Bond Street is a major shopping street in the West End of London. It
Piccadilly in the south to
Oxford Street in the north and has
been popular for retail since the 18th century, being the home of many
fashion outlets that sell prestigious or expensive items. The southern
section is Old
Bond Street and the longer northern section New Bond
Street—a distinction not generally made in everyday usage.
The street was built on fields surrounding
Clarendon House on
Piccadilly, which were developed by Sir Thomas Bond. It was built up
in the 1720s, and by the end of the 18th century was a popular place
for the upper-class residents of
Mayfair to socialise. Prestigious or
expensive shops were established along the street, but it declined as
a centre of social activity in the 19th century, although it held its
reputation as a fashionable place for retail, and is home to the
Bonhams (formerly Phillips) and the
department stores Fenwick and Tiffany's. It is one of the most
expensive and sought after strips of real estate in Europe.
4 Cultural references
6 External links
Bond Street is the only street that runs between
Oxford Street and
Bond Street is at the southern end between
Piccadilly and Burlington Gardens. The northern section, New Bond
Street, extends as far as Oxford Street. The entire street is
around 0.5 miles (0.8 km) long. Many of the shop frontages are
less than 20 feet (6 m) wide.
The nearest tube stations are
Green Park in Piccadilly, and Bond
Street station in Oxford Street. Despite its name,
Bond Street station
does not directly connect to either New or Old Bond Street. No buses
use the street, although the C2 service crosses New Bond Street.
Part of New
Bond Street is numbered B406 but the remainder and all of
Bond Street is unclassified. New
Bond Street is pedestrianised
between Grafton Street and Clifford Street to prevent through traffic
and to stop the road being used as a rat run.
In High-Change in
Bond Street (1796),
James Gillray caricatured the
lack of courtesy on
Bond Street (young men taking up the whole
footpath), which was a grand fashionable milieu at the time.
There is evidence of Roman settlement around what is now Bond Street.
In 1894, a culvert made from brick and stone was discovered in the
area. The street was named after Sir Thomas Bond, the head of a
syndicate of developers who purchased a
Piccadilly mansion called
Clarendon House from
Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle
Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle in 1686,
and proceeded to demolish the house and develop the area. At that
time, the house backed onto open fields, known as Albemarle Ground,
and the development of estates in
Mayfair had just begun.
Bond Street was laid out during a second phase of construction 14
years after Bond's syndicate began developing the area. Most of the
building along the street occurred in the 1720s, on what was the
Conduit Mead Estate. John Rocque's map of London, published in
1746, shows properties along the entire length of Bond Street,
including the fully constructed side streets. The two parts of the
street have always had separate names, and a plan by the council to
merge the two into a singular "Bond Street" in the 1920s was rejected
During the 18th century, the street began to be popular with the
bourgeoisie living around Mayfair. Shop owners let out their upper
storeys for residential purposes, attracting lodgers such as Jonathan
Swift, George Selwyn,
William Pitt the Elder
William Pitt the Elder and Laurence Sterne.
In 1784, Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, an active
socialite, demanded that people boycott
Covent Garden as its residents
had voted against Whig member of parliament Charles James Fox. This
had caused him to lose his seat in parliament, leading to the
dissolution of the Fox–North Coalition. She insisted people should
look for nearer shopping streets, and encouraged people to go to Bond
Street. Consequently, the street became a retail area for people
living in Mayfair. By the end of the century, an upper-class social
group known as the
Bond Street Loungers had appeared, wearing
expensive wigs and parading up and down the street in a pretentious
Bond Street has always been divided into two sections: Old Bond Street
to the south and New
Bond Street to the north. The
London branch of
the jeweller Tiffany & Co. is next to the divide, on the Old Bond
Lord Nelson stayed at temporary lodgings in New
Bond Street between
1797 and 1798, and again from 1811 to 1813. Thomas Pitt, 2nd Baron
Camelford lived in
Bond Street and was unhappy about the presence of
Bond Street Loungers. Already notorious for a violent and
abusive temper, on 7 October 1801 he refused invitations to join in
celebrations of peace between Britain and France (which led to the
Treaty of Amiens), resulting in an altercation with several Loungers
at his doorstep. Camelford retreated upstairs and fired upon the crowd
with a pistol.
