Coordinates : 12°11′N 68°15′W / 12.183°N 68.250°W /
Boneiru (Papiamento )
Special municipality of the
Coat of arms
Tera di Solo y suave biento "
Bonaire (circled in red)
Caribbean (light yellow)
Coordinates: 12°9′N 68°16′W / 12.150°N 68.267°W /
INCORPORATED INTO THE NETHERLANDS
10 October 2010 (dissolution of the
Netherlands Antilles )
(and largest city)
GOVERNMENT (SEE POLITICS OF THE NETHERLANDS )
• LT. GOVERNOR
294 km2 (114 sq mi)
POPULATION (2015 )
64/km2 (170/sq mi)
• RECOGNISED REGIONAL
ISO 3166 CODE
BQ-BO , NL-BQ1
US dollar (USD )
BONAIRE (pronounced /bɔːˈnɛər/ or /bɒnˈɛər/ ; Dutch :
Bonaire, pronounced ;
Papiamentu : Boneiru) is an island in the
Leeward Antilles in the
Caribbean Sea . Together with
Curaçao , it forms the group known as the ABC islands , less than a
hundred miles off the north coast of
South America near the western
part of Venezuela. Unlike much of the
Caribbean region, the ABCs lie
outside the hurricane belt. The islands have an arid climate, which
helps tourism, as visitors to the islands can reliably expect warm,
Bonaire is a popular destination for scuba diving , and
easy access from shore to its fringing reefs.
Bonaire's capital is
Kralendijk . The island has a permanent
population of 18,905 (as of 1 January 2015) and an area of 294 km2
(together with nearby uninhabited
Klein Bonaire ).
Bonaire was part of
Netherlands Antilles until the country\'s dissolution in 2010,
when the island became a special municipality within the country of
Netherlands . It is one of the three
BES islands in the
Caribbean, along with
Sint Eustatius and
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Original inhabitants
* 2.2 European arrival
* 2.3 Spanish period
* 2.4 Dutch period
* 2.5 British period
* 2.6 Emancipation
* 2.7 Allotment
World War II
World War II
* 2.9 Post-war
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Ecology
* 3.2 Environmental initiatives
* 4 Government
* 4.1 Referendum 2010
* 4.2 Dissolution of the
* 4.3 Currency
* 4.4 Taxes
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Tourism
* 5.2 Other industry
* 5.3 Transportation
* 6 Settlements
* 6.1 Religion
* 7 Education
* 8 Languages
* 9 Recreation and Entertainment
* 9.1 Media
* 9.2 Sports
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 12 External links
The name 'Bonaire' is thought to have originally come from the
Caquetio word 'Bonay', a name that meant low country. The early
Spanish and Dutch modified its spelling to Bojnaj and also Bonaire.
The French influence, while present at various times, was never strong
enough to make the assumption that the name means 'good air'.
Traditional old houses with cactus fences, preserved in the
outdoor museum in Rincon
Bonaire's earliest known inhabitants were the Caquetio Indians , a
branch of the Arawak who came by canoe from
Venezuela in about 1000
AD. Archeological remains of Caquetio culture have been found at
certain sites northeast of
Kralendijk and near Lac Bay. Caquetio rock
paintings and petroglyphs have been preserved in caves at Spelonk,
Onima, Ceru Pungi, and Ceru Crita-Cabai. The Caquetios were apparently
a very tall people, for the Spanish name for the ABC Islands was 'las
Islas de los Gigantes' or 'the islands of the giants.'
