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The Book
Book
of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek γένεσις, meaning "Origin"; Hebrew: בְּרֵאשִׁית‬, Bərēšīṯ, "In [the] beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(the Tanakh) and the Christian Old Testament.[1] It can be divided into two parts, the Primeval history (chapters 1–11) and the Ancestral history (chapters 12–50).[2] The primeval history sets out the author(s) concepts of the nature of the deity and of humankind's relationship with its maker: God creates a world which is good and fit for mankind, but when man corrupts it with sin God decides to destroy his creation, saving only the righteous Noah
Noah
to reestablish the relationship between man and God.[3] The Ancestral History (chapters 12–50) tells of the prehistory of Israel, God's chosen people.[4] At God's command Noah's descendant Abraham
Abraham
journeys from his home into the land of Canaan, given to him by God, where he dwells as a sojourner, as does his son Isaac
Isaac
and his grandson Jacob. Jacob's name is changed to Israel, and through the agency of his son Joseph, the children of Israel descend into Egypt, 70 people in all with their households, and God promises them a future of greatness. Genesis ends with Israel in Egypt, ready for the coming of Moses
Moses
and the Exodus. The narrative is punctuated by a series of covenants with God, successively narrowing in scope from all mankind (the covenant with Noah) to a special relationship with one people alone ( Abraham
Abraham
and his descendants through Isaac
Isaac
and Jacob).[5] In Judaism, the theological importance of Genesis centers on the covenants linking God to his chosen people and the people to the Promised Land. Christianity
Christianity
has interpreted Genesis as the prefiguration of certain cardinal Christian beliefs, primarily the need for salvation (the hope or assurance of all Christians) and the redemptive act of Christ
Christ
on the Cross as the fulfillment of covenant promises as the Son of God. Tradition credits Moses
Moses
as the author of Genesis, as well as Exodus, Book
Book
of Leviticus, Numbers and most of Book
Book
of Deuteronomy, but modern scholars increasingly see them as a product of the 6th and 5th centuries BC.[6][7]

Contents

1 Structure 2 Summary 3 Composition

3.1 Title and textual witnesses 3.2 Origins 3.3 Genre

4 Themes

4.1 Promises to the ancestors 4.2 God's chosen people

5 Judaism's weekly Torah
Torah
portions 6 First phrase 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography

10.1 Commentaries on Genesis 10.2 General

11 External links

Structure[edit] Genesis appears to be structured around the recurring phrase elleh toledot, meaning "these are the generations," with the first use of the phrase referring to the "generations of heaven and earth" and the remainder marking individuals—Noah, the "sons of Noah", Shem, etc., down to Jacob.[8] It is not clear, however, what this meant to the original authors, and most modern commentators divide it into two parts based on subject matter, a "primeval history" (chapters 1–11) and a "patriarchal history" (chapters 12–50).[9][note 1] While the first is far shorter than the second, it sets out the basic themes and provides an interpretive key for understanding the entire book.[10] The "primeval history" has a symmetrical structure hinging on chapters 6–9, the flood story, with the events before the flood mirrored by the events after;[11] the "ancestral history" is structured around the three patriarchs Abraham, Jacob
Jacob
and Joseph.[12] (The stories of Isaac do not make up a coherent cycle of stories and function as a bridge between the cycles of Abraham
Abraham
and Jacob).[13] Summary[edit] See also: Primeval history
Primeval history
and Patriarchal age

The Angel Hinders the Offering of Isaac
Isaac
(Rembrandt, 1635)