During the 19th century,
Bond Street became less known for its social
atmosphere but increased its reputation as a street for luxury
shopping. The auctioneer Phillips was established in 1796 at
No. 101 Bond Street, specialising in stringed instruments and
sheet music. The jewellers
Asprey originally opened in 1830 at
Nos. 165–169 New Bond Street. Opposite
Asprey was the
luxury luggage and trunk maker Finnigans, originally established in
Manchester in 1830. The house of
Finnigans opened their New Bond
Street shop in 1879. The Jewish practice of
Kabbalah has been
associated with the street after former East End trader Sarah Levenson
opened a shop on No. 50 New
Bond Street in 1856 which immediately
became profitable, albeit through exaggerated and questionable product
claims. Levenson was twice taken to court and prosecuted for
fraud; each prosecution resulted in a five-year prison sentence. She
died midway through the second. Nevertheless, the practice
regained popularity and a
Kabbalah Centre remains on the street.
The Royal Arcade links Old
Bond Street with Albemarle Street. It was
originally proposed in 1864 as a longer link between Old Bond Street
and Regent Street, but this plan was rejected because of the scale of
proposed demolition and reduced access to existing properties. It
was subsequently redesigned in its current layout, opening in 1879
and replacing the Clarendon Hotel, which had been demolished in
The street has maintained its reputation for luxury shopping into the
21st century, and has on occasion been regarded as the best retail
location in Europe. In 2011,
Bloomberg Business reported that New
Bond Street was the most expensive retail street in Europe after the
Champs-Élysées in Paris. As a consequence, though, the street
has many times suffered from armed robbery, as robbers are attracted
by the high value of the goods. The
Graff Diamonds robbery
Graff Diamonds robbery in Bond
Street in 2009 resulted in an estimated loss of £40
The Royal Arcade on Old Bond Street.
Westminster City Council
Westminster City Council have said that
Bond Street has the highest
density of haute couture stores anywhere in the world, attracting "the
rich, the famous, and the simply curious". The entire length of
Bond Street has been part of the
Mayfair Conservation Area controlled
Westminster City Council
Westminster City Council since 1969. Building alterations and
constructions are tightly controlled to ensure the street's appearance
and upkeep are unaltered. Many buildings are listed. The council
regulates the style and materials used on shop front advertising.
At one time,
Bond Street was best known for top-end art dealers and
antique shops that were clustered around the
London office of
Sotheby's auction house, which has been at Nos. 34–35 Bond
Street since 1917, and the Fine Art Society, founded in 1876.
The sculpture over the entrance to
Sotheby's is from
Ancient Egypt and
is believed to date from around 1600 BC. It is the oldest outdoor
sculpture in London.
Some dealers and antique shops remain, but many of the shops have come
to be occupied by fashion boutiques, some branches of global designer
brands. The street still has a reputation as a fashionable place for
shopping, including the flagship stores of
Ralph Lauren and
Cartier. Fenwick have had a department store on
Bond Street since
1891. The Phillips building at No. 101 is still used for
auctions; the company was bought in 2001 by Bonhams, who spent
£30 million expanding and refurbishing the premises. In
2015, Valentino announced plans to build a new flagship store on Old
The Allies sculpture on
Bond Street portrays
Winston Churchill and
Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The street features "Allies", a statue of
Winston Churchill and
Franklin D. Roosevelt, who are portrayed sitting in conversation on a
park bench, sculpted by Lawrence Holofcener. The statue, popular with
tourists, was erected by the
Bond Street Association to commemorate 50
years since the end of World War II, and was unveiled in May 1995
by Princess Margaret. In 2013, maquettes of the sculpture (which are
replicas, as Holofcener did not make any as part of the original
artwork or design) were sold at Bonhams.
The construction of Crossrail, part of which runs between Bond Street
Tottenham Court Road
Tottenham Court Road stations, involved demolition of property in
nearby Hanover Square, some of which backs onto New Bond Street.
This affected Nos. 64–72, which required refurbishment.
Bond Street has been mentioned in several works of literature,
including Jane Austen's novel Sense and Sensibility and Virginia
Woolf's 1925 novel Mrs Dalloway. The plot of the 1948 film Bond
Street is based on items purchased from shops in the street. In
Suzanna Clarke's novel Jonathan Strange & Mr. Norrell, Bond Street
is described as having "the most fashionable shops in all the
Bond Street is also a square on the British Monopoly board, and is the
most expensive of the green-coloured set that also includes Regent and
Oxford Streets. The three streets are grouped together because of
their shared retail history.