Alonso de Ojeda
Alonso de Ojeda arrived in
Curaçao and a neighbouring
island that was almost certainly Bonaire. Ojeda was accompanied by
Amerigo Vespucci and
Juan de la Cosa . De La Cosa's
Mappa Mundi of
Bonaire and calls it Isla do Palo Brasil or "Island of
Brazilwood ." The Spanish conquerors decided that the three ABC
Islands were useless, and in 1515 the natives were forcibly deported
to work as slaves in the copper mines of
Santo Domingo on the island
Hispaniola . Fort Oranje in Kralendijk, built in 1639
In 1526, Juan de Ampies was appointed Spanish commander of the ABC
Islands . He brought back some of the original Caquetio Indian
Bonaire and Curaçao. Ampies also imported domesticated
animals from Spain, including cows, donkeys, goats, horses, pigs, and
sheep. The Spaniards thought that
Bonaire could be used as a cattle
plantation worked by natives. The cattle were raised for hides rather
than meat. The Spanish inhabitants lived mostly in the inland town of
Rincon which was safe from pirate attack.
Dutch West India Company was founded in 1621. Starting in 1623,
ships of the West India Company called at
Bonaire to obtain meat,
water, and wood. The Dutch also abandoned some Spanish and Portuguese
prisoners there, and these people founded the town of
Antriol which is
a contraction of Spanish al interior (English: inside). The Dutch and
the Spanish fought from 1568 to 1648 in what is now known as the
Eighty Years War
Eighty Years War . In 1633, the Dutch—having lost the island of St.
Maarten to the Spanish—retaliated by attacking Curaçao, Bonaire,
Bonaire was conquered in March 1636. The Dutch built Fort
Oranje in 1639. Slave huts.
Curaçao emerged as a center of the slave trade , Bonaire
became a plantation of the Dutch West India Company. A small number of
African slaves were put to work alongside Indians and convicts,
cultivating dyewood and maize and harvesting solar salt around Blue
Pan. Slave quarters, built entirely of stone and too short for a man
to stand upright in, still stand in the area around Rincon and along
the saltpans as a grim reminder of Bonaire's repressive past.
Napoleonic Wars , the
Netherlands lost control of Bonaire
twice, once from 1800 to 1803 and again from 1807 to 1816. During
these intervals, the British had control of the neighboring island of
Curaçao and of Bonaire. The ABC islands were returned to the
Netherlands under the
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 . During the period
of British rule, a large number of white traders settled on Bonaire,
and they built the settlement of Playa (
Kralendijk ) in 1810.
From 1816 until 1868,
Bonaire remained a government plantation. In
1825, there were about 300 government-owned slaves on the island.
Gradually many of the slaves were freed, and became freemen with an
obligation to render some services to the government. The remaining
slaves were freed on 30 September 1862 under the Emancipation
Regulation. A total of 607 government slaves and 151 private slaves
were freed at that time.
In 1867 the government sold most of the public lands, and in 1870
they sold the saltpans. The entire population became dependent on two
large private landowners, and this caused a great deal of suffering
for many people. Many inhabitants were forced to move to Aruba,
Curaçao, or Venezuela.
WORLD WAR II
During the German occupation of the
World War II
World War II ,
Bonaire was a protectorate of Britain and the United States. The
American army built the
Flamingo Airport as an air force base. After
Germany invaded the
Netherlands on 10 May 1940, many German and
Austrian citizens were interned in a camp on
Bonaire for the war's
duration. In 1944, Princess Juliana of the
Netherlands and Eleanor
Roosevelt visited the troops on Bonaire.
After the war, the economy of
Bonaire continued to develop. The
airport was converted to civilian use and the former internment camp
was converted to become the first hotel on Bonaire. The Dutch Schunck
family built a clothing factory known as Schunck\'s Kledingindustrie
Bonaire . In 1964,
Trans World Radio began broadcasting from Bonaire.
Netherlands Worldwide built two short wave transmitters on
Bonaire in 1969. The second major hotel (
Bonaire Beach Hotel) was
completed in 1962. Salt production resumed in 1966 when the salt pans
were expanded and modernized by the Antilles International Salt
Company, a subsidiary of the International Salt Company. Part of the
facilities extend into the
Caribbean Sea and form the popular dive
site known as Salt Pier. The
Bonaire Petroleum Corporation (BOPEC)
oil terminal was opened in 1975 for trans-shipping oil.