God creates the world in six days and consecrates the seventh as a day of rest. God creates the first humans Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
and all the animals in the Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
but instructs them not to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. A talking serpent portrayed as a deceptive creature or trickster, entices Eve
Eve
into eating it anyway, and she entices Adam, whereupon God throws them out and curses them— Adam
Adam
to getting what he needs only by sweat and work, and Eve to giving birth in pain. This is interpreted by Christians as the fall of humanity. Eve
Eve
bears two sons, Cain and Abel. Cain kills Abel after God accepts Abel's offering but not Cain's. God then curses Cain. Eve bears another son, Seth, to take Abel's place. After many generations of Adam
Adam
have passed from the lines of Cain and Seth, the world becomes corrupted by human sin and Nephilim, and God determines to wipe out humanity. First, he instructs the righteous Noah
Noah
and his family to build an ark and put examples of all the animals on it, seven pairs of every clean animal and one pair of every unclean. Then God sends a great flood to wipe out the rest of the world. When the waters recede, God promises that he will not destroy the world a second time with water with the rainbow as a symbol of his promise. God sees mankind cooperating to build a great tower city, the Tower of Babel, and divides humanity with many languages and sets them apart with confusion. God instructs Abram to travel from his home in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
to the land of Canaan. There, God makes a covenant with Abram, promising that his descendants shall be as numerous as the stars, but that people will suffer oppression in a foreign land for four hundred years, after which they will inherit the land "from the river of Egypt
Egypt
to the great river, the river Euphrates". Abram's name is changed to Abraham
Abraham
and that of his wife Sarai to Sarah, and circumcision of all males is instituted as the sign of the covenant. Because Sarah
Sarah
is old, she tells Abraham
Abraham
to take her Egyptian handmaiden, Hagar, as a second wife. Through Hagar, Abraham
Abraham
fathers Ishmael. God resolves to destroy the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah
Sodom and Gomorrah
for the sins of their people. Abraham
Abraham
protests and gets God to agree not to destroy the cities if 10 righteous men can be found. Angels save Abraham's nephew Lot and his family, but his wife looks back on the destruction against their command and is turned into a pillar of salt. Lot's daughters, concerned that they are fugitives who will never find husbands, get him drunk to become pregnant by him, and give birth to the ancestors of the Moabites and Ammonites. Abraham
Abraham
and Sarah
Sarah
go to the Philistine town of Gerar, pretending to be brother and sister (they are half-siblings). The King of Gerar takes Sarah
Sarah
for his wife, but God warns him to return her, and he obeys. God sends Sarah
Sarah
a son to be named Isaac, through whom the covenant will be established. At Sarah's insistence, Ishmael
Ishmael
and his mother Hagar
Hagar
are driven out into the wilderness, but God saves them and promises to make Ishmael
Ishmael
a great nation. God tests Abraham
Abraham
by demanding that he sacrifice Isaac. As Abraham
Abraham
is about to lay the knife upon his son, God restrains him, promising him numberless descendants. On the death of Sarah, Abraham
Abraham
purchases Machpelah (believed to be modern Hebron) for a family tomb and sends his servant to Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
to find among his relations a wife for Isaac, and Rebekah
Rebekah
is chosen. Other children are born to Abraham
Abraham
by another wife, Keturah, among whose descendants are the Midianites, and he dies in a prosperous old age and is buried in his tomb at Hebron. Isaac's wife Rebecca
Rebecca
gives birth to the twins Esau, father of the Edomites, and Jacob. Through deception, Jacob
Jacob
becomes the heir instead of Esau
Esau
and gains his father's blessing. He flees to his uncle where he prospers and earns his two wives, Rachel
Rachel
and Leah. Jacob's name is changed to Israel, and by his wives and their handmaidens he has twelve sons, the ancestors of the twelve tribes of the Children of Israel, and a daughter, Dinah. Joseph, Jacob's favorite son, is sold into slavery in Egypt
Egypt
by his jealous brothers. But Joseph prospers, after hardship, with God's guidance of interpreting Pharaoh's dream of upcoming famine. He is then reunited with his father and brothers, who fail to recognize him, and plead for food. After much manipulation, he reveals himself and lets them and their households into Egypt, where Pharaoh
Pharaoh
assigns to them the land of Goshen. Jacob
Jacob
calls his sons to his bedside and reveals their future before he dies. Joseph lives to an old age and exhorts his brethren, if God should lead them out of the country, to take his bones with them. Composition[edit]

Abram's Journey from Ur to Canaan
Canaan
(József Molnár, 1850)

