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The BOLOGNA PROCESS is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications. The process has created the European Higher Education Area under the Lisbon Recognition Convention . It is named after the University of Bologna , where the Bologna declaration was signed by education ministers from 29 European countries in 1999. The process was opened to other countries in the European Cultural Convention of the Council of Europe , and governmental meetings have been held in Prague
Prague
(2001), Berlin
Berlin
(2003), Bergen (2005), London
London
(2007) and Leuven
Leuven
(2009).

Before the signing of the Bologna declaration, the Magna Charta Universitatum was issued at a meeting of university rectors celebrating the 900th anniversary of the University of Bologna (and European universities) in 1988. One year before the declaration, education ministers Claude Allegre (France), Jürgen Rüttgers (Germany), Luigi Berlinguer (Italy) and Baroness Blackstone (UK) signed the Sorbonne declaration in Paris in 1998, committing themselves to "harmonising the architecture of the European Higher Education system". The Bologna Process
Bologna Process
has 50 participating countries.

CONTENTS

* 1 Signatories

* 2 Rejected countries

* 2.1 Israel
Israel
* 2.2 Kosovo
Kosovo
* 2.3 Northern Cyprus
Cyprus

* 3 Qualifications framework * 4 Criticism

* 5 Effects by state

* 5.1 Andorra * 5.2 Austria
Austria
* 5.3 Belarus
Belarus
* 5.4 Croatia
Croatia
* 5.5 Denmark
Denmark
* 5.6 Finland
Finland
* 5.7 France
France
* 5.8 Georgia * 5.9 Greece
Greece
* 5.10 Hungary
Hungary
* 5.11 Iceland
Iceland
* 5.12 Ireland
Ireland
* 5.13 Italy
Italy
* 5.14 Netherlands
Netherlands
* 5.15 Portugal
Portugal
* 5.16 Russia
Russia
* 5.17 Sweden
Sweden

* 6 Seminars * 7 See also * 8 Notes and references * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links

SIGNATORIES

Signatories of the Bologna Accord, members of the European Higher Education Area , are: European Higher Education Area

* 1999: Austria
Austria
, Belgium
Belgium
(Flemish and French Communities separately), Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, Denmark
Denmark
, Estonia
Estonia
, Finland
Finland
, France
France
, Germany
Germany
, Greece
Greece
, Hungary
Hungary
, Iceland
Iceland
, Ireland
Ireland
, Italy
Italy
, Latvia
Latvia
, Lithuania
Lithuania
, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
, Malta
Malta
, Netherlands
Netherlands
, Norway , Poland
Poland
, Portugal
Portugal
, Romania
Romania
, Slovakia
Slovakia
, Slovenia
Slovenia
, Spain
Spain
, Sweden
Sweden
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. * 2001: Croatia
Croatia
, Cyprus
Cyprus
, Liechtenstein , Turkey
Turkey
, European Commission * 2003: Albania
Albania
, Andorra , Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
, Vatican City
Vatican City
, Russia
Russia
, Serbia
Serbia
, Macedonia * 2005: Armenia
Armenia
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, Georgia , Moldova
Moldova
and Ukraine
Ukraine
* May 2007: Montenegro
Montenegro
* 2010: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* May 2015: Belarus
Belarus

All member states of the EU are participating in the process, with the European Commission also a signatory. Monaco
Monaco
and San Marino
San Marino
are the only members of the Council of Europe which did not adopt the process.

The ESU , EUA , EURASHE , EI, ENQA , UNICE, the Council of Europe and UNESCO
UNESCO
are part of the process' follow-up. Other groups at this level are ENIC , NARIC and EURODOC .

REJECTED COUNTRIES

Four countries are not members of the process. Although Kyrgyzstan ratified the Lisbon Recognition Convention in 2004, it is not a party to the European Cultural Convention of the Council of Europe and there are no known plans to expand the convention's geographical scope.