A satellite photo of
Bonaire and Klein Bonaire. A
detailed map of
Bonaire from the Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch
Bonaire lies about 50 miles (80 km) off the coast of
Venezuela on the
continental shelf of South America, and is thus geologically
considered a part of the continent.
Geologists believe that
Bonaire was formed relatively recently. As
the nearby continental shelf (now located near Montserrat, and the
cause of the volcanic activity on that island) moved through the area,
it forced a large mass of rock to the ocean surface and created the
islands of the Lesser and Greater Antilles, including Bonaire. As the
sea bed rose a vast coral reef grew on what is now dry land. These
corals were eventually exposed to air and perished, becoming surface
limestone deposits over the millennia.
Vast amounts of coral skeletons may be seen along the shoreline, and
across the interior of Bonaire. The island is essentially a coral reef
that has been geologically pushed up and out of the sea. This also
resulted in the natural fringing reef system seen today, in which the
coral formations start at the shoreline. Tidal variations are only
about 1.8–2.0 feet (55–61 cm), so the corals start at the low tide
line and continue on, following the underwater topology of the
island's base. Bonaire's tides are more affected by a combination of
wind and low/high pressure systems than by the moon.
The northern end of the island is relatively mountainous, although
its highest peak is only 240 metres (790 feet). The southern part of
the island is nearly flat and barely rises above sea level. A
significant portion of this southern region is covered with sea water
in process of evaporation for salt production. This area also contains
Lac Bay with its large mangrove forest. The shoreline of
dotted with lagoons and inlets, the largest of which is Goto Lake in
the north. These lagoons and wetlands provide an excellent habitat for
a wide variety of shorebirds.
Bonaire has a warm, dry (though humid), and windy climate. The
average temperature is 81.5 °F (27.5 °C) with a 2.5 °F (1.4 °C)
seasonal variation, and 10 °F (5.6 °C) daily variation. The ocean
temperature around the island fluctuates between 78 and 86 °F (26 and
30 °C). The highest recorded temperature is 96.4 °F (35.8 °C) and
the lowest, 67.6 °F (19.8 °C). Nearly constant winds blow from the
east with an average speed of 12 knots (22 km/h).
The humidity is very constant, averaging 76% and fluctuating between
85% and 66% on a daily basis. Average annual rainfall is 20.5 inches
(520 mm), most of which occurs in October through January. Bonaire
lies outside the hurricane belt , though its weather and oceanic
conditions are occasionally affected by hurricanes and tropical
storms. This semi-arid climate is conducive to a variety of cacti and
other desert plants.
Klein Bonaire , the small island in the sheltered lee of the Bonaire,
has the same geological history. While
Bonaire has some hills and
variations in altitude, Klein Bonaire's surface is quite level and
just a few feet above high tide. Because the island is as-yet
undeveloped, the fringing reef system surrounding
Klein Bonaire is
truly pristine. The smaller island is entirely ringed with dive sites.
Bonaire has a land area of 288 square kilometres (111 sq mi), while
Klein Bonaire is an additional 6 km2 (2.3 sq mi).
Washington Slagbaai National Park is an ecological preserve on the
north side of the island. The highest point of Bonaire, Mount
Brandaris, 240 m (790 ft) high is located within this preserve and has
a complete view of the island.
American flamingos at the sanctuary at the southern end of
Bonaire is fringed by a coral reef which is accessible to divers from
the shore along the lee side of the island (facing west southwest).
The entire coastline of the island was designated a marine sanctuary
in 1979, an effort to preserve and protect the delicate coral reef and
the marine life that depends on it. There are more than 350 species of
fish and sixty species of coral living in Bonaire's reef. Boulder
Star Coral (
Montastraea annularis ) is the most common coral,
according to a 2011 survey. A donkey colony.