Title and textual witnesses[edit] Genesis takes its Hebrew title from the first word of the first sentence, Bereshit, meaning "In (the) beginning" (the word "the" is absent but can be understood); in the Greek Septuagint
Septuagint
it was called Genesis, from the phrase "the generations of heaven and earth".[14] There are four major textual witnesses to the book: the Masoretic Text, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Septuagint, and fragments of Genesis found at Qumran. The Qumran
Qumran
group provides the oldest manuscripts but covers only a small proportion of the book; in general, the Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
is well preserved and reliable, but there are many individual instances where the other versions preserve a superior reading.[15] Origins[edit] Main article: Documentary hypothesis For much of the 20th century most scholars agreed that the five books of the Pentateuch—Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy—came from four sources, the Yahwist, the Elohist, the Deuteronomist and the Priestly source, each telling the same basic story, and joined together by various editors.[16] Since the 1970s there has been a revolution in scholarship: the Elohist source is now widely regarded as no more than a variation on the Yahwist, while the Priestly source is increasingly seen not as a document but as a body of revisions and expansions to the Yahwist (or "non-Priestly") material. (The Deuteronomistic source does not appear in Genesis).[17] Examples of repeated and duplicate stories are used to identify the separate sources. In Genesis these include three different accounts of a Patriarch claiming that his wife was his sister, the two creation stories, and the two versions of Abraham
Abraham
sending Hagar
Hagar
and Ishmael into the desert.[18] This leaves the question of when these works were created. Scholars in the first half of the 20th century came to the conclusion that the Yahwist was produced in the monarchic period, specifically at the court of Solomon, 10th century BC, and the Priestly work in the middle of the 5th century BC (the author was even identified as Ezra), but more recent thinking is that the Yahwist was written either just before or during the Babylonian exile
Babylonian exile
of the 6th century BC, and the Priestly final edition was made late in the Exilic period or soon after.[7] As for why the book was created, a theory which has gained considerable interest, although still controversial is "Persian imperial authorisation". This proposes that the Persians of the Achaemenid Empire, after their conquest of Babylon in 539 BC, agreed to grant Jerusalem a large measure of local autonomy within the empire, but required the local authorities to produce a single law code accepted by the entire community. The two powerful groups making up the community—the priestly families who controlled the Temple and who traced their origin to Moses
Moses
and the wilderness wanderings, and the major landowning families who made up the "elders" and who traced their own origins to Abraham, who had "given" them the land—were in conflict over many issues, and each had its own "history of origins", but the Persian promise of greatly increased local autonomy for all provided a powerful incentive to cooperate in producing a single text.[19] Genre[edit] Genesis is perhaps best seen as an example of a creation myth, a type of literature telling of the first appearance of humans, the stories of ancestors and heroes, and the origins of culture, cities and so forth.[20] The most notable examples are found in the work of Greek historians of the 6th century BC: their intention was to connect notable families of their own day to a distant and heroic past, and in doing so they did not distinguish between myth, legend, and facts.[21] Professor Jean-Louis Ska of the Pontifical Biblical Institute
Pontifical Biblical Institute
calls the basic rule of the antiquarian historian the "law of conservation": everything old is valuable, nothing is eliminated.[22] Ska also points out the purpose behind such antiquarian histories: antiquity is needed to prove the worth of Israel's traditions to the nations (the neighbours of the Jews in early Persian Palestine), and to reconcile and unite the various factions within Israel itself.[22] Themes[edit]

Joseph recognized by his brothers (Léon Pierre Urban Bourgeois, 1863)

