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BOLOGNA (/bəˈloʊnjə/ _bə-LOHN-yə_ ; Italian pronunciation: (_ listen ); Emilian : Bulåggna_, pronounced ; Latin : _Bŏnṓnĭa_) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy
Italy
. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy, located in the heart of a metropolitan area (officially recognised by the Italian government as a _città metropolitana _) of about one million.

The first settlements date back to at least 1000 BC. The city has been an urban centre, first under the Etruscans (Velzna/Felsina) and the Celts
Celts
(_Bona_), then under the Romans (_Bononia_), then again in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, as a free municipality (for one century it was the fifth largest European city based on population). Home to the oldest university in the world , University of Bologna , founded in 1088, Bologna
Bologna
hosts thousands of students who enrich the social and cultural life of the city. Famous for its towers and lengthy porticoes , Bologna
Bologna
has a well-preserved historical centre (one of the largest in Italy) thanks to a careful restoration and conservation policy which began at the end of the 1970s, on the heels of serious damage done by the urban demolition at the end of the 19th century as well as that caused by wars.

An important cultural and artistic centre, its importance in terms of landmarks can be attributed to a varied mixture of monuments and architectural examples (medieval towers, antique buildings, churches, the layout of its historical centre) as well as works of art which are the result of a first class architectural and artistic history. Bologna
Bologna
is also an important transportation crossroad for the roads and trains of Northern Italy, where many important mechanical, electronic and nutritional industries have their headquarters. According to the most recent data gathered by the European Regional Economic Growth Index (E-REGI) of 2009, Bologna
Bologna
is the first Italian city and the 47th European city in terms of its economic growth rate.

Bologna
Bologna
is home to numerous prestigious cultural, economic and political institutions as well as one of the most impressive trade fair districts in Europe. In 2000 it was declared European capital of culture and in 2006, a UNESCO
UNESCO
"city of music". The city of Bologna was selected to participate in the Universal Exposition of Shanghai 2010 together with 45 other cities from around the world. Bologna
Bologna
is also one of the wealthiest cities in Italy, often ranking as one of the top cities in terms of quality of life in the country: in 2011 it ranked 1st out of 107 Italian cities.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 1.2 Early modern

* 1.3 Late modern and contemporary

* 1.3.1 World War II
World War II
* 1.3.2 Post-war years

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Territory * 2.2 Climate

* 3 Government * 4 Main sights * 5 Economy * 6 Transport * 7 Demographics * 8 Education

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 Entertainment and performing arts * 9.2 Cuisine

* 10 Sport * 11 People * 12 Companies * 13 International relations * 14 See also * 15 References

* 16 Further reading

* 16.1 Guide books * 16.2 Older guides

* 17 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Bologna

MIDDLE AGES

_ Porta Maggiore, one of the twelve medieval city gates of Bologna. Depiction of a 14th-century fight between the militias of the Guelf and Ghibelline factions in Bologna, from the Croniche_ of Giovanni Sercambi of Lucca.

After a long decline, Bologna
Bologna
was reborn in the 5th century under Bishop Petronius . According to legend, St. Petronius built the church of S. Stefano. After the fall of Rome
Rome
, Bologna
Bologna
was a frontier stronghold of the Exarchate of Ravenna in the Po plain, and was defended by a line of walls which did not enclose most of the ancient ruined Roman city. In 728, the city was captured by the Lombard king Liutprand , becoming part of the Lombard Kingdom. The Germanic conquerors formed a district called "addizione longobarda" near the complex of S. Stefano. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
stayed in this district in 786.

In the 11th century, under the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, Bologna
Bologna
began to aspire to being a free commune , which it was able to do when Matilda of Tuscany
Tuscany
died, in 1115, and the following year the city obtained many judicial and economic concessions from Emperor Henry V . Bologna joined the Lombard League against Frederick Barbarossa
Frederick Barbarossa
in 1164 which ended with the Peace of Constance in 1183; after which, the city began to expand rapidly (this is the period in which its famous towers were built) and it became one of the main commercial trade centres thanks to a system of canals that allowed large ships to come and go.

Traditionally said to be founded in 1088, the University of Bologna is widely considered to be the first university . The university originated as an international centre of study of medieval Roman law under major glossators , including Irnerius
Irnerius
. It numbered Dante
Dante
, Boccaccio and Petrarca among its students. The medical school is especially famous.

In the 12th century, the city's families engaged in continual internecine fighting.

EARLY MODERN

Bologna
Bologna
in 1640. Walls and gates of Bologna.

Troops of Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II
besieged Bologna
Bologna
and sacked the artistic treasures of his palace. From that point on, until the 18th century, Bologna
Bologna
was part of the Papal States
Papal States
, ruled by a cardinal legato and by a Senate which every two months elected a gonfaloniere (judge), assisted by eight elder consuls. In 1530, in front of Saint Petronio Church , Charles V was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII .

Then a plague at the end of the 16th century reduced the population from 72,000 to 59,000, and another in 1630 to 47,000. The population later recovered to a stable 60,000–65,000. However, there was also great progress during this era: in 1564, the Piazza del Nettuno and the Palazzo dei Banchi were built, along with the Archiginnasio
Archiginnasio
, the centre of the University. The period of Papal rule saw the construction of many churches and other religious establishments, and the reincarnation of older ones. At this time, Bologna
Bologna
had ninety-six convents, more than any other Italian city. Artists working during this period in Bologna
Bologna
established the Bolognese School which includes Annibale Carracci
Annibale Carracci
, Domenichino
Domenichino
, Guercino and others of European fame.

LATE MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY

Piazza del Nettuno in 1855, looking towards Piazza Maggiore.

In 1796 Napoleon
Napoleon
conquered Bologna, making it the capital of the short lived Cispadane Republic . After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 placed Bologna
Bologna
once again under the sovereignty of the Papal States
Papal States
, leading to the uprisings of 1831 and 1848, when the Austrian garrisons which controlled the city were temporarily expelled. Eventually, during the Second War of Italian Independence , on 11 and 12 March 1860 the city voted in favour of annexation by the Kingdom of Sardinia , soon to become the new Kingdom of Italy
Italy
.

World War II

Bologna
Bologna
suffered extensive damage during World War II
World War II
. The strategic importance of the city as industrial and railway hub connecting northern and central Italy
Italy
made it a strategic target for the Allied forces. On 16 July 1943 a massive aerial bombardment destroyed much of the historic city centre and killed scores of people. The main railway station and adjoining areas were severely hit, and 44% of the buildings in the centre were listed as having been destroyed or severely damaged. The city was heavily bombed again on 25 September. The raids, which this time were not confined to the city centre, left 936 people dead and thousands injured.

During the war, the city became a key centre of the Italian resistance movement . On 7 November 1944, a pitched battle around Porta Lame , waged by partisans of the 7th Brigade of the _Gruppi d'Azione Patriottica_ against Fascist and Nazi occupation forces, did not succeed in triggering a general uprising, despite being one of the largest resistance-led urban conflicts in the European theatre. Resistance forces entered Bologna
Bologna
on the morning of 21 April 1945. By this time, the Germans had already largely left the city in the face of the Allied advance, spearheaded by Polish forces advancing from the east during the Battle of Bologna which had been fought since 9 April. First to arrive in the centre was the 87th Infantry Regiment of the Friuli Combat Group under general Arturo Scattini , who entered the centre from _Porta Maggiore_ to the south. Since the soldiers were dressed in British outfits, they were initially thought to be part of the allied forces; when the local inhabitants heard the soldiers were speaking Italian, they poured out on to the streets to celebrate.

Post-war Years

Aftermath of the 1980 terrorist bombing.

In the post-war years, Bologna
Bologna
became a thriving industrial centre as well as a political stronghold of the Italian Communist Party . Between 1945 and 1999, the city had an uninterrupted series of left-wing mayors , the first of whom was Giuseppe Dozza .

In 1977 Bologna
Bologna
was the scene of rioting linked to the Movement of 1977 , a spontaneous political movement of the time. The alleged police shooting of a far-left activist, Francesco Lorusso , sparked two days of street clashes. On 2 August 1980, at the height of the "years of lead ", a terrorist bomb was set off in the central railway station of Bologna
Bologna
killing 85 people and wounding 200, an event which is known in Italy
Italy
as the Bologna massacre . In 1995, members of the neo-fascist group Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari were convicted for carrying out the attack, while Licio Gelli
Licio Gelli
—Grand Master of the underground Freemason lodge Propaganda Due (P2) —was convicted for hampering the investigation, together with three agents of the secret military intelligence service SISMI (including Francesco Pazienza and Pietro Musumeci ). Commemorations take place in Bologna
Bologna
on 2 August each year, culminating in a concert in the main square.

In 1999 the long tradition of left-wing mayors was interrupted by the victory of the independent candidate Giorgio Guazzaloca, who led a centre-right coalition; this brief experience ended in 2004 when Sergio Cofferati , a former trade union leader, was elected. The next centre-left mayor, Flavio Delbono , elected in June 2009, resigned in January 2010 after being involved in a corruption scandal. After a 15-month period in which the city was administered under Anna Maria Cancellieri (as a state-appointed prefect ), Virginio Merola was elected as mayor, leading a left-wing coalition comprising the Democratic Party , Left Ecology Freedom and Italy
Italy
of Values .

GEOGRAPHY

TERRITORY

Aerial photograph of Bologna
Bologna
(from East to West).

Bologna
Bologna
is situated on the edge of the Po Plain at the foot of the Apennine Mountains , at the meeting of the Reno and Savena river valleys. As Bologna's two main watercourses flow directly to the sea, the town lies outside of the drainage basin of the River Po . The Province of Bologna stretches from the western edge of the Po Plain on the border with Ferrara to the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines. The centre of the town is 54 metres (177 ft) above sea level (while elevation within the municipality ranges from 29 metres (95 ft) in the suburb of Corticella to 300 metres (980 ft) in Sabbiuno and the Colle della Guardia). The Province of Bologna stretches from the Po Plain into the Apennines; the highest point in the province is the peak of Corno alle Scale (in Lizzano in Belvedere ) at 1,945 metres (6,381 ft) above sea level.

CLIMATE

Bologna
Bologna
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen : Cfa, Trewartha : Do).

Annual precipitation oscillates between around 450 mm (18 in) and 900 mm (35 in), with the majority generally falling in spring and autumn. Snow
Snow
occasionally falls during winter and heavy snowfalls; the last major event was in February 2012 , when almost a meter of snow fell in the city.

CLIMATE DATA FOR BOLOGNA (1971–2000, EXTREMES 1946–PRESENT)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 20.7 (69.3) 24.9 (76.8) 27.0 (80.6) 30.6 (87.1) 34.9 (94.8) 37.3 (99.1) 39.6 (103.3) 39.7 (103.5) 34.8 (94.6) 29.8 (85.6) 24.0 (75.2) 23.0 (73.4) 39.7 (103.5)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 6.0 (42.8) 9.0 (48.2) 14.2 (57.6) 17.7 (63.9) 23.0 (73.4) 27.1 (80.8) 30.4 (86.7) 29.8 (85.6) 25.4 (77.7) 18.6 (65.5) 11.1 (52) 6.8 (44.2) 18.3 (64.9)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 2.8 (37) 5.0 (41) 9.2 (48.6) 12.5 (54.5) 17.5 (63.5) 21.4 (70.5) 24.4 (75.9) 24.1 (75.4) 20.1 (68.2) 14.4 (57.9) 7.7 (45.9) 3.6 (38.5) 13.6 (56.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −0.5 (31.1) 0.9 (33.6) 4.1 (39.4) 7.4 (45.3) 12.0 (53.6) 15.7 (60.3) 18.5 (65.3) 18.4 (65.1) 14.8 (58.6) 10.1 (50.2) 4.3 (39.7) 0.4 (32.7) 8.8 (47.8)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −18.8 (−1.8) −14.4 (6.1) −9.7 (14.5) −4.5 (23.9) 0.8 (33.4) 7.0 (44.6) 9.0 (48.2) 9.7 (49.5) 4.5 (40.1) −1.8 (28.8) −9.0 (15.8) −13.4 (7.9) −18.8 (−1.8)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 34.0 (1.339) 44.3 (1.744) 54.2 (2.134) 74.2 (2.921) 58.0 (2.283) 57.3 (2.256) 40.5 (1.594) 52.5 (2.067) 67.5 (2.657) 72.3 (2.846) 68.0 (2.677) 48.5 (1.909) 671.3 (26.429)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 5.9 5.6 7.1 8.2 8.1 6.1 4.2 5.2 5.4 7.1 6.4 5.8 75.1

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 83 78 70 71 69 68 65 66 69 76 84 84 74

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 77.5 96.1 151.9 174.0 229.4 255.0 291.4 260.4 201.0 148.8 81.0 74.4 2,040.9

Source: Servizio Meteorologico (sun and humidity 1961–1990)

GOVERNMENT

See also: List of mayors of Bologna

Bologna
Bologna
City Council Consiglio Comunale di Bologna
Bologna

LEADERSHIP

MAYOR Virginio Merola , PD Since 16 May 2011

STRUCTURE

SEATS 32

POLITICAL GROUPS

MAJORITY (22)

* PD 21 * CCA 1

OPPOSITION (14)

* LN 4 * M5S 4 * FI 2 * IB 2 * CC 2

ELECTIONS

VOTING SYSTEM Party-list proportional representation

LAST ELECTION 5–19 June 2016

MEETING PLACE

Palazzo d\'Accursio , Bologna

WEBSITE

Official website

Palazzo D'Accursio, Bologna's City Hall.

The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council (_Consiglio Comunale_), which is composed of 36 councillors elected every five years with a proportional system, contextually to the mayoral elections. The executive body is the City Committee (_Giunta Comunale_), composed by 7 assessors , that is nominated and presieded over by a directly elected Mayor . The current mayor of Bologna
Bologna
is Virginio Merola (PD ), elected on 16 May 2011 with the 50.5% of the votes.

The municipality of Bologna
Bologna
was subdivided into nine administrative Boroughs (_Quartieri_) until 2015. Each Borough is governed by a Council (_Consiglio_) and a President, elected contextually to the city Mayor. The urban organization is governed by the Italian Constitution (art. 114). The Boroughs have the power to advise the Mayor with nonbinding opinions on a large spectrum of topics (environment, construction, public health, local markets) and exercise the functions delegated to them by the City Council; in addition they are supplied with an autonomous founding in order to finance local activities. Of the nine boroughs, eight were governed by the Democratic Party and one by the Lega Nord . In July 2015 has been approved a reform to reduce the Boroughs from nine to six, as a result of the spending review to save up to 200.000 euros.

MAIN SIGHTS

_ Panoramic view of central Bologna
Bologna
Piazza Maggiore
Piazza Maggiore
, with San Petronio Basilica and the City Hall . For a complete list, see Buildings and structures in Bologna
Bologna
._ _ The iconic Due Torri_ Antiques market and porticoes in Piazza Santo Stefano . Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca .

Until the late 19th century, when a large-scale urban renewal project was undertaken, Bologna
Bologna
remained one of the few remaining large walled cities in Europe; to this day and despite having suffered considerable bombing damage in 1944, Bologna's 350 acres (141.64 ha) historic centre is Europe's second largest, containing an immense wealth of important medieval, renaissance, and baroque artistic monuments.

Bologna
Bologna
developed along the Via Emilia as an Etruscan and later Roman colony; the Via Emilia still runs straight through the city under the changing names of Strada Maggiore, Rizzoli, Ugo Bassi, and San Felice. Due to its Roman heritage, the central streets of Bologna, today largely pedestrianized, follow the grid pattern of the Roman settlement. The original Roman ramparts were supplanted by a high medieval system of fortifications, remains of which are still visible, and finally by a third and final set of ramparts built in the 13th century, of which numerous sections survive. No more than twenty medieval defensive towers remain out of up to 180 that were built in the 12th and 13th centuries before the arrival of unified civic government. The most famous of the towers of Bologna
Bologna
are the central "Due Torri" (_Asinelli_ and _Garisenda_), whose iconic leaning forms provide a popular symbol of the town.

The cityscape is further enriched by its elegant and extensive porticoes, for which the city is famous. In total, there are some 38 kilometres (24 miles) of porticoes in the city's historical centre (over 45 km (28 mi) in the city proper), which make it possible to walk for long distances sheltered from the elements.

The Portico
Portico
di San Luca is possibly the world's longest. It connects Porta Saragozza (one of the twelve gates of the ancient walls built in the Middle Ages, which circled a 7.5 km (4.7 mi) part of the city) with the Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca , a church begun in 1723 on the site of an 11th-century edifice which had already been enlarged in the 14th century, prominently located on a hill (289 metres (948 feet)) overlooking the town, which is one of Bologna's main landmarks. The winding 666 vault arcade, almost four kilometres (3,796 m or 12,454 ft) long, effectively links San Luca, as the church is commonly called, to the centre of town. Its porticos provide shelter for the traditional procession which every year since 1433 has carried a Byzantine icon of the Madonna with Child attributed to Luke the Evangelist down to the Bologna Cathedral during Ascension week.

Other churches in Bologna
Bologna
include:

* Basilica of San Petronio , one of the world's largest churches * Basilica of Santo Stefano and sanctuary * Basilica of San Domenico and sanctuary * Basilica of St Francis * Basilica of Santa Maria dei Servi * Basilica of San Giacomo Maggiore (13th–14th century), featuring Renaissance artworks such as the Bentivoglio Altarpiece by Lorenzo Costa * Church of San Michele in Bosco

View from the top of the Basilica di San Petronio. In center the dome of Santuario di Santa Maria della Vita, right – "Due Torri": Asinelli (higher) and Garisenda.

ECONOMY

Unipol Tower , at 127 m, is the city's tallest building.

Bologna
Bologna
is an important railway and motorway hub in Italy. The economy of Bologna
Bologna
is characterized by a flourishing industrial sector, traditionally based on the transformation of agricultural and zootechnical products ( Granarolo , Segafredo Zanetti ). It also includes machinery (Coesia , IMA ), energy ( Hera Group ), automotive ( Ducati
Ducati
, Lamborghini
Lamborghini
), footwear, textile, engineering, chemical, printing and publishing industries, as well as a strong financial, insurance ( Unipol ) and retail ( Coop Italia , Conad ) activity. Fiera District

The city's Fiera District (exhibition centre) is one of the largest in Europe, with important yearly international expos focused on the automobile sector ( Bologna Motor Show ), ceramics for the building industry (International Exhibition of Ceramic Tiles and Bathroom Furnishings) and food industry. In addition, several important firms in the fields of food, tobacco and electronics have their headquarters in the urban area of Bologna, as well as important retail and wholesale trade (the "Centergross" in Argelato , esabilished in 1973), and one of the largest Italian food processing companies (Conserve Italia ).

TRANSPORT

Bologna
Bologna
is home to the Guglielmo Marconi International Airport , recently expanded to accommodate larger aircraft. Today, it is the seventh busiest Italian airport for passenger traffic (7 million passengers handled in 2016). Bologna Centrale railway station is one of the most important train hubs in Italy
Italy
thanks to the city's strategic location. It serves 58 million passengers annually. In addition, Bologna
Bologna
San Donato classification yard , with 33 railway tracks, is the largest in Italy
Italy
by size and traffic. The city is also served by a large network of public bus lines, including trolleybus lines , operated since 2012 by Trasporto Passeggeri Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
SpA (TPER).

A large commuter rail service is currently under development (see Bologna metropolitan railway service ).

DEMOGRAPHICS

At the end of 2016, the city proper had a population of 388,254 (while 1 million live in the greater Bologna
Bologna
area), located in the province of Bologna, Emilia Romagna , of whom 46.7% were male and 53.3% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 12.86 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 27.02 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Bologna resident is 51 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Bologna
Bologna
grew by 0.0 percent, while Italy
Italy
as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. The current birth rate of Bologna
Bologna
is 8.07 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.

As of 2009 , 89.47% of the population was Italian . The largest immigrant group came from other European countries (mostly Romanians and Albanians ): 2.82%, East Asia
East Asia
(mostly Filipino ): 1.50%, and South Asia (mostly from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
): 1.39%.

EDUCATION

Courtyard of the 16th-century Archiginnasio
Archiginnasio
, historical seat of the University of Bologna —Europe's oldest, founded in 1088.

The University of Bologna , founded in 1088, is the oldest university in the world, and was an important centre of European intellectual life during the Middle Ages, attracting scholars from Italy
Italy
and throughout Europe. A unique heritage of medieval art, exemplified by the illuminated manuscripts and jurists' tombs produced in the city from the 13th to the 15th centuries, provides a cultural backdrop to the renown of the medieval institution. The Studium, as it was originally known, began as a loosely organized teaching system with each master collecting fees from students on an individual basis. The location of the early University was thus spread throughout the city, with various colleges being founded to support students of a specific nationality. Anatomical theatre of the Archiginnasio
Archiginnasio
, dating from 1637.

In the Napoleonic era, the headquarters of the university were moved to their present location on Via Zamboni (formerly Via San Donato), in the north-eastern sector of the city centre. Today, the University's 11 schools, 33 departments, and 93 libraries are spread across the city and include four subsidiary campuses in nearby Cesena
Cesena
, Forlì
Forlì
, Ravenna
Ravenna
, and Rimini . Noteworthy students present at the university in centuries past included Dante
Dante
, Petrarch , Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket
, Pope Nicholas V , Erasmus of Rotterdam , Peter Martyr Vermigli , and Copernicus . Laura Bassi , appointed in 1732, became the first woman to officially teach at a college in Europe. In more recent history, Luigi Galvani , the discoverer of biological electricity , and Guglielmo Marconi
Guglielmo Marconi
, the pioneer of radio technology, also worked at the University. The University of Bologna remains one of the most respected and dynamic post-secondary educational institutions in Italy. To this day, Bologna
Bologna
is still very much a university town, and the city's population swells from 400,000 to over 500,000 whenever classes are in session. This community includes a great number of Erasmus, Socrates, and overseas students.

The university's botanical garden , the Orto Botanico dell\'Università di Bologna
Bologna
, was established in 1568; it is the fourth oldest in Europe.

Bologna
Bologna
is also home to other universities such as the Bologna
Bologna
Center of Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS). SAIS Bologna
Bologna
was founded in 1955 as the first campus of a US post-graduate school to open in Europe. It was inspired by Marshall Plan efforts to build a cultural bridge between America and Europe. Today, the Bologna
Bologna
Center also hosts the _Associazione italo-americana "Luciano Finelli,"_ which supports cross-cultural awareness and exchange between Italy
Italy
and the United States.

In the city are present several high schools and institutes superiors, both public and independent schools .

The secondary schools are:

* High School of Art and Design Francesco Arcangeli * Liceo ginnasio statale ( Liceo scientifico and Liceo Classico ) Luigi Galvani * Liceo ginnasio statale ( Liceo Classico ) Marco Minghetti * Liceo linguistico umanistico Laura Bassi * Liceo scientifico Augusto Righi * Liceo scientifico Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
* Liceo scientifico Niccolò Copernico * Liceo scientifico Albert Bruce Sabin * Liceo scientifico Leonardo Da Vinci
Leonardo Da Vinci
* Liceo scientifico Enrico Mattei

The Independent School are:

* Liceo scientifico Alessandro Manzoni (Scuole Manzoni) * Liceo scientifico Malpighi * Liceo linguistico International * Liceo scientifico San Vincenzo Dè Paoli * Istituto Sant'Alberto Magno * Istituto Composito Collegio San Luigi * Centro Studi Santo Stefano

The Secondary Technical School are:

* Istituto di Istruzione Superiore Pier Crescenzi e Antonio Pacinotti * Istituto tecnico commerciale statale Rosa Luxemburg
Rosa Luxemburg
* Istituto tecnico industriale Odone Belluzzi * Istituto tecnico industriale Aldini Valeriani-Sirani * Istituto professionale statale Artigianato e Servizi Aldrovandi – Rubbiani * Istituto professionale per l'industria e l'artigianato Aristotile Fioravanti * Istituto tecnico agrario (agricolutarl education ) A. Serpieri * Istituto di istruzione superiore IPC Manfredi – ITC Tanari

CULTURE

The International museum and library of music displays ancient musical instruments and unique musical scores from the 16th to the 20th centuries.

Over the centuries, Bologna
Bologna
has acquired many nicknames: "the learned one" (_la dotta_) is a reference to its university; "the fat one" (_la grassa_) refers to its cuisine.

"The red one" (_la rossa_) originally refers to the colour of the roofs in the historic centre, but this nickname is also connected to the political situation in the city, started after World War II: until the election of a centre-right mayor in 1999, the city was renowned as a bastion of socialism and communism in particular the Italian Communist Party . The centre-left regained power again in the 2004 mayoral elections, with the election of Sergio Cofferati . It was one of the first European cities to experiment with the concept of free public transport .

The city of Bologna
Bologna
was appointed a UNESCO
UNESCO
City of Music on 26 May 2006. According to UNESCO, "As the first Italian city to be appointed to the Network, Bologna
Bologna
has demonstrated a rich musical tradition that is continuing to evolve as a vibrant factor of contemporary life and creation. It has also shown a strong commitment to promoting music as an important vehicle for inclusion in the fight against racism and in an effort to encourage economic and social development. Fostering a wide range of genres from classical to electronic, jazz, folk and opera, Bologna
Bologna
offers its citizens a musical vitality that deeply infiltrates the city's professional, academic, social and cultural facets."

ENTERTAINMENT AND PERFORMING ARTS

Façade of "Arena del Sole" theatre.

The theatre was a popular form of entertainment in Bologna
Bologna
until the 16th century. The first public theater was the Teatro alla Scala, active since 1547 in Palazzo del Podestà .

An important figure of Italian Bolognese theatre was Alfredo Testoni , the playwright, author of _The Cardinal Lambertini _, which has had great theatrical success since 1905, repeated on screen by the Bolognese actor Gino Cervi .

In 1998, the City of Bologna
Bologna
initiated the project " Bologna
Bologna
dei Teatri" ( Bologna
Bologna
of the Theatres), an association of the major theatrical facilities in the city. This is a circuit of theatres which offer diverse and colourful cultural and theatrical opportunities, ranging from Bolognese dialect to contemporary dance , but with a communications strategy and promoting unity. Specifically, the shows on the bill in various theatres participating in the project are advertised weekly through a single poster.

Bologna's opera house is the Teatro Comunale di Bologna .

The Orchestra Mozart , whose music director was Claudio Abbado until his death in 2014, was created in 2004.

Bologna
Bologna
hosts a number of festivals and other events, including:

* Angelica: International Contemporary Music Festival * Bologna
Bologna
Contemporanea: international festival on contemporary * Bolognafestival: international classical music festival * Bologna
Bologna
Jazz Festival: the Italian autumn jazz event * Biografilm Festival: International Film Festival devote to Biography * BilBolBul:International Comic Festival * Danza Urbana: International Street Contemporary Dance
Dance
Festival * F.I.S.Co : International Festival on Contemporary art (now merged in Live Arts Week ) * Future Film Festival: International Festival on animation and special effects * Il Cinema Ritrovato: International Film Festival about Forgotten Films * Live Arts Week * Gender Bender: International Festival on the gender identity, sexual orientation and body representation * Homework festival: electronic music festival * Human Rights Film Festival * Netmage : International Festival dedicated to Electronic Art (now merged in Live Arts Week ) * Some Prefer cake: Italian lesbian film festival * Zecchino d\'Oro : International festival of children's song

CUISINE

_ Tagliatelle al ragù Bolognese_ as served in Bologna.

Bologna
Bologna
is renowned for its culinary tradition. It has given its name to the well-known Bolognese sauce , a meat based pasta sauce called in Italy
Italy
_ragù alla bolognese_ but in the city itself just _ragù_ as in _ Tagliatelle al ragù_. Situated in the fertile Po River Valley, the rich local cuisine depends heavily on meats and cheeses. As in all of Emilia-Romagna, the production of cured pork meats such as prosciutto , mortadella and salumi is an important part of the local food industry. Well-regarded nearby vineyards include Pignoletto dei Colli Bolognesi, Lambrusco di Modena
Modena
and Sangiovese di Romagna. Tagliatelle with ragù , lasagne , tortellini served in broth, and mortadella, the original Bologna sausage , are among the local specialties. Traditional Bolognese desserts are often linked to holidays, such as fave dei morti, multi-coloured almond paste cookies made for All Saints\' Day , jam-filled raviole cookies that are served on Saint Joseph\'s Day , and carnival sweets known as sfrappole, a light and delicate fried pastry topped with powder sugar. Torta di riso, a custard-like cake made of almonds, rice and amaretto, is made throughout the year.

SPORT

The 38,000-capacity Stadio Renato Dall\'Ara is the home of Bologna FC 1909

A sporting nickname for Bologna
Bologna
is _Basket City_ in reference to the successes of the town's two rival historic basketball clubs, Fortitudo and Virtus , though the clubs are now often referred to by the names of their current sponsors. Of the two, the latter won 15 Italian basketball championships and two Euroleagues making them one of the most influential European basketball clubs; the former won two league titles between 1999 and 2005. The rivalry is temporarily dormant since Fortitudo left the country's professional ranks when, following the 2008–09 season , the club was relegated from the top-level Lega A to LegADue , before being relegated further to the nominally amateur Serie A Dilettanti for financial reasons; in the 2012–13 season, Fortitudo will play in the LegADue . The Italian Basketball
Basketball
League, which operates both Lega A and LegADue, has its headquarters in Bologna.

Football also has a strong tradition in Bologna. The city's main club, Bologna F.C. 1909 , have won seven Italian league championships (the latest in 1963–64 ), which make them the sixth most successful team in the history of the league; in their heyday in the 1930s Bologna FC
Bologna FC
were called _"Lo squadrone che tremare il mondo fa"_ (Italian for "The Team that Shakes the World"). The club play at the 38,000-capacity Stadio Renato Dall\'Ara , which has hosted the Italian national team in both football and rugby union , as well as the San Marino national football team . It was also a venue at the 1990 FIFA World Cup .

Rugby union
Rugby union
is also present in the city: Rugby Bologna
Bologna
1928 is not only one of the oldest Italian rugby union clubs but also the first ever club affiliated to the Italian rugby union federation . and, to date (2014) is Italy's oldest rugby union club still in operation. The club took part to the top tier of the Italian championship for the first 25 years of their history never winning the title but getting to the runner-up place several times; they returned in top division (Serie A1 then Super 10), in the late 1990s and faced serious financial problems which led them to the relegation and almost to disappearance.

PEOPLE

Main category: People from Bologna
Bologna
_ Pope Benedict XIV born in Bologna
Bologna
in 1675

* Ulisse Aldrovandi (naturalist, 1522–1605) * Antonio Alessandrini (anatomist and parasitologist, 1786–1861) * Maria Gaetana Agnesi (mathematician, humanitarian, and linguist, 1718–1799) * Amico Aspertini (painter, c. 1474–1552) * Pupi Avati (director, born 1938) * Riccardo Bacchelli (writer, 1891–1985) * Adriano Banchieri
Adriano Banchieri
(composer, 1568–1634) * Agostino Barelli (architect, 1627–1687) * Antonio Basoli (painter and scene designer, 1774–1848) * Laura Bassi (scientist, first female appointed to university chair in Europe, 1711–1788) * Ugo Bassi (Italian nationalist hero, executed for role in 1848 uprisings, 1800–1849) * Pier Francesco Battistelli (painter of quadratura , 17th-century) * Stefano Benni (writer, born 1947) * Benedict XIV
Benedict XIV
(Prospero Lambertini, Pope 1740–58) * Giovanni II Bentivoglio (1443–1508) * Giordano Berti (writer, born 1959) * Amedeo Biavati (footballer, 1915–1979, credited with the invention of the stepover , World Champion 1938, played only for Bologna FC
Bologna FC
) * Cristina D\'Avena (actress and singer, born 1964) * Francesco Ricci Bitti , Italian sports administrator * Simone Bolelli (professional tennis player, born 1985) * Giacomo Bolognini (painter, 1664–1734) * Rafael Bombelli (mathematician, 1526–1572) * Rossano Brazzi (actor, 1916–1994) * Floriano Buroni (engraver, 17th-century) * Raffaella Carrà (singer, born 1943) * Annibale Carracci
Annibale Carracci
(painter, 1560–1609) * Lodovico Carracci (painter, 1555–1619) * Agostino Carracci (painter, 1557–1602) * Chiara Caselli (actress, born 1967) * Pier Ferdinando Casini (politician, born 1955) * Pietro Cataldi (mathematician, 1548–1626) * Pierluigi Collina (football referee, born 1960) * Carlo Colombara (operatic bass, born 1964) * Giovanni Paolo Colonna (composer, 1637–1695) * Alessandro Cortini (musician, born 1976) * Giuseppe Maria Crespi (painter, 1665–1747) * Donato Creti (painter, 1671–1749) * Giulio Cesare Croce (cantastorie and writer, 1550–1609) * Scipione del Ferro (mathematician, solved the cubic equation , 1465–1526) * Francesco Francia (Francesco Raibolini, painter, c. 1450–1517) * Lucio Dalla (singer-songwriter, 1943–2012) * Domenichino
Domenichino
(Domenico Zampieri, painter, 1581–1641) * Elena Duglioli (Roman Catholic aristocrat, 1472–1520) * Sara Errani (tennis player, born 1987) * Gianfranco Fini (politician, born 1952) * Aristotile Fioravanti (architect, c. 1415–c. 1486) * Luigi Galvani (scientist, discoverer of bioelectricity , 1737–1798) * Alessandro Gamberini , (footballer, born 1981) * Serena Grandi (actress, born 1958) * Gregory XIII (Ugo Boncompagni, Pope 1572–85, instituted the Gregorian Calendar ) * Gregory XV (Alessandro Ludovisi, Pope 1621–3) * Il Guercino (Giovanni Barbieri, painter, 1591–1666) * Irnerius
Irnerius
(jurist, c. 1050–at least 1125) * Blessed Imelda Lambertini (Dominican novice, Eucharistic mystic, and child saint, c. 1322–1333) * Claudio Lolli (singer-songwriter, born 1950) * Lucius II (Gherardo Caccianemici dell'Orso, Pope 1144–5) * Marcello Malpighi (physiologist, anatomist and histologist, 1628–1694) * Guglielmo Marconi
Guglielmo Marconi
(engineer, pioneer of wireless telegraphy , Nobel prize for Physics, 1874–1937) * Giovanni Battista Martini (musical theorist, 1706–1784) * Giuseppe Mezzofanti (cardinal, linguist and hyperpolyglot, 1774–1839) * Marco Minghetti (economist and statesman, 1818–1886) * Giorgio Morandi (painter, 1890–1964) * Gianni Morandi
Gianni Morandi
(singer, born 1944) * Ludovico Morbioli (Catholic layman, declared Blessed, 1433–1485) * Edgardo Mortara (Catholic priest that was the subject of the Mortara Case_ during the Risorgimento , 1851–1940) * Gianluca Pagliuca (footballer, born 1966) * Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
(writer, poet, director, 1922–1975) * Roberto Regazzi (luthier, born 1956) * Guido Reni
Guido Reni
(painter, 1575–1642) * Ottorino Respighi
Ottorino Respighi
(composer, 1879–1936) * Augusto Righi (physicist, authority on electromagnetism , 1850–1920) * Carlo Ruini (equine anatomist, 1530–1598) * Angelo Schiavio (footballer, 1905–1990, scored the winning goal in extra time in the 1934 World Cup Final , played only for Bologna
Bologna
) * Elisabetta Sirani (painter, 1638–1665) * Alberto Tomba (skier, born 1966) * Ondina Valla (first Italian woman Olympic gold medalist, 1916–2006) * Mariele Ventre (teacher and educator, founder of Piccolo Coro dell\' Antoniano choir, 1939–1995) * Christian Vieri (footballer, born 1973) * Vitale da Bologna (painter, fl. 1330, d. 1361) * Anteo Zamboni (anarchist who at the age of 15 attempted to assassinate Benito Mussolini, 1911–1926) * Alex Zanardi (racing driver, born 1966) * Marco Aurelio Zani de Ferranti (writer, musician, and composer, 1801–1878) * Alessandro Carloni (director, animator, artist who worked on films like _ Kung Fu Panda _ and _ The Croods ,_ born 1978)

In addition to the natives of the city listed above, the following have made Bologna
Bologna
their home:

* Giosuè Carducci (poet and academic, Nobel Prize for Literature, born near Lucca, Tuscany, 1835–1907) * Carlo Felice Cillario (Italian conductor of international renown, founder of the Bologna
Bologna
Chamber Orchestra in 1946 (7 February 1915 – 13 December 2007) * Umberto Eco
Umberto Eco
(writer and academic, born in Alessandria, Piedmont, 1932–2016) * Enzio of Sardinia (born c. 1218, King of Sardinia
Sardinia
and illegitimate son of Emperor Frederick II, was imprisoned in Palazzo Re Enzo from 1249 until his death in 1272) * Vasco Errani (politician, born 1955) * William Girometti (painter, born in Milan, 1924-1998) * Alfonso Lombardi (sculptor, born in Ferrara, c. 1497–1537) * Niccolò dell\'Arca (sculptor, born in Bari, c. 1435/1440–2 March 1494) * Juan Ignacio Molina (naturalist, born in Chile
Chile
, 1740–1829) * Giovanni Pascoli (poet and academic, born in San Mauro di Romagna, 1855–1912) * St. Petronius (San Petronio, bishop of Bologna
Bologna
and patron saint of the city, birthplace unknown, died c. 450 AD) * Romano Prodi (economist, politician, born in Scandiano, Reggio Emilia, 1939) * Gioachino Rossini (opera composer, born in Pesaro, 1792–1868) * Giuseppe Torelli (composer, born in Verona, 1658–1709) * Wu Ming (collective of writers, active since 2000) * Farinelli (Carlo Broschi, castrato opera singer, 1705–1782) * Cesare Cremonini (songwriter, 1980)

COMPANIES

* COESIA Group – G.D (packaging) * CIBO- Culinary Institute of Bologna
Bologna
– (Culinary-Cooking School))

* Coop (supermarket chain) * Ducati
Ducati
Motor Holding (motorcycles) * IMA S.p.A (packaging) * Lamborghini
Lamborghini
(cars) * Malaguti (motorcycles) * Maserati
Maserati
(cars) * Segafredo Zanetti – (coffee) * Unipol – (bank and insurance) * YOOX Group Spa – (Fashion / Online Apