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Boraginaceae, the borage- or forget-me-not family, includes a variety of shrubs, trees, and herbs, totaling about 2,000 species in 146 genera found worldwide. [3] According to the APG II, the Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
belongs among the euasterid I group, including the orders Gentianales, Lamiales, and Solanales, but whether it should be assigned to one of these orders or to its own (Boraginales) is still uncertain. Under the older Cronquist system
Cronquist system
it was included in Lamiales, but it is now clear that it is no more similar to the other families in this order than they are to families in several other asterid orders. The Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
is paraphyletic with respect to Hydrophyllaceae
Hydrophyllaceae
and the latter is included in the former in the APG II system. In some recent classifications[which?] the Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
is broken up into several families: Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
sensu stricto, Cordiaceae, Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae, Lennoaceae, and Hydrophyllaceae. These plants have alternately arranged leaves, or a combination of alternate and opposite leaves. The leaf blades usually have a narrow shape; many are linear or lance-shaped. They are smooth-edged or toothed, and some have petioles. Most species have bisexual flowers, but some taxa are dioecious. Most pollination is by hymenopterans, such as bees. Most species have inflorescences that have a coiling shape, at least when new. The flower has a usually five-lobed calyx. The corolla varies in shape from rotate to bell-shaped to tubular, but it generally has five lobes. It can be green, white, yellow, orange, pink, purple, or blue. There are five stamens and one style with one or two stigmas. The fruit is a drupe, sometimes fleshy.[4] Most members of this family have hairy leaves. The coarse character of the hairs is due to cystoliths of silicon dioxide and calcium carbonate. These hairs can induce an adverse skin reaction, including itching and rash in some individuals, particularly among people who handle the plants regularly, such as gardeners. In some species, anthocyanins cause the flowers to change color from red to blue with age. This may be a signal to pollinators that a flower is old and depleted of pollen and nectar.[5] Well-known members of the family include:

alkanet ( Alkanna
Alkanna
tinctoria) borage ( Borago
Borago
officinalis) comfrey ( Symphytum
Symphytum
spp.) fiddleneck ( Amsinckia
Amsinckia
spp.) forget-me-not ( Myosotis
Myosotis
spp.) geigertree ( Cordia
Cordia
sebestena) green alkanet (Pentaglottis sempervirens) heliotrope ( Heliotropium
Heliotropium
spp.) hound's tongue ( Cynoglossum
Cynoglossum
spp.) lungwort ( Pulmonaria
Pulmonaria
spp.) oysterplant ( Mertensia
Mertensia
maritima) purple viper's bugloss/Salvation Jane ( Echium
Echium
plantagineum) Siberian bugloss ( Brunnera
Brunnera
macrophylla) viper's bugloss ( Echium
Echium
vulgare)

Contents

1 Genera 2 References 3 External links 4 Further reading

Genera[edit]

Actinocarya Adelocaryum Afrotysonia Alkanna Amblynotus Amphibologyne Amsinckia Anchusa Ancistrocarya Anoplocaryum Antiotrema Antiphytum Arnebia Asperugo Auxemma Borago Bothriospermum Bourreria Brachybotrys Brunnera Buglossoides Caccinia Carmona Cerinthe Chionocharis Choriantha Cordia Craniospermum Cryptantha Cynoglossopsis Cynoglossum Cynoglottis Cysostemon Dasynotus Decalepidanthus Echiochilon Echiostachys Echium Ehretia Elizaldia Embadium Emmenanthe Eritrichium Gastrocotyle Gyrocaryum Hackelia Halacsya Halgania Harpagonella Heliocarya Heliotropium Heterocaryum Huynhia Ivanjohnstonia Ixorhea Lacaitaea Lappula Lasiarrhenum Lasiocaryum Lepechiniella Lepidocordia Lindelophia Lithodora Lithospermum Lobostemon Macromeria Maharanga Mairetis Mattiastrum Mertensia Metaeritrichium Microcaryum Microula Mimophytum Moltkia Moltkiopsis Moritzia Myosotidium Myosotis Neatostema Nesocaryum Nogalia Nomosa Nonea Ogastemma Omphalodes Omphalolappula Omphalotrigonotis Onosma Oxyosmyles Paracaryum Pardoglossum Patagonula Pectocarya Pentaglottis Perittostema Phacelia Plagiobothrys Pseudomertensia Psilolaemus Pulmonaria Rindera Rochefortia Rochelia Rotula Saccellium Scapicephalus Sericostoma Sinojohnstonia Solenanthus Stenosolenium Stephanocaryum Suchtelenia Symphytum Thaumatocaryum Thyrocarpus Tianschaniella Tiquilia Tournefortia Trachelanthus Trachystemon Trichodesma Trigonocaryum Trigonotis Ulugbekia Valentiniella

References[edit]

^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.  ^ " Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
Juss., nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-12. Retrieved 2009-04-02.  ^ Boraginaceae. Diversityoflife.com ^ Watson, L. and M. J. Dallwitz. 1992 onwards. Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
Juss. Archived July 1, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. The Families of Flowering Plants. Version: 19 August 2013. ^ Hess, D. 2005. Systematische Botanik. ISBN 3-8252-2673-5

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Boraginaceae.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Boraginaceae.

Distribution Map And Genus
Genus
list At Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
At Boraginales
Boraginales
At: Trees At: APweb At: Missouri Botanical Garden Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
In:Mabberley's Plant-Book Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
At: Plant
Plant
Names At: IPNI Home page of James L. Reveal and C. Rose Broome Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
(Search Exact) At Name Search At: Tropicos At: Missouri Botanical Garden Boraginaceae. Topwalks.net: Walking Routes in Spain. Boraginaceae. Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Integrated Taxonomic Information System
(ITIS).

Further reading[edit]

Diane, N., et al. 2002. A systematic analysis of Heliotropium, Tournefortia, and allied taxa of the Heliotropiaceae
Heliotropiaceae
(Boraginales) based on ITS1 sequences and morphological data. American Journal of Botany 89(2), 287-95. Gottschling, M., et al. (2001). Secondary structure of the ITS1 transcript and its application in a reconstruction of the phylogeny of Boraginales. Plant
Plant
Biology 3, 629-36.

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q26568 EoL: 4301 EPPO: 1BORF FloraBase: 22901 FoC: 10115 Fossilworks: 55752 GBIF: 2498 GRIN: 160 IPNI: 30000135-2 ITIS: 31633 NCBI: 21571 Tropicos: 42000289 VASCAN: 97 Watson & Dallwitz: bora

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