Promises to the ancestors[edit] In 1978 David Clines published his influential The Theme of the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
– influential because he was one of the first to take up the question of the theme of the entire five books. Clines' conclusion was that the overall theme is "the partial fulfillment – which implies also the partial nonfulfillment – of the promise to or blessing of the Patriarchs". (By calling the fulfillment "partial" Clines was drawing attention to the fact that at the end of Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
the people are still outside Canaan).[23] The patriarchs, or ancestors, are Abraham, Isaac
Isaac
and Jacob, with their wives (Joseph is normally excluded).[24] Since the name YHWH had not been revealed to them, they worshipped El in his various manifestations.[25] (It is, however, worth noting that in the Jahwist source the patriarchs refer to deity by the name YHWH, for example in Genesis 15.) Through the patriarchs God announces the election of Israel, meaning that he has chosen Israel to be his special people and committed himself to their future.[26] God tells the patriarchs that he will be faithful to their descendants (i.e. to Israel), and Israel is expected to have faith in God and his promise. ("Faith" in the context of Genesis and the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
means agreement to the promissory relationship, not a body of belief).[27] The promise itself has three parts: offspring, blessings, and land.[28] The fulfilment of the promise to each patriarch depends on having a male heir, and the story is constantly complicated by the fact that each prospective mother – Sarah, Rebekah
Rebekah
and Rachel
Rachel
– is barren. The ancestors, however, retain their faith in God and God in each case gives a son – in Jacob's case, twelve sons, the foundation of the chosen Israelites. All three promises are more richly fulfilled in each succeeding generation, until through Joseph "all the world" is saved from famine,[29] and by bringing the children of Israel down to Egypt
Egypt
he becomes the means through which the promise can be fulfilled.[24] God's chosen people[edit] Scholars generally agree that the theme of divine promise unites the patriarchal cycles, but many would dispute the efficacy of trying to examine Genesis' theology by pursuing a single overarching theme, instead citing as more productive the analysis of the Abraham
Abraham
cycle, the Jacob
Jacob
cycle, and the Joseph cycle, and the Yahwist and Priestly sources.[30] The problem lies in finding a way to unite the patriarchal theme of divine promise to the stories of Genesis 1–11 (the primeval history) with their theme of God's forgiveness in the face of man's evil nature.[31][32] One solution is to see the patriarchal stories as resulting from God's decision not to remain alienated from mankind:[32] God creates the world and mankind, mankind rebels, and God "elects" (chooses) Abraham.[5] To this basic plot (which comes from the Yahwist) the Priestly source has added a series of covenants dividing history into stages, each with its own distinctive "sign". The first covenant is between God and all living creatures, and is marked by the sign of the rainbow; the second is with the descendants of Abraham
Abraham
( Ishmaelites and others as well as Israelites), and its sign is circumcision; and the last, which doesn't appear until the book of Exodus, is with Israel alone, and its sign is Sabbath. Each covenant is mediated by a great leader (Noah, Abraham, Moses), and at each stage God progressively reveals himself by his name ( Elohim
Elohim
with Noah, El Shaddai with Abraham, Yahweh
Yahweh
with Moses).[5] Judaism's weekly Torah
Torah
portions[edit] Main article: Weekly Torah
Torah
portion

First Day of Creation (from the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle)

Bereshit, on Genesis 1–6: Creation, Eden, Adam
Adam
and Eve, Cain and Abel, Lamech, wickedness Noach, on Genesis 6–11: Noah's Ark, the Flood, Noah's drunkenness, the Tower of Babel Lech-Lecha, on Genesis 12–17: Abraham, Sarah, Lot, covenant, Hagar and Ishmael, circumcision Vayeira, on Genesis 18–22: Abraham's visitors, Sodomites, Lot's visitors and flight, Hagar
Hagar
expelled, binding of Isaac Chayei Sarah, on Genesis 23–25: Sarah
Sarah
buried, Rebekah
Rebekah
for Isaac Toledot, on Genesis 25–28: Esau
Esau
and Jacob, Esau's birthright, Isaac's blessing Vayetze, on Genesis 28–32: Jacob
Jacob
flees, Rachel, Leah, Laban, Jacob's children and departure Vayishlach, on Genesis 32–36: Jacob's reunion with Esau, the rape of Dinah Vayeshev, on Genesis 37–40: Joseph's dreams, coat, and slavery, Judah with Tamar, Joseph and Potiphar Miketz, on Genesis 41–44: Pharaoh's dream, Joseph's in government, Joseph's brothers visit Egypt Vayigash, on Genesis 44–47: Joseph reveals himself, Jacob
Jacob
moves to Egypt Vaychi, on Genesis 47–50: Jacob's blessings, death of Jacob
Jacob
and of Joseph

First phrase[edit] Main article: Genesis 1:1

"In principio creavit deus..." First page of Genesis in a Latin bible dated 1481 (Bodleian Library)

Perhaps the most well-known passage of the Hebrew Bible, the first phrase of Genesis has long been translated as "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth..." but the idea that God created the world out of nothing is not directly stated anywhere in the entire Hebrew Bible.[33] See also[edit]

Bible
Bible
portal

Dating the Bible Enûma Eliš Genesis creation narrative Historicity of the Bible Mosaic authorship Paradise Lost Protevangelium Wife–sister narratives in the Book
Book
of Genesis

Notes[edit]

^ The Weekly Torah
Torah
portions, Parashot, divide the book into 12 readings.