ISRAEL

Israel
Israel
is not a party to the European Cultural Convention of the Council of Europe, although it has observer status. Although Israel
Israel
is not geographically part of Europe, it is part of the UNESCO
UNESCO
European Region . Israel
Israel
is also a signatory of the Lisbon Recognition Convention but, under the criteria of the Berlin
Berlin
Communiqué, ineligible for the Bologna Process.

KOSOVO

Kosovo
Kosovo
is not a party to the European Cultural Convention of the Council of Europe. Although Serbia
Serbia
is a party, Kosovo
Kosovo
declared independence from it and is theoretically a part of the Bologna Process since the 1999 war. It was suggested that Kosovo
Kosovo
could be associated with the process in a category appropriate to its situation, such as guest or special-observer status.

NORTHERN CYPRUS

Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
satisfies the criteria for membership applications to the Bologna process established in the 2003 " Berlin
Berlin
communique". The universities in Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
can freely follow the Bologna priorities such as the degree structure system, quality assurance and credit system. In January 2007, Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
submitted a membership application to the Bologna process and demanded inclusion of its universities and the university students studying in Northern Cyprus in the European higher education area. To compensate for the lack of opportunities for the Turkish Cypriot students and teachers to benefit from mobility offered by the Erasmus programme, the European Commission has, under the Aid Regulation, set up a community scholarship scheme for the Turkish Cypriot community. This scheme enables undergraduate students and teachers to spend one year abroad at an EU university/higher education institution. In 2017, Cyprus Universities Association (CUA) of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
became a member of European Association of Institutions in Higher Education (EURASHE) that is formed by the observers of the countries participating to Bologna process and the representatives of EU Commission.

QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK

The basic framework is three cycles of higher-education qualifications. The framework adopted by the ministers at their meeting in Bergen in 2005 defines the qualifications in terms of learning outcomes: statements of what students know and can do on completing their degrees. In describing the cycles, the framework uses the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS):

* First cycle: typically 180–240 ECTS credits (a minimum of 60 credits per academic year ), usually awarding a bachelor\'s degree . The European Higher Education Area did not introduce the bachelor-with-honours programme, which allows graduates to receive a "BA hons. " degree (for example, in the UK, Australia and Canada) which (in the UK and Australia) may enable graduates to begin doctoral studies without first obtaining a master's degree. * Second cycle: typically 90–120 ECTS credits (a minimum of 60 ECTS per academic year), usually awarding a master\'s degree * Third cycle (doctoral degree): There is no concrete ECTS range, since the disciplines vary in length and comprehensiveness.

In most cases, it would take three to four years to earn a bachelor\'s degree and another one or two years for a master\'s degree . Doctoral degrees usually require another two to four years of specialization, primarily individual research under a mentor. Degree names may vary by country. One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS credits, equivalent to 1,500–1,800 hours of study..

CRITICISM

According to Chris Lorenz of the VU University Amsterdam ,

The basic idea behind all educational EU-plans is economic: the basic idea is the enlargement of scale of the European systems of higher education ... in order to enhance its 'competitiveness' by cutting down costs. Therefore a Europe-wide standardization of the 'values' produced in each of the national higher educational systems is called for." Just as the World Trade Organization and GATS propose educational reforms that would effectively erode all effective forms of democratic political control over higher education, so "it is obvious that the economic view on higher education recently developed and formulated by the EU Declarations is similar to and compatible with the view developed by the WTO and by GATS.

In 2011, Slavoj Zizek called the process "an attack on the public use of reason " and "the end of intellectual life as we know it".

EFFECTS BY STATE

The process, an intergovernmental agreement between EU and non-EU countries, does not have the status of EU legislation. Since the Bologna Declaration is not a treaty or convention, there are no legal obligations for the signatory states; participation and cooperation are voluntary.

Although the declaration was created without a formal affiliation with EU institutions, the European Commission (which has supported European projects such as the Tuning and TEEP projects) plays an important role in implementing the process. Most countries do not fit the framework, using their traditional systems. The process, which will result in bilateral agreements between countries and institutions which recognise each other's degrees, is moving from strict convergence in time spent on qualifications towards a competency-based system which will have an undergraduate and postgraduate division (with a bachelor's degree in the former and a master's and doctorate in the latter).

