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Bonny Light oil is a high grade of Nigerian crude oil with high API gravity (low specific gravity), produced in the Niger Delta basin and named after the prolific region around the city of Bonny.

It is found in Nigeria for the first time and has high demand in refiners because of its attributes, generating high profit. While in Nigeria, problems due to oil spillage causes vandalism and affects both human and ecosystem in detrimental ways. Some experiments on animals and soil are done to figure out those impacts on organisms.

Other grades of Nigerian crude oil are Qua Iboe crude oil, Brass River crude oil, and Forcados crude oil. The Cabinda crude oil is a common grade of crude oil produced in Angola. The Bonny Light is in high demand specifically by American and European refineries. It is therefore a major source of income for the oil-rich nation.

The national government of Nigeria runs and takes part in the petroleum industry of Nigeria through the NNPC corporation.

Background

Origination

Crude oil is a yellow to black colored liquid that exists by nature without artificial factors, observed in geological rock formations underneath the superficial parts of the earth.[1] While the exploration of petroleum began in the late 1930s, the oil for commercial use was found at Oloibiri in the Niger delta region of Nigeria in 1956. As oil exploration has been expanding, light and medium oil like bonny light oil are produced.[citation needed] Searching and exploitation of oil are done in that area which 90% of crude oil production is related to. Bonny light oil has many advantages over sour crudes so that its price is higher.[2] N

It is found in Nigeria for the first time and has high demand in refiners because of its attributes, generating high profit. While in Nigeria, problems due to oil spillage causes vandalism and affects both human and ecosystem in detrimental ways. Some experiments on animals and soil are done to figure out those impacts on organisms.

Other grades of Nigerian crude oil are Qua Iboe crude oil, Brass River crude oil, and Forcados crude oil. The Cabinda crude oil is a common grade of crude oil produced in Angola. The Bonny Light is in high demand specifically by American and European refineries. It is therefore a major source of income for the oil-rich nation.

The national government of Nigeria runs and takes part in the petroleum industry of Nigeria through the NNPC corporation.

Crude oil is a yellow to black colored liquid that exists by nature without artificial factors, observed in geological rock formations underneath the superficial parts of the earth.[1] While the exploration of petroleum began in the late 1930s, the oil for commercial use was found at Oloibiri in the Niger delta region of Nigeria in 1956. As oil exploration has been expanding, light and medium oil like bonny light oil are produced.[citation needed] Searching and exploitation of oil are done in that area which 90% of crude oil production is related to. Bonny light oil has many advantages over sour crudes so that its price is higher.[2] Nigeria has become the eleventh largest country that produces crude oil in the world[citation needed] The largest buyer of this oil is India, the biggest influence on oil demand growth[3] In addition to India, USA, Spain, and Netherlands are countries that import Bonny light crude oil.[4]

Chemical composition

The components of crude oil have a wide range, containing hydrocarbons and a mixture of oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen and trace metals. Hydrocarbon of crude oil consists of paraffin, cyclo-paraffins and aromatic material with at least one benzene ring. Bonny light oil also includes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.[2] Almost all of these elements, such as vanadium, nickel, asphaltenes, and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons are known as toxic.[5]

Folkloric uses

At first, people attempted to use crude oil for lighting, considering its flammable trait. However, it was not appropriate as lamps because of stink and intense fumes while it was burning.[1] There are various ways that indigenous people used crude oil. For the purpose of remedial treatment as poison detoxification, anti-convulsion and dermal inflammation, people swallowed crude oil directly. In traditional medicine, BLCO is used along with olive oil.[6] They applied it on their burnt skin, rotten foot and leg ulcers. Furthermore, it is used for wizardry attacks and poison cure. People utilized it to cure symptoms which are related to ingestion, such as gastrointestinal disorders and fertility.[7] As a way of complementing protein, most of people in the communities ate marine animals from coastal areas, which is a form of consuming crude oil indirectly.[6]

Features

Low sulfur

The value of fuels and oils which are generated from the crude oil falls off due to its sulfur compounds. “They cause corrosion of equipment during treatment, reduce activit

The components of crude oil have a wide range, containing hydrocarbons and a mixture of oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen and trace metals. Hydrocarbon of crude oil consists of paraffin, cyclo-paraffins and aromatic material with at least one benzene ring. Bonny light oil also includes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.[2] Almost all of these elements, such as vanadium, nickel, asphaltenes, and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons are known as toxic.[5]

Folkloric uses

At first, peopl

At first, people attempted to use crude oil for lighting, considering its flammable trait. However, it was not appropriate as lamps because of stink and intense fumes while it was burning.[1] There are various ways that indigenous people used crude oil. For the purpose of remedial treatment as poison detoxification, anti-convulsion and dermal inflammation, people swallowed crude oil directly. In traditional medicine, BLCO is used along with olive oil.[6] They applied it on their burnt skin, rotten foot and leg ulcers. Furthermore, it is used for wizardry attacks and poison cure. People utilized it to cure symptoms which are related to ingestion, such as gastrointestinal disorders and fertility.[7] As a way of complementing protein, most of people in the communities ate marine animals from coastal areas, which is a form of consuming crude oil indirectly.[6]