References[edit]

^ Hamilton (1990), p. 1 ^ Bergant 2013, p. xii. ^ Bandstra 2008, p. 35. ^ Bandstra 2008, p. 78. ^ a b c Bandstra (2004), pp. 28–29 ^ Van Seters (1998), p. 5 ^ a b Davies (1998), p. 37 ^ Hamilton (1990), p. 2 ^ Whybray (1997), p. 41 ^ McKeown (2008), p. 2 ^ Walsh (2001), p. 112 ^ Bergant 2013, p. 45. ^ Bergant 2013, p. 103. ^ Carr 2000, p. 491. ^ Hendel, R. S. (1992). Genesis, Book
Book
of. In D. N. Freedman (Ed.), The Anchor Yale Bible
Bible
Dictionary (Vol. 2, p. 933). New York: Doubleday ^ Gooder (2000), pp. 12–14 ^ Van Seters (2004), pp. 30–86 ^ Lawrence Boadt; Richard J. Clifford; Daniel J. Harrington (2012). Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction. Paulist Press.  ^ Ska (2006), pp. 169, 217–18 ^ Van Seters (2004) pp. 113–14 ^ Whybray (2001), p. 39 ^ a b Ska (2006), p. 169 ^ Clines (1997), p. 30 ^ a b Hamilton (1990), p. 50 ^ John J Collins (2007), A Short Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, Fortress Press, p. 47  ^ Brueggemann (2002), p. 61 ^ Brueggemann (2002), p. 78 ^ McKeown (2008), p. 4 ^ Wenham (2003), p. 34 ^ Hamilton (1990), pp. 38–39 ^ Hendel, R. S. (1992). Genesis, Book
Book
of. In D. N. Freedman (Ed.), The Anchor Yale Bible
Bible
Dictionary (Vol. 2, p. 935). New York: Doubleday ^ a b Kugler, Hartin (2009), p.9 ^ Nebe, Gottfried (2002), Creation in Paul's Theology. In Hoffman, Yair; Reventlow, Henning Graf. "Creation in Jewish and Christian tradition", A&C Black, p. 119

Bibliography[edit] Commentaries on Genesis[edit]

Bandstra, Barry L. (2008). Reading the Old Testament. Cengage Learning. ISBN 0495391050.  Bergant, Dianne (2013). Genesis: In the Beginning. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814682753.  Blenkinsopp, Joseph (2011). Creation, Un-creation, Re-creation: A Discursive Commentary on Genesis 1–11. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 9780567372871.  Brueggemann, Walter (1986). Genesis. Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching. Atlanta: John Knox Press. ISBN 0-8042-3101-X.  Carr, David M. (2000). "Genesis, Book
Book
of". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9780567372871.  Cotter, David W (2003). Genesis. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814650400.  De La Torre, Miguel (2011). Genesis. Belief: A Theological Commentary on the Bible. Westminster John Knox Press.  Fretheim, Terence E. “The Book
Book
of Genesis.” In The New Interpreter's Bible. Edited by Leander E. Keck, vol. 1, pp. 319–674. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1994. ISBN 0-687-27814-7. Hamilton, Victor P (1990). The Book
Book
of Genesis: chapters 1–17. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802825216.  Hamilton, Victor P (1995). The Book
Book
of Genesis: chapters 18–50. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802823090.  Hirsch, Samson Raphael. The Pentateuch: Genesis. Translated by Isaac Levy. Judaica Press, 2nd edition 1999. ISBN 0-910818-12-6. Originally published as Der Pentateuch
Pentateuch
uebersetzt und erklaert Frankfurt, 1867–1878. Kass, Leon R. The Beginning of Wisdom: Reading Genesis. New York: Free Press, 2003. ISBN 0-7432-4299-8. Kessler, Martin; Deurloo, Karel Adriaan (2004). A Commentary on Genesis: The Book
Book
of Beginnings. Paulist Press. ISBN 9780809142057.  McKeown, James (2008). Genesis. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802827050.  Plaut, Gunther. The Torah: A Modern Commentary (1981), ISBN 0-8074-0055-6 Rogerson, John William (1991). Genesis 1–11. T&T Clark. ISBN 9780567083388.  Sacks, Robert D (1990). A Commentary on the Book
Book
of Genesis. Edwin Mellen.  Sarna, Nahum M. The JPS Torah
Torah
Commentary: Genesis: The Traditional Hebrew Text with the New JPS Translation. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1989. ISBN 0-8276-0326-6. Speiser, E.A. Genesis: Introduction, Translation, and Notes. New York: Anchor Bible, 1964. ISBN 0-385-00854-6. Towner, Wayne Sibley (2001). Genesis. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664252564.  Turner, Laurence (2009). Genesis, Second Edition. Sheffield Phoenix Press. ISBN 9781906055653.  Von Rad, Gerhard (1972). Genesis: A Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664227456.  Wenham, Gordon (2003). "Genesis". In James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson. Eerdmans Bible
Bible
Commentary. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.  Whybray, R.N (2001). "Genesis". In John Barton. Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198755005. 