Bonaire is also famed for its flamingo populations and its donkey
sanctuary. Flamingos are drawn to the brackish water of the island's
lagoons, which harbours the shrimp upon which they feed.
home to one of only four nesting grounds for the
Located in the Pekelmeer in the southern part of the island, no human
entry is permitted in this sanctuary. In the 16th century, Europeans
introduced sheep , goats , pigs, horses and donkeys on Bonaire, and
the descendants of the donkeys, goats, and pigs roam the island today.
Bonaire is also home to the ecologically vulnerable yellow-shouldered
amazon parrot, Amazona barbadensis.
The island of
Bonaire has long been a leader in nature conservation
and ecological responsibility. Stichting Nationale Parken (STINAPA),
Bonaire's National Park Foundation, was founded in 1962 for the
purpose of actively protecting nature on the island. In 1969 STINAPA
succeeded in establishing both the flamingo nesting sanctuary and
Washington National Park, the first such nature preserves in the
Caribbean. In 1979, the Slagbaai plantation was added to the park, now
known as Washington Slagbaai National Park. The
Marine Park was also established in 1979. The Marine Park consists of
the whole coastline of
Bonaire from the high-water mark down to a
depth of 200 feet (61 m) and includes a large mangrove forest in Lac
Bay. Lac Bay, Klein Bonaire, Pekelmeer, Slagbaii, and Gotomeer are
internationally recognized RAMSAR sites .
Due to a public-private sector partnership, programs are being
developed to advance the local awareness and attitudes toward
conservation and habitat preservation in order to proactively protect
Bonaire's ecosystem. A new sewage treatment plant will contribute to
protecting the reefs and the seawater quality. In March 2013 Selibon
NV, the national garbage-processing plant, opened an environmental
court where the general public can bring glass, cans, paper, scrap
metal, cardboard, batteries, motor oil, cooking oil, electronics,
mobile phones and textiles.
BonRecycling BV is committed to recycling waste products in Bonaire
and to create awareness among the people of
Bonaire about the
importance and benefits of recycling. Dive Friends
Bonaire started a
Bonaire program that emphasises collecting debris washed
ashore and delivering it to the dive shop for separation in
preparation for handling by BonRecycling.
Bonaire gets a significant amount of its electricity from an array of
twelve wind generators along its northeastern coastline which began
operating in 2010. This renewable source now fills 40-45% of the
island's electricity needs. Work continues in developing additional
renewable sources of energy, including bio-diesel and solar, with the
goal of becoming 100% reliant on renewables.
Parliament and Council house in Kralendijk.
Prior to the 2010 referendum, the
Netherlands Antilles comprising the
islands of Curaçao, Bonaire, St. Eustatius, St. Maarten and Saba,
were governed as a parliamentary democracy based on the Dutch system
of government with free elections held every four years. Dissension
about the political future resulted in four of the five islands
advocating for separation from the
Netherlands Antilles. Some of the
island residents wanted autonomy while others wanted more integration.
In 2005 a conference was held by the governments of the Netherlands,
Aruba, and the
Netherlands Antilles to discuss future constitutional
reform and dissolution of the
Netherlands Antilles. In 2006, Saint
Curaçao chose autonomy , and Bonaire, St. Eustatius and
Saba opted for a closer relationship with the Netherlands.
Constitutional referendums and dismantlement of the Netherlands
Antilles was scheduled to take place in 2010.
Bonaire's announced referendum scheduled for 26 March 2010 was
cancelled in February 2010. The Governor of the Dutch Antilles, Frits
Goedgedrag , decided to cancel it because it probably contravened
international law, since part of the population is barred from voting.
European Dutch nationals are only allowed to vote if they arrived on
the island before 1 January 2007. The referendum was postponed to
September and then October 2010. Eventually the referendum was held
on 17 December 2010, with 84% voting in favour of becoming part of the
Netherlands. However, as the 35% voter turnout rate was below the
required 51%, the results of the referendum were declared invalid.