In mainland Europe, five-year-plus first degrees are common. Many do not complete their studies, and many countries are introducing bachelor-level qualifications. The situation is evolving as the Bologna Process
Bologna Process
is implemented.

Some countries introduced the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and discussed their degree structures, qualifications, financing and management of higher education and mobility programmes. At the institutional level, the reform involved higher-education institutions, their faculties or departments, student and staff representatives and other factors. Priorities varied by country and institution.

ANDORRA

In Andorra, degrees are awarded by the state in all three cycles (bachelor's, master's and doctoral). The University of Andorra has adapted its classroom studies to the European Higher Education Area in accordance with the Bologna Agreement. The degree workload is counted in European credits, with a European equivalent of 180 credits (three years) for bachelor's degrees and 120 credits (two years) for master's degrees.

AUSTRIA

See also: Education in Austria
Austria

Austria
Austria
's situation is similar to Germany's, with the lowest undergraduate degrees the Magister (FH) and Diplom (FH) (designed to take three or four years). The lowest graduate degrees are Magister and Diplom -Ingenieur, which typically fulfill a thesis requirement (including final examination and thesis defence) and can be obtained after four to six years of study. In 2000 many curricula began to be converted into bachelor's degrees (_Bakkalaureat_; the term was replaced by "bachelor's" in most curricula by 2007) and master's (_Magisterstudium_) programmes, with nominal durations of six semesters (three years) and three to four semesters (18 months to two years) respectively.

Enrollment in a doctoral programme generally requires a master's degree in a related field. Although the nominal duration of doctoral programmes is two or three years, the time to graduate varies considerably and is generally longer.

BELARUS

See also: Education in Belarus
Belarus

Belarus
Belarus
became a member of the European Higher Education Area at a conference in Yerevan
Yerevan
, Armenia
Armenia
in May 2015.

CROATIA

See also: Education in Croatia
Croatia

In Croatia
Croatia
, implementation of the Bologna Process
Bologna Process
began during the 2005–2006 academic year. A diploma degree became a baccalaureate (Croatian : _prvostupnik_), and the programmes were shortened from four to about three years. _Magisterij_ became a master's degree, achieved after two additional years of study. The _doktorat_ degree (PhD, dr.sc.) may be received after three more years (eight years total).

The typical length of study is three years for a bachelor's degree (_Baccalaureus_), two years for a master's (_magistar_) and three years for a doctor of science (_doktor znanosti_). A local distinction is made between vocational and academic degrees at the baccalareate level, and between engineering and other programs at levels below the doctoral.

There are several exceptions. The first degree in economics still takes four years, and the master's degree is obtained after an additional year at the University of Zagreb\'s Faculty of Economics and Zagreb School of Economics and Management. The four-plus-one-year system also applies to fine arts and music. Medical and related studies replace the bachelor's degree with six-year first professional degrees and graduate Doctor of Medicine (_doktor medicine_) degrees.

The old degrees are translated as follows:

* _Diploma_ holders hold master's degrees (_magistar inženjer_ for engineers and _magistar_ for others). * The old master's degree is grandfathered into _magistar znanosti_ (Master of Science), an intermediate title between the new master's degree and a doctorate for local use. * Doctoral degrees remain the same.

In May 2008, about 5,000 students protested weak funding, imprecisely defined new rules and the poor results of the Bologna reform.

DENMARK

See also: Education in Denmark
Denmark

Denmark
Denmark
introduced the 3+2+3 system in 1971 with an education-management working group of the Society of Danish Engineers and a 1984–85 group of the Federation of Danish Industries, both headed by Hans Bruno Lund. Before the adoption of international standards, the lowest degree normally awarded at universities in Denmark
Denmark
was equivalent to a master's degree (Kandidat/cand.mag). Although bachelor's degrees have been obtained after three years of study, most students continue the additional two years required for a master's degree. Mid-length (two-to four-year) professional degrees have been adapted as professional bachelor's degrees (3½ years).