Features

[8] According to world standards, the content of sulfur in BLCO is low, so refinery infrastructure is less affected by corrosion and low impact on environment which his occurred by its byproducts. The sulfur content varies from 0.14% to 0.16%.[4] If less than 1% of sulfur is included in crude oil, it is assorted into sweet which means low sulfur content.[1]

Good gasoline yields

There are three types of crude oil, light, medium and heavy, according to its density. For gasoline blends, composites which are lighter hydrocarbons are used. Molecular weights of these hydrocarbons are lower than heptane.There are three types of crude oil, light, medium and heavy, according to its density. For gasoline blends, composites which are lighter hydrocarbons are used. Molecular weights of these hydrocarbons are lower than heptane.[1] Since most of Nigerian crudes are either light or medium sweet, creating plentiful amount of diesel, they are more costly than sour crudes.[9] Gasoline is produced from processed crude oil and it is highly valued petroleum products. Therefore, to have maximized profit, refiners seek to boost gasoline yields.[4]

High API gravity

API gravi

API gravity, American Petroleum Institute gravity, is a reverse method to decide “the weight of petroleum liquids in comparison to water”. If the API gravity exceeds 10, the liquid will float on the water and is classified to light oil.[10] Therefore, the higher API means the lighter crude oil and it is regarded as more precious than crude oil with lower API (heavier crude) as it generates more high-value products during refinery process. The API range of light crude is between 35 and 45, and BLCO has an API of 32.9.[4]

Effects

[2] However, since petroleum industry has appeared, many pollution problems have risen in Nigeria. The major problem was caused by oil spills, occurring during usual operations.[citation needed] Additionally, break of oil pipelines, erosion of flow and trunk lines, and hose failure are the causes of oil spills. Consequently, both the aquatic milieu and environment had detrimental impacts by them. These ecosystems are key element in agricultural productivity and main source for Nigerians, inhabiting in the oil-producing areas, to live.[2] Therefore, some activists in Nigeria have spoiled pipelines, and key infrastructures which are related to crude oil and export flows are usually targeted.[11] As a result, the issue related to oil effusion in Nigera has been exacerbated.[citation needed]

Human

People can be exposed to crude oil through various ways, such as skin contact, inhalation, and ingestion, and those can be happened simultaneously.[7] Especially, residents of oil abundant areas are at the r

People can be exposed to crude oil through various ways, such as skin contact, inhalation, and ingestion, and those can be happened simultaneously.[7] Especially, residents of oil abundant areas are at the risk of exposure to water which has been contaminated by oil. They consume this polluted water by drinking, cooking and cleaning.[6] The exhibition of crude oil to human can affect mentality and occur symptoms such as anxiety, depression, headache, and sore eyes and throat. Additionally, it causes various troubles with regard to brain, endocrine and DNA.[7] There is a reported case that shows how fatal effects can occur to human due to crude oil. A child, exposed to BLCO to cure febrile convulsion, had symptoms of “sequel of shock, acute renal failure, mechanical intestinal obstruction, extensive epidermolysis, conjunctivitis, mucositis, oesophagitis and chemical pneumonitis".[12]

Potential risks

The copper level of rats that are exposed to crude oil noticeably shrank which indicates ejection of copper with lack of its absorption. Synthesis of catecholamine which enables total functions of body, emotions, and perception may be hindered by reduction of copper concentration.[7] In addition to it, a rise in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes, in proportion to dose was seen in the rats, which were treated with BLCO for 21 days in a row. This phenomenon means induction of enzymes and especially in the case of GST, its increase may contribute to the availability of glutathione (GSH). Adedara and Farombi say that "Elevated level of intracellular hepatic GSH concentration observed in the BLCO‐treated rats indicates an adaptive response to reduce damage and promote better survival under the conditions of oxidative stress induced by BLCO treatment". The elicitation of GSH in testes and sperm is controlled by BLCO.[12] In contrast to rats treated for 21 days, the activities of those enzymes in rats exposed to BLCO for 45 days were decreased. Furthermore, in terms of sperms, noticeable shrink in mobility, number, and life/dead ratio was shown and total abnormality was elevated. However, abnormalities in sperms occurred by bonny light oil were able to be relieved with the help of vitamin E or quercetin. They have functions that restore normal hormonal levels and sperm parameters as well as inhibit oxidation.[5]

Fish

After the fishes were treated with BLCO for 30days, the blood glucose outstandingly elevated, dose dependent of crude oil. Similarly, the degree of total protein concentration and albumin levels increased in proportion to the amount of BLCO. AST and ALT concentrations rose too. Fishes which are exposed to cr

After the fishes were treated with BLCO for 30days, the blood glucose outstandingly elevated, dose dependent of crude oil. Similarly, the degree of total protein concentration and albumin levels increased in proportion to the amount of BLCO. AST and ALT concentrations rose too. Fishes which are exposed to crude oil get to have PAHs in their tissue and according to Wegwu and Omeodu, they “are activated to highly reactive epoxides by cytochrome P450-containing enzyme systems”. DNA bases automatically respond with these epoxides and point mutations are occurred as a result of it. With regard to glucose levels, if they are extremely high, it means severe oxidation stress in fish. In addition to it, excessive total protein levels of fish specify water imbalance and damage of haemo-concentration. These are resulted by harmful components of crude oil and it would induce damage in cellular membrane, less fluidity in membrane and elimination of cell as well.[2]

References