Bologna sausage, also called baloney (), is a sausage
derived from Mortadella
, a similar-looking, finely ground pork sausage containing cubes of pork fat, originally from the Italian city of Bologna
(). Other common names include parizer (Parisian sausage) in the countries deriving from ex Yugoslavia
, polony in Zimbabwe, Zambia, South Africa and Western Australia, devon in most states of Australia, and fritz in South Australia. Typical seasoning for bologna includes black pepper
, celery seed
and, like mortadella, myrtle
berries give it its distinctive flavor. U.S. government regulations require American bologna to be finely ground
and without visible pieces of fat. Aside from pork
, bologna can be made out of chicken
, a combination or soy protein
Lebanon bologna is a Pennsylvania Dutch
prepared meat. While nominally bologna, it is a dried, smoked sausage similar to salami
Ring bologna is much smaller in diameter than standard bologna. It is better suited for slicing and serving on crackers, either as a snack or ''hors d'oeuvre
''. It is generally sold as an entire link rather than sliced. The link is arranged as a semicircle or "ring" when prepared for sale (hence the name). Pickled bologna is usually made from ring bologna soaked in vinegar and typical pickling spice
s. It is usually served in chunks as a cold snack.
Rag bologna is a long stick, or "chub", of high-fat bologna traditionally sold wrapped in a cloth rag. The recipe has a higher content of filler than that of regular bologna. Milk solids, flour, cereal, and spices are added during processing, and the roll of bologna is bathed in lactic acid
before being coated in paraffin wax
. This type of bologna is native to West Tennessee and the surrounding regions and is not commonly available outside this area. It is generally eaten on white bread with mustard and pickles, but is also a staple of family gatherings, where thick slices are smoked and barbecued along with other meats. In Newfoundland, a type of rag bologna referred to as "wax" bologna is sliced thickly and fried, which is referred to as "Newfie steak".
In the United Kingdom
, "polony" is a finely ground pork-and-beef sausage. The name, likely derived from Bologna, has been in use since the 17th century. The modern product is usually cooked in a red or orange skin and is served as cold slices.
In New Zealand
"polony" is a type of cocktail sausage
with pink or red artificially coloured skin similar to, but much smaller than, a Saveloy
. Miniature polonies in New Zealand are called "Cheerios". They are eaten boiled.
South African "polony" is similar to bologna in constitution and appearance, and is typically inexpensive. Large-diameter (artificially coloured) pink polonies are called French polony, with thinner rolls referred to simply as polony. Garlic polony is also widely available.
In 2018, a South African factory that produced polony and other processed meats was associated with a listeriosis outbreak
that killed approximately 180 people and sickened a further thousand.
Various vegetarian and vegan versions of bologna are available. A typical UK recipe uses soya
and wheat protein
in the place of lean meat and palm oil instead of fat together with starch, carrageenan
, and flavorings. It can be eaten cold or cooked in the same ways as traditional bologna.
* Bologna sandwich
* ''Doktorskaya kolbasa
'' — a Russian take on bologna or mortadella, though spiced differently
* ''Chả lụa
'' - a Vietnamese sausage, similar to bologna