FINLAND

See also: Education in Finland
Finland

In the Finnish pre-Bologna system, higher education was divided between universities and polytechnics . In universities, degrees were divided in most fields into a three-year bachelor's degree (_kandidaatti_) and a two-year master's degree (_maisteri_). In these fields, the Bologna Process
Bologna Process
resulted in no change.

In engineering, universities only offered a 5½-year master's program (_diplomi-insinööri _). This has been replaced by a three-year bachelor's degree (_tekniikan kandidaatti_) and a two-year master's degree (_diplomi-insinööri_), for which the English names are Bachelor of Science (Technology) and Master of Science (Technology). A corresponding change has been made in military higher education, where the officer's degree was divided between bachelor's and master's programmes. Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences , which have offered bachelor's-equivalent engineering programmes, began offering master's-degree programs in 2005. Some Master of Engineering (_insinööri (ylempi AMK)_) programmes are taught in English.

Only medicine and dentistry retain their non-standard degree structure, where the Licentiate (higher than a master's degree, but less extensive than Doctor of Medicine or Dentistry degrees) is the basic degree. A six-year program of at least 360 ECTS credits leads to the Licentiate of Medicine (_lääketieteen lisensiaatti_) degree. There is an intermediate title (but not an academic degree) of _lääketieteen kandidaatti_, and no master's degree.

Polytechnic degrees are considered bachelor's degrees in international use. In domestic use, bachelors transferring from polytechnics to universities may be required to amass a maximum of 60 ECTS credits of additional studies before beginning master's-level studies. In conjunction with the Bologna Process, polytechnics have the right to award master's degrees.

FRANCE

See also: Education in France
France

In France
France
the _baccalauréat_, awarded at the end of secondary education, allows students to enter university. Before the LMD reform which implemented the Bologna Process, it was followed by a two-year _Diplôme d\'études universitaires générales _ (DEUG) and a third-year Licence (the equivalent of a UK bachelor's degree).

Students could then pursue a Maîtrise, a one-year research degree which could be followed by a one-year vocational degree (the _Diplôme d'études supérieures spécialisées_ or DESS) or research degree (the _Diplôme d'études approfondies_, or DEA ). The DEA, preparation for a doctorate, was equivalent to the M. Phil . Students could then pursue a _doctorat_ (PhD), which took at least three years.

The DESS was created in 1975 for students who completed four-year degrees. Intended as a doctorate with a more practical approach than research, it included the production of a 120-page paper which was defended to a jury of three international specialists in the field. The mini-thesis was kept in the libraries of the university issuing the DESS, unlike a PhD dissertation (distributed by its author to every French university library).

Higher education in France
France
is also provided by non-university institutions dedicated to specific subjects. The _Diplôme d'ingénieur_ (engineering diploma) is awarded to students after five years of study in state-recognized _Écoles d'ingénieurs_, particularly the Grandes Écoles such as Mines , Centrale and ENAC .

Although the _baccalauréat_ and _doctorat_ are unchanged in the Bologna system (known in France
France
as LMD reform), the DEUG and _licence_ have been merged into a three-year Licence. The Maîtrise, DESS and DEA have been combined into a two-year master's degree, which can be work- (_master professionnel_) or research-oriented (_master recherche_). The _Diplôme d\'ingénieur _ degree is still separate from a university degree, but holders may legally claim a master's degree as well.

Strikes occurred in 2002 and 2003 and 2007 protesting LMD reform, focusing more on under-funding of French universities since May 1968 than on the Bologna Process. Although the two major student organisations object to some aspects of its application to the French system, they generally welcome the European process.

GEORGIA

See also: Education in Georgia (country)

Although Georgia joined the Bologna Process
Bologna Process
in 2005 at the Bergen summit, steps towards the establishment of the European Higher Education Area were completed earlier. Since the end of the 1990s, many Georgian universities (mostly private) have introduced limited educational programs allowing students to graduate with a bachelor\'s degree (four years) and earn a master's degree (one to two years) while preserving the old five-to-six-year scheme. During the Soviet era, the only degree was the discontinued Specialist.