General[edit]

Bandstra, Barry L (2004). Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Wadsworth. ISBN 9780495391050.  Blenkinsopp, Joseph (2004). Treasures old and new: Essays in the Theology of the Pentateuch. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802826794.  Brueggemann, Walter (2002). Reverberations of faith: A Theological Handbook of Old Testament
Old Testament
themes. Westminster John Knox. ISBN 9780664222314.  Campbell, Antony F; O'Brien, Mark A (1993). Sources of the Pentateuch: Texts, Introductions, Annotations. Fortress Press. ISBN 9781451413670.  Carr, David M (1996). Reading the Fractures of Genesis. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664220716.  Clines, David A (1997). The Theme of the Pentateuch. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 9780567431967.  Davies, G.I (1998). "Introduction to the Pentateuch". In John Barton. Oxford Bible
Bible
Commentary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198755005.  Gooder, Paula (2000). The Pentateuch: A Story of Beginnings. T&T Clark. ISBN 9780567084187.  Hendel, Ronald (2012). The Book
Book
of "Genesis": A Biography (Lives of Great Religious Books). Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691140124.  Kugler, Robert; Hartin, Patrick (2009). The Old Testament
Old Testament
between Theology and History: A Critical Survey. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802846365.  Levin, Christoph L (2005). The Old Testament: A Brief Introduction. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691113944.  Longman, Tremper (2005). How to read Genesis. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830875603.  McEntire, Mark (2008). Struggling with God: An Introduction to the Pentateuch. Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780881461015.  Newman, Murray L. (1999). Genesis (PDF). Forward Movement Publications, Cincinnati, OH.  Ska, Jean-Louis (2006). Introduction to Reading the Pentateuch. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575061221.  Van Seters, John (1992). Prologue to History: The Yahwist as Historian in Genesis. Westminster John Knox Press.  Van Seters, John (1998). "The Pentateuch". In Steven L. McKenzie, Matt Patrick Graham. The Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
Today: An Introduction to Critical Issues. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664256524.  Van Seters, John (2004). The Pentateuch: A Social-science Commentary. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 9780567080882.  Walsh, Jerome T (2001). Style and Structure in Biblical Hebrew Narrative. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814658970. 

External links[edit]

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Book
Book
of Genesis Hebrew Transliteration Bereshit (book of Genesis) – Mikraot Gedolot Haketer – online edition, Menachem Cohen, Bar Ilan University (Hebrew) Book
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of Genesis illustrated Genesis Reading Room (Tyndale Seminary): online commentaries and monographs on Genesis. Bereshit with commentary in Hebrew בראשית Bereishit – Genesis (Hebrew – English at Mechon-Mamre.org) Genesis at Mechon-Mamre (Jewish Publication Society translation) 01 Genesis public domain audiobook at LibriVox
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Various versions Genesis (The Living Torah) Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan's translation and commentary at Ort.org Genesis (Judaica Press) at Chabad.org Young's Literal Translation (YLT) New International Version (NIV) Revised Standard Version (RSV) Westminster-Leningrad codex Aleppo Codex Book
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of Genesis in Hebrew with ancient versions (Masoretic, Samaritan Pentateuch, Samaritan Targum, Targum
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Onkelos, Peshitta, Septuagint, Vetus Latina, Vulgate, Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion) and English translation for each version in parallel.