DISSOLUTION OF THE NETHERLANDS ANTILLES
On 10 October 2010, the
Netherlands Antilles was dissolved . As a
result, the government of the
Netherlands assumed the task of public
administration of the
Netherlands or BES Islands comprising
Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba. The three islands acquired new status
as "special municipalities" (bijzondere gemeenten), making them part
Netherlands itself, a form of "public body" (openbaar lichaam)
as outlined in article 134 of the Dutch Constitution. Special
municipalities do not constitute part of a province.
As a special municipality,
Bonaire is very much like ordinary Dutch
municipalities in that it has a mayor, aldermen and a municipal
council , and is governed according to most Dutch law. Antillean
legislation remained in force after 10 October 2010, with the
exception of those cases where Antillean law was replaced by Bonaire's
municipal law. It was believed best for the island to not introduce
the entire body of Dutch legislation at one time as it would cause
confusion. Therefore, Dutch legislation is being introduced in stages.
Bonaire retained its own unique culture while residents enjoy the same
rights as Dutch citizens, including the right to vote in Dutch
parliamentary elections in the Netherlands. Residents also have access
to new or improved facilities and government benefits including, but
not limited to, universal health care ; improved health care
facilities; better educational facilities with additional training for
teachers, new teaching methods, and new school buildings; social
housing for low-income individuals and families; a centrally
dispatched single police force, fire department and ambulance service.
While the three islands are considered to be land of the Netherlands,
they are not a part of the European Union, therefore not subject to
European Union Law. They are considered to be an overseas country and
territory and will remain as such until at least 2015.
Bonaire's non-governmental organization, Nos Ke Boneiru Bèk ("We
Bonaire Back"), is against the current constitutional
relationship with the Netherlands. With reference to Bonaire's 2004
referendum, the organization is of the opinion that such an
arrangement was never the choice of the people. The Dutch Minister of
Home Affairs and Kingdom Relations,
Ronald Plasterk , replied to the
organization confirming that only the "Island Councils in the
Netherlands have the authority to decide on holding a
constitutional referendum, not the Dutch government." In response, the
organization gathered more than 3,500 signatures in 2013 favoring a
new referendum. In a letter to minister Plasterk, James Finies,
chairman of Nos Ke Boneiru Bèk, requested a "new referendum under the
right of self-determination". Plasterk responded by advising Finies
that preparations for the evaluation of the public entity structure
have begun for 2015, but a "possible change of the constitutional
relations is not part of that evaluation." The new referendum took
place on 18 December 2015. 65% of the turnout voted that they were
not happy with the current relationship between
Bonaire and the
In 2011 the BES Islands replaced their currency, the Netherlands
Antillean guilder (ANG), with the US dollar rather than replacing it
with the euro which is used in the European Netherlands. The decision
was based primarily on the islands' needs in relation to tourism and
trade. Most countries and territories in the
Caribbean use the dollar
as their currency or have a currency linked to the dollar as legal
tender. The guilder (ANG) has been linked to the dollar for decades
with an exchange rate of ANG 1.79 = USD 1.00. Adopting the dollar put
an end to the dual-currency payment system, and foreign exchange
Diver on the "
Hilma Hooker " ship wreck
The separate tax regimes for Bonaire, St Eustatius and
a greater risk of double taxation or double exemption from taxes. In
an effort to remove the risk, two plans were introduced. One plan
prevents double taxation between the
Netherlands (Europe) and the BES
Islands while the other prevents double taxation between the BES
Islands and third countries. The new regime will generate a total
annual tax revenue estimated at $52 million which is equal to the
current tax revenues on the three islands. The combined population of
the three Islands is approximately 20,000 with about half that many
See also: Economy of the
Bonaire's economy is mainly based on tourism, taking advantage of its
warm, dry climate and natural environment. The island caters to scuba
divers and snorkelers, as the surrounding coral reefs are well
preserved and easily accessible from the shore.
Bonaire has been
widely recognized for many years in the diving community as one of the
world's best shore diving destinations.