Cycles of higher education are divided into first (bachelor's degree with 240 credits ), second (master's degree, 120 credits) and third (doctorate, 180 credits). Human and veterinary medicine and dentistry (300–360 credits) are integrated programs with a qualification equal to a master's degree.

GREECE

Main article: Education in Greece
Greece

Greece
Greece
joined the Bologna Process
Bologna Process
in 1999. Since 2007, more-intensive steps towards the establishment of the European Higher Education Area were completed.

HUNGARY

See also: Education in Hungary
Hungary

In Hungary
Hungary
, the Bologna system applies to those who began their university education in or after September 2006. One hundred eight majors were available for selection (compared with over 400 in 2005), of which six are exempt from the bachelor's-master's division: law, human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and architecture.

According to an online poll by the National Tertiary Education Information Centre, 65 percent of respondents thought it unnecessary to adopt the system. The new system provides less of a guarantee that students will obtain a master's degree, because many will complete their education after the three-year bachelor's degree. Students are expected to study more unrelated subjects during the first three years, due to the smaller number of majors.

ICELAND

See also: Education in Iceland
Iceland

In Iceland
Iceland
, bachelor's degrees are usually three years in duration; master's degrees are two years, and doctoral degrees range from three to six years.

IRELAND

See also: Education in the Republic of Ireland
Ireland

In Ireland
Ireland
, bachelor's degrees are commonly three to four years in duration; master's and doctoral degrees are basically similar to those in the UK. Bachelor's degrees are first-cycle qualifications. Except for the MA at the University of Dublin , a master's degree is always a postgraduate degree (teaching or research). The generic outcomes for Irish degrees are laid out in the 2003 National Framework of Qualifications. In 2006, Ireland
Ireland
was the first country to verify the compatibility of its national framework with that of the EHEA.

ITALY

See also: Education in Italy
Italy

Italy
Italy
fits the framework since its 1999 adoption of the 3+2 system. The first degree is the _ Laurea triennale_, which may be obtained after three years of study. Selected students may then complete their studies with two additional years of specialization leading to the _ Laurea Magistrale_.

The Laurea corresponds to a bachelor's degree; the Laurea magistrale, corresponding to a master's degree, grants access to third-cycle programmes (post-MA degrees, doctorates or specialized schools) lasting two to five years (completing a PhD usually takes three years). A five-year degree, Laurea Magistrale Quinquennale (Five-Year Master of Arts) is awarded in law (Facoltà di Giurisprudenza), the arts (Accademia di Belle Arti ) and music (Conservatorio di Musica). The title for BA and BS undergraduate students is _Dottore_ and for MA, MFA, MD and MEd graduate students _Dottore magistrale_ (abbreviated _Dott._, _Dott.ssa_ or _Dr._). This should not be confused with PhD and post-MA graduates, whose title is _Dottore di Ricerca_ (Research Doctor).

The Italian system has two types of master's degree. _Laurea Magistrale_ (120 ECTS) allows access to third-cycle programmes, and _Master universitario_ (at least 60 ECTS) may be divided into first- (second cycle) and second-level master's degrees (third cycle). A first-level master's degree is accessible by a first-cycle degree and "does not allow access to PhD and to 3rd cycle programmes, since this type of course does not belong to the general requirements established at national level, but it is offered under the autonomous responsibility of each university".

NETHERLANDS

See also: Education in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Academic degree § Netherlands
Netherlands

The Netherlands
Netherlands
differentiates between HBO (higher professional or polytechnic education) and WO (scientific education or research universities). HBO has become the bachelor's-master's system. It generally requires three years of education to obtain a bachelor's degree; graduates may then apply for a master's program at a university, which generally require one to two years to complete. An HBO bachelor graduate may have to pass one year of pre-master's education to bridge the gap between their HBO study and (research-oriented) WO study to be admitted to a WO Master's programme, which may grant degrees such as MA, MSc and LLM. There are also HBO master's studies, granting the title "Master of" rather than MA, MSc and LLM.