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of Genesis

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(1933) The Bible: In the Beginning... (1966) O Trapalhão na Arca de Noé (1983) La Biblia en pasta
La Biblia en pasta
(1984) Genesis: The Creation and the Flood (1994) Noah
Noah
(1998) Raining Cats and Frogs
Raining Cats and Frogs
(2003) Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(2007) Evan Almighty
Evan Almighty
(2007) 40 Days and Nights
40 Days and Nights
(2012) Noah
Noah
(2014) Ooops! Noah
Noah
Is Gone... (2015)

Stage

The Flowering Peach (1954 play) Two by Two (1970 musical)

Opera

Il diluvio universale
Il diluvio universale
(1830) Le Déluge (1875) Noé (1885) Noye's Fludde
Noye's Fludde
(1958)

Songs

Captain Noah
Noah
and His Floating Zoo (1970) "The Prophet's Song" (1975) "Animals" (1980) "Forever Not Yours" (2002)

Games

Noah's Ark Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(1992) Super 3D Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(1994)

Literature

The Moon in the Cloud
The Moon in the Cloud
(1969) Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(1977) Not Wanted on the Voyage
Not Wanted on the Voyage
(1984) Many Waters
Many Waters
(1986) Not the End of the World (2004)

Other cultures

Flood myth Sumerian creation myth Gilgamesh flood myth Ancient Greek flood myths Finnish flood myth Great Flood of China Mesoamerican flood myths Cessair Bergelmir Noah
Noah
in Islam Noah
Noah
in rabbinic literature

Science

Black Sea deluge hypothesis Flood geology Searches for Noah's Ark

Geography

In Search of Noah's Ark Mountains of Ararat Mount Judi Mosque of Ibn Tulun

Theories

Ararat anomaly Durupınar site

Story within a story

Angel's Egg Doctor Dolittle and the Secret Lake Fantasia 2000 "Homer and Ned's Hail Mary Pass" "This Is the Way the World Ends"

Exclusions

"The Unicorn" Peluda

Related theology

Book
Book
of Noah Generations of Noah Gopher wood Noah's wine Seven Laws of Noah

Other

Noah's Brother Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
replicas and derivatives Boner's Ark Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
silver coins

v t e

Adam
Adam
and Eve

Source

Genesis creation narrative
Genesis creation narrative
in the Book
Book
of Genesis Adam Eve

Offspring

Cain and Abel Aclima Seth Awan Azura

Television

"Probe 7, Over and Out" (1963)

Film

Mama's Affair
Mama's Affair
(1921) Good Morning, Eve!
Good Morning, Eve!
(1934) The Broken Jug
The Broken Jug
(1937) The Original Sin
Sin
(1948) The Private Lives of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1960) El pecado de Adán y Eva
El pecado de Adán y Eva
(1969) La Biblia en pasta
La Biblia en pasta
(1984) The Annunciation (1984) Adipapam
Adipapam
(1988) Adam
Adam
(1992) Man's Best Friend (1998) Babs (2000) The Last Eve
Eve
(2005) Year One (2009) The Tragedy of Man
The Tragedy of Man
(2011) Adam
Adam
and Dog (2011) Tropico (2013)

Plays

Le Jeu d' Adam
Adam
(12th century) The Broken Jug
The Broken Jug
(1808) The Tragedy of Man
The Tragedy of Man
(1861) The Creation of the World and Other Business
The Creation of the World and Other Business
(1972)

Musicals

The Apple Tree
The Apple Tree
(1966) Dude (1972) Up from Paradise
Up from Paradise
(1973) Children of Eden
Children of Eden
(1991)

Compositions

The Creation (1798)

structure

La mort d' Adam
Adam
(1809) Ève
Ève
(1875) Genesis Suite (1945) Lilith (2001)

Literature

Apocalypse of Adam Book
Book
of Moses Book
Book
of Abraham Books of Adam Book
Book
of the Penitence of Adam Cave of Treasures "El y Ella" Genesis A and Genesis B Harrowing of Hell Life of Adam
Adam
and Eve Testament of Adam Testimony of Truth
Testimony of Truth
(3rd century) Conflict of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
with Satan (6th century) "Old Saxon Genesis" (9th century) " Adam
Adam
lay ybounden" (15th century) Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
(1667) Le Dernier Homme
Le Dernier Homme
(1805) Extracts from Adam's Diary
Extracts from Adam's Diary
(1904) Eve's Diary
Eve's Diary
(1905) The Book
Book
of Genesis (2009)