^ a b c d e f Hibbert & Weinreb 2010, p. 81.
^ "1, Vere Street to 46, Old Bond Street". Google Maps. Retrieved 14
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London Bus Map" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived from
the original (PDF) on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
London (sheet 176) (Map). Ordnance Survey Landranger Map.
^ Westminster 1992, p. 8.
^ "'Inventory of Roman London: Structures outside the walls". An
Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London. London: Roman London.
3: 145–151. 1928. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
^ a b c d Moore 2003, p. 264.
^ Moore 2003, p. 263.
^ Hibbert & Weinreb 2010, pp. 81–82.
^ Moore 2003, p. 265.
^ Foreman & Foreman 2005, p. 153.
^ a b Moore 2003, p. 268.
^ Halstead, Ivor (1952). Bond Street. Barcliff Publishing.
^ Desebrock, Jean (1978). The Book of
Bond Street Old and New. Tallis
Press. pp. 146–153.
^ a b Moore 2003, p. 267.
^ Smith-Stanley, Edward (22 February 1864). "Royal Arcade Bill".
Hansard (House of Lords). Retrieved 14 July 2015.
^ Dennis 2008, p. 301.
^ Walford, Edward. Piccadilly: Northern tributaries. Old and New
London. 4. 1878. pp. 291–314. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
^ Roxborough, Helen (1 September 2011). "
Bond Street loses top retail
location in Europe". CoStar Group. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
^ a b Callanan, Neil (28 November 2011). "
Bonhams Auction House Gets
Approval for New
London Headquarters". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved
13 July 2015.
^ "Shoestring budget for £23m gem robbery". BBC News. 20 July 2014.
Retrieved 14 July 2015.
^ "Jewellery raid haul put at £40m". BBC News. 11 August 2009.
Retrieved 14 July 2015.
London Prada store smash and grab raid". BBC News. 22 November
2013. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
^ Westminster 2008, p. 6.
^ Westminster 1992, p. 9.
^ Sotheby’s-About us.
Sotheby's (Report). Retrieved 19 Mar
^ a b c d Hibbert & Weinreb 2010, p. 82.
^ "Valentino snaps up spot on Old
Bond Street for new UK flagship
London Evening Standard. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 14 July
^ Baker 2002, p. 62.
^ Osley, Richard (25 April 2013). "'Allies' sculptor Lawrence
Holofcener reveals how he sat in front of his own famous work to
create maquettes". Camden New Journal. Archived from the original on
15 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
^ Westminster 2009, p. 8.
^ "Hanover Square". Greater
London Council. 22 April 2015. Archived
from the original on 16 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
^ Spacks 2013, Footnote to p.209.
^ "A Mrs. Dalloway Walk in London". The
Virginia Woolf Society.
Retrieved 14 July 2015.
^ "BFI Film & TV Database BOND STREET (1948)".
Ftvdb.bfi.org.uk. 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2014-05-31.
^ Clarke 2004, p. 321.
^ Moore 2003, p. 241.
Austen, Jane (2013) . Spacks, Patricia Meyer, ed. Sense and
Sensibility: An Anotated Edition. Harvard University Press.
Clarke, Susanna (2004). Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell. Bloomsbury
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-408-80374-5.
Baker, Margaret (2002). Discovering
London Statues and Monuments.
Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7478-0495-6.
Dennis, Richard (2008). Cities in Modernity: Representations and
Productions of Metropolitan Space, 1840–1930. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-46470-3.
Foreman, Lewis; Foreman, Susan (2005). London: A Musical Gazetteer.
Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10402-8.
Hibbert, Christopher; Weinreb, Ben (2010). The
Pan MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-405-04924-5.
Moore, Tim (2003). Do Not Pass Go. Vintage.
Bond Street – A Guide to Shopfronts & Advertisements (PDF)
(Report). City of Westminster. 1992. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
Oxford, Regent and
Bond Street Action Plan (PDF) (Report). Westminster
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Coordinates: 51°30′45″N 0°08′41″W / 51.5126°N