PORTUGAL

See also: Higher education in Portugal
Portugal

Due to the Bologna Process, in 2005 new _licenciatura_ (licentiate ) degrees were organized at university and polytechnic institutions of Portugal
Portugal
. Previously a four- to six-year programme, equivalent to 300 ECTS, it is now a three-year first cycle and the only requirement for the two-year second cycle which awards a master's degree. Some Bologna courses are integrated five- or six-year programmes awarding a joint master's degree, a common practice in medicine. In engineering, despite the use of two cycles, an engineer may be licensed only after obtaining a master's degree. Master's degrees attained after five or six years of study correspond to the old undergraduate degrees known as _licenciatura_. The new _licenciatura_, obtained after three years of study, corresponds to the discontinued _bacharelato_ awarded by polytechnics from the 1970s to the early 2000s (roughly equivalent to an extended associate degree ). Old and new master's degrees are the first graduate degree before a doctorate, and the old and new _licenciatura_ are undergraduate degrees.

The _licenciatura_ degree (a four- to six-year course) was required for applicants who wished to undertake the old master's and doctoral programmes, but admission was reserved for those with a _licenciatura_ degree with a grade above 14 (out of 20). After the changes introduced by the Bologna Process, the master's degree is conferred at the end of a programme roughly equivalent in time to many old _licenciatura_ programmes. The process was developed to improve the education system to one based on the development of competency rather than the transmission of knowledge. Its goal was the development of a system of easily comparable degrees to simplify the comparison of qualifications across Europe. Its flexibility and transparency is intended to enable wider recognition of student qualifications, facilitating movement around a European Higher Education Area based on two main cycles (undergraduate and graduate) and providing third-cycle degrees for doctoral candidates.

RUSSIA

See also: Education in Russia
Russia

The Russian higher education framework was basically incompatible with the process. The generic, lowest degree in all universities since the Soviet era is the _Specialist_, which can be obtained after five to six years of study. Since the mid-1990s, many universities have introduced limited programmes allowing students to graduate with a bachelor's degree in four years and a master's degree in an additional one to two years while preserving the old system. In October 2007, Russia
Russia
moved to two-tier education in line with the Bologna Process. Universities inserted a BSc diploma in the middle of their standard specialist programmes, but the transition to MS qualification has not been completed.

Although Specialists and masters are eligible for postgraduate courses (_Aspirantura_), bachelors are not; the Specialist degree is being discontinued. In most universities bachelor's- and master's-degree education is free of charge, although some state and private universities charge for one or both. The labour market does not yet understand BSc diplomas, but some universities made the program similar to classical education and the MS stage remains mandatory for most graduates.

SWEDEN

See also: Education in Sweden
Sweden
and Academic grading in Sweden
Sweden

A bill proposing new regulations in the field of Higher Education was presented to Parliament in 2005, and the new system came into force in July 2007. The new system of degrees will have two degrees, of different lengths, in each cycle.

CYCLE SWEDISH ENGLISH LENGTH (UNDERGRADUATE) LENGTH (POSTGRADUATE)

1 _Högskoleexamen_ University diploma 2 years n/a

1 _Kandidatexamen_ Bachelor's degree 3 years _Högskoleexamen_ + 1 year

2 _Magisterexamen_ Master's degree, 1 year (a.k.a. "Swedish master's degree") 4 years _Kandidatexamen_ + 1 year

2 _Masterexamen_ Master's degree, 2 years 5 years _Kandidatexamen_ + 2 years _or_ _Magisterexamen_ + 1 year

3 _Licentiatexamen_ Licentiate n/a _Kandidatexamen_ or higher + 2 years

3 _Doktorsexamen_ Doctorate n/a _Kandidatexamen_ or higher + 4 years

Students may not always be offered all the combinations above to obtain a degree. The _högskoleexamen_ is usually not offered, and many schools require students to obtain the _kandidatexamen_ before obtaining a _magisterexamen_ or _masterexamen_. Most third-cycle programmes require at least a _magisterexamen_, although the legal requirement is only the _kandidatexamen_.

