog originally bred for
dog fighting Dog fighting is a type of blood sport that turns Gameness, game and List of dog fighting breeds, fighting dogs against each other in a physical fight, generally to the death, for the purposes of gambling or entertainment to the spectators. In r ...
*
French wine French wine is produced all throughout France, in quantities between 50 and 60 million hectolitres per year, or 7–8 billion bottles. France is one of the largest wine producers in the world, along with Italian wine, Italian, Spanis ...
* List of mayors of Bordeaux *
Operation Frankton Operation Frankton was a commando file:Royal_Marines_in_Sangin_MOD_45151554.jpg, Royal Marines from 40 Commando on patrol in the Sangin area of Afghanistan are pictured A commando is a combatant, or operative of an elite light infantry o ...
, a British
Combined Operations In current military use, combined operations are operations conducted by forces of two or more allied nations acting together for the accomplishment of a common strategy, a Military strategy, strategic and operational warfare, operational and so ...
raid on shipping in the harbour at Bordeaux, in December 1942, during World War II *
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bordeaux The Archdiocese of Bordeaux (–Bazas) (Latin: ''Archidioecesis Burdigalensis (–Bazensis)''; French language, French: ''Archidiocèse de Bordeaux (–Bazas)''; Occitan language, Occitan: ''Archidiocèsi de Bordèu (–Vasats)'') is a Latin Ch ...
*
Girondins The Girondins ( , ), or Girondists, were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution. From 1791 to 1793, the Girondins were active in the Legislative Assembly (France), Legislative Assembly and the National Convention ...
* Atlantic history *
Triangular trade Triangular trade or triangle trade is trade between three ports or regions. Triangular trade usually evolves when a region has export commodities that are not required in the region from which its major imports come. It has been used to offset t ...
*
History of slavery The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and Slavery and religion, religions from Ancient history, ancient times to the present day. Likewise, its victims have come from many different ethnicities and religious groups. The socia ...


References


Bibliography

* *


External links


Bordeaux : the world capital of wine
– Official French website (in English) * {{Authority control Communes of Gironde Port cities and towns on the French Atlantic coast Prefectures in France World Heritage Sites in France Cities in France Gironde Gallia Aquitania Guyenne Cities in Nouvelle-Aquitaine