Art

Bernward Doors
Bernward Doors
(1015) Tapestry of Creation
Tapestry of Creation
(11th century) Expulsion from the Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
(1425) Vienna Diptych
Vienna Diptych
(15th century) The Last Judgment (1482) The Garden of Earthly Delights
The Garden of Earthly Delights
(1504) Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1507) Paradise and Hell
Paradise and Hell
(1510) The Creation of Adam
Adam
(1512) The Haywain Triptych
The Haywain Triptych
(1516) Eve, the Serpent and Death
Eve, the Serpent and Death
(1510s or 1520s) Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1528) The Fall of Man (1550) Maps of ancient Israel The Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
with the Fall of Man (1617) The Fall of Man (1628) The Four Seasons (1660s) The Koren Picture- Bible
Bible
(1692–1696) The First Mourning
The First Mourning
(1888) Eve
Eve
(1931) Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1932) The Serpent Chooses Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1958) Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1992)

Songs

"Dese Bones G'wine Rise Again" "Adam-ondi-Ahman" (1835) "Forbidden Fruit" (1915) "The Garden of Eden" (1956) "Let's Give Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
Another Chance" (1970) "Man Gave Names to All the Animals" (1979)

Albums

The Cainian Chronicle
The Cainian Chronicle
(1996) Visions of Eden
Visions of Eden
(2006)

Other cultures

Adam–God doctrine Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(LDS Church) Adam
Adam
in Islam Adam
Adam
in rabbinic literature Al-A'raf Book
Book
of Moses Endowment Manu (Hinduism) Mashya and Mashyana Serpent seed Tree of Jiva and Atman Tree of life (Quran) Our Lady of Endor Coven

Geography

Adam-ondi-Ahman Tomb of Eve

Biology

Mitochondrial Eve Y-chromosomal Adam The Real Eve

Story within a story

Doraemon: Nobita's Diary of the Creation of the World Island of Love The Visitors

Games

Demon: The Fallen (2002)

Related theology

Fall of man Original sin Garden of Eden Tree of the knowledge of good and evil Serpents in the Bible Forbidden fruit

Apple Fig leaf

Figs in the Bible Adam's ale Adamic language Rosh Hashanah Camael Shamsiel Tree of life Allegorical interpretations of Genesis

Other

Pre-Adamite Generations of Adam Cave of the Patriarchs "In-A-Gadda-Da-Leela" "Simpsons Bible
Bible
Stories" Second Time Lucky Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
cylinder seal Timeline of Genesis patriarchs Genealogies of Genesis Carnal knowledge Legend
Legend
of the Rood

Ystorya Adaf

Snakes for the Divine Ransom theory of atonement

v t e

Cain and Abel

Book
Book
of Genesis

Biblical characters

Adam Eve Cain and Abel Lucifer Enoch Awan

Portrayals in media

Film

East of Eden (film, 1952) Caín (1984) La Biblia en pasta
La Biblia en pasta
(1984) The Last Eve
Eve
(2005) Year One (2009) Abel Cain

Plays

Le Jeu d' Adam
Adam
(12th century) Cain (1821)

Musicals

Children of Eden
Children of Eden
(1991) Here's Where I Belong
Here's Where I Belong
(1968)

Literature

Book
Book
of the Penitence of Adam East of Eden (novel, 1952) Abel Sánchez: The History of a Passion (1917) The Book
Book
of Lies (2008)

Songs

"Should the Bible
Bible
Be Banned" (1988) "Cain's Blood" (1995)

Other

La mort d'Abel
La mort d'Abel
(composition, 1810) The First Mourning
The First Mourning
(painting, 1888) Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel
(TV series, 2009) Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel
(DC Comics) Kane (Command & Conquer video game character)

Related theology

Adam
Adam
and Eve Curse and mark of Cain Serpent seed

Christian Identity

Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel
in Islam Balbira and Kalmana Cainites

Other

Generations of Adam Timeline of Genesis patriarchs Land of Nod Dracula: The Dark Prince

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 174582712 LCCN: n80017837 SUDOC: 028199316 BNF: cb12008298g (d

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