In July 2007 a new system of credits, compatible with the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, was introduced in which one credit (_högskolepoäng_) in the new system corresponds to one ECTS credit and two-thirds of a credit in the old system (_poäng_).

Some Swedish universities have introduced the ECTS standard grading scale for all students, and others will use it only for international students. Since criterion-referenced grading is used instead of relative grading in the Swedish educational system, the 10-, 25-, 30-, 25- and 10-percent distribution of students among A, B, C, D and E will not be done. Some universities only give Fail or Pass grades (F or P) for certain courses (such as internship and thesis projects) or assignments, such as laboratory exercises.

SEMINARS

Several Bologna Process
Bologna Process
seminars have been held. The first devoted to a single academic discipline , Chemistry Studies in the European Higher Education Area (which approved Eurobachelor ), was held in June 2004 in Dresden
Dresden
.

SEE ALSO

* Chemistry Quality Eurolabels * Education by country * Education in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
* Education in England * Education in Germany
Germany
* Education in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* Education in Lithuania
Lithuania
* Education in the Republic of Macedonia * Education in Malta
Malta
* Education in Moldova
Moldova
* Education in Montenegro
Montenegro
* Education in Northern Ireland
Ireland
* Education in Norway
Norway
* Education in Poland
Poland
* Education in Romania
Romania
* Education in Scotland * Education in Serbia
Serbia
* Education in Slovakia
Slovakia
* Education in Slovenia
Slovenia
* Education in Spain
Spain
* Education in Switzerland
Switzerland
* Education in Turkey
Turkey
* Education in Ukraine
Ukraine
* Education in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Education in Wales * European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System * European Higher Education Area * Higher education in Norway
Norway
* Melbourne Model
Melbourne Model

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ Council of Europe. "European Cultural Convention". _1954_. * ^ "Sorbonne Joint Declaration: Joint declaration on harmonisation of the architecture of the European higher education system" (PDF). DAAD . 25 May 1998. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2010. * ^ "Members". European Higher Education Area. 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016. * ^ "Bologna for Pedestrians, The Council of Europe Internet Portal.". Coe.int. 19 June 1999. Retrieved 28 April 2010. * ^ Bologna Follow-Up Group (2007). "Applications for Accession to the Bologna Process". Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2012. * ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20081030215326/http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/londonbologna/uploads/documents/BFUG11_7a_applicationstojoinBolognaProcess.doc * ^ "Applications to join the Bologna Process". Dcsf.gov.uk. 23 February 2007. Archived from the original (DOC) on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010. * ^ European Parliament Parliamentary questions and answers * ^ Council Regulation (EC) No 389/2006 of 27 February 2006 establishing an instrument of financial support for encouraging the economic development of the Turkish Cypriot community and amending Council Regulation (EC) No 2667/2000 on the European Agency for Reconstructionm, OJ L 65, 7.3.2006. * ^ European Parliament Parliamentary questions and answers * ^ EURASHE Members * ^ "The framework of qualifications for the European Higher Education Area" (PDF). _EHEA_. May 2005. Retrieved 18 March 2016. * ^ Lorenz, Chris (2006). "Will the universities survive the European Integration? Higher Education Policies in the EU and in the Netherlands
Netherlands
before and after the Bologna Declaration" (PDF). University of Amsterdam. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016. * ^ _Julian Assange in conversation with Slavoj Zizek moderated by Democracy Now\'s Amy Goodman_ (Video). Frontline Club. 2 July 2011. j1Xm08uTSDQ. Retrieved 10 October 2015. * ^ "Outstanding features". _University of Andorra_. 2012. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013. * ^ "Belarus’ accession to Bologna Process
Bologna Process
approved by European education ministers". Belarus
Belarus
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Alexandra Kertz-Welzel, "Motivation zur Weiterbildung: Master- und Bachelor-Abschlüsse in den USA", _Diskussion Musikpädagogik_, vol. 29, pp. 33–35, 2006.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 156410158 * ISNI : 0000 0001 2192 0306 * GND : 4833805-9 * SUDOC : 102366659 *

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