Bonaire's Marine Park offers a total of 86 named dive sites, and is
home to over 57 species of soft and stony coral and more than 350
recorded fish species. Most resorts and hotels have an on-site dive
shop, and other accommodations are affiliated with a dive
operation.The license plates carry the logo Divers Paradise (in
Lac Bay, in the southeastern part of the island, attracts wind
surfers from around the world to Bonaire. The shallow Bay is on the
windward side of the island, so trade winds are strong and constant. A
barrier reef across the mouth of the bay allows windsurfers of all
skill levels to select wave conditions they like. Lac Bay is one of
the stops in the PWA Windsurfing Freestyle World Cup and has hosted
the Prokids IFCA Championship. Five of the PWA's ten highest ranked
freestyle windsurfers are from Bonaire: Kiri Thode, Amado Vrieswijk,
Bjorn Saragoza, Tonky Frans, and Taty Frans. In the northern end of
Lac Bay is one of the best preserved mangrove forests in the
Caribbean, which is popular for kayaking and snorkeling.
Bonaire is also a port of call for more than fifteen cruise lines who
make more than eighty calls per season at the island. The total
passenger capacity for cruise ships in
Bonaire is about 185,000.
Tourism infrastructure in
Bonaire is contemporary and offers a
variety of types of accommodations including hotels, full-service
resorts, a few small bed and breakfasts , and self-catering vacation
rentals of all kinds. Other tourist activities include kite-boarding,
mountain-biking, hiking, sailing, charter fishing, boating, and
bird-watching. All-in-all tourist expenditures in
estimated at $125 million per year.
SALT PRODUCTION – Utilizing the naturally low-lying geography and
traditional Dutch dyke design, much of Bonaire's southern half has
been made into a giant system of ponds and pools which evaporate
seawater to produce salt. Presently operated by
Cargill , Bonaire's
solar salt works produces 400,000 tons of industrial grade salt per
year. After collection, the salt is then washed and stored in large
piles. The salt facility operates its own pier where ships are loaded
with salt destined for North American, European and Western Pacific
markets. Bonaire's salt is used mostly in industrial roles.
The large condensing ponds which ring the crystallizer basins, called
the Pekelmeer, are a natural habitat for numerous species of brine
shrimp which in turn feed flocks of hundreds of pink flamingoes and
other migratory birds. This is the location of Bonaire's flamingo
OIL STORAGE AND SHIPMENT – The
Bonaire Petroleum Corporation
(BOPEC) is a fuel oil storage and transhipment terminal on Bonaire.
BOPEC is wholly owned by Venezuelan oil company PDVSA, and functions
primarily as a storage facility for multiple grades of refined and
non-refined oils from
Venezuela and refineries on
Curaçao and Aruba.
BOPEC also has mixing and blending capabilities for its stored fuels.
BOPEC's #1 pier can receive tankers up to 500,000DWT, which means
there are only seven ships in the world that are too big for the BOPEC
terminal. A fire at the BOPEC terminal in 2010 is believed to have
had a significant impact on Goto Lake and at least one other nearby
Bonaire's first airport was located near Tra'i Montaña Subi Blanku
and crossed the current path of
Kralendijk to Rincon and was built in
1936. The airport proved to be too small when American soldiers
Bonaire in the second half of 1943. The commander stated
that a new airport had to be built. Construction began in December
1943, with the new "
Flamingo Airport" opening in 1945. A small
terminal was built that was suitable for the number of passengers at
the time. This building was used until mid-1976. The airport had
received many extensions of both the runway and the terminal itself.
Today the airport is known as
Flamingo International Airport and is
served by a variety of both domestic and international airlines.
Services from the US include Delta Air Lines and United Airlines.
Airlines providing European service include TUI
Netherlands and KLM.
Consistent air service from
Curaçao is available through Divi Divi
Air and Insel Air.
The airport is equipped with a fire station, control tower, and
hangar. Plans are underway for modifications to the current airport
facilities, runway and the fire station.
A church in Rincon. The Old Malmök lighthouse is in
Washington Slagbaai National Park.
The two towns on the island are
Kralendijk (the capital) and Rincon .
Kralendijk has many suburbs/neighbourhoods, although on an island
with such a small population, the distinction is not always clearcut.
Kralendijk's suburbs/neighbourhoods include:
* Noord Salina
* Santa Barbara
* Tera Cora
Other smaller settlements include:
Labra, Ishiri, Kokorobi, Jan Doran, Vlijt, Rigot, Porto Spano, and
Kunchi were several smaller towns that had existed in the national
park, but were later abandoned.
Bonaire is predominantly
Roman Catholic (68%) and there
Roman Catholic (68%)
Other religion (4%) No denomination (12%)
Bonaire's educational system is patterned after the Dutch system.
Early grades are taught solely in Papiamentu, with more and more Dutch
being introduced as the grade level progresses.
Dutch is the official language of Bonaire, as it is part of the
Netherlands. According to the 2001 census, it is the main language of
8.8% of the population. The most widely spoken language is the creole
Papiamentu , which is the primary language of 74.7% of the
populace and is recognized by the government. Spanish is the main
language of 11.8% of the people, English is the primary language of
2.8%, and other languages account for 1.8%.
RECREATION AND ENTERTAINMENT
Bonaire is a popular tourist destination for both recreational
diving and shore snorkelling.
TRANS WORLD RADIO RELAY STATION
Trans World Radio operates a radio relay station (PJB3-AM) on Bonaire
with a mediumwave transmitter and several shortwave transmitters at
12°6′23″N 68°17′1″W / 12.10639°N 68.28361°W /
12.10639; -68.28361 (
Trans World Radio Station) . The
mediumwave transmitter is the most powerful mediumwave transmitter in
America, having operated with as much as a half megawatt. The antenna
of the mediumwave transmitter consists of four 231.6-metre-tall masts
arranged in a parallelogram.
RADIO NETHERLANDS RELAY STATION
Netherlands Worldwide operated a shortwave relay station at
12°12′48″N 68°19′23″W / 12.21333°N 68.32306°W /
12.21333; -68.32306 (Radio
Bonaire Radio Relay Station)
Because of widespread availability of Internet links providing higher
audio quality and more flexibility, shortwave broadcasts by RNW from
Bonaire were discontinued and at the end of October 2012, the radio
station was closed and installations dismantled.
The most popular sports on
Bonaire are baseball, windsurfing,
athletics, association football, tennis, and volleyball. The Bonaire
Football Federation is a member of
CONCACAF and the
Federation is an associate member of
NORCECA . The Baseball teams play
Caribbean region of Little league and Pony league .
also confirmed as the 218th Table Tennis National association.
Edison Rijna Sworn in as New Lieutenant Governor
* ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling Caribisch Nederland; geboorte, sterfte,
migratie" (in Dutch). Central Bureau of Statistics. 2012. Retrieved 13
* ^ A B
Papiamentu can be used in relations with the government
"Invoeringswet openbare lichamen Bonaire,
Sint Eustatius en Saba" (in
Dutch). wetten.nl. Retrieved 14 October 2012. * ^ The domain for
Netherlands Antilles has remained active after its dissolution.
ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code BQ was established for the entity
"Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, Saba". ("ISO 3166-1 decoding table".
International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 17 December
2010. ) An Internet ccTLD has been reserved by the IANA , but no
registrar has been assigned.
* ^ "
CcTLD — ICANN Wiki". Retrieved 25 Nov 2014.
* ^ "Bonaire". Dictionary.com.
* ^ Mangold, Max. Duden – Das Aussprachewörterbuch. In: Der
Duden in zwölf Bänden, Band 6. 7. Auflage. Berlin: Dudenverlag;
Mannheim : Institut für Deutsche Sprache, 2015, Seite 242.
* ^ "Antillen opgeheven". NOS Nieuws. 18 November 2009. Archived
from the original on 24 December 2009. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
* ^ A B "Wet openbare lichamen Bonaire,
Sint Eustatius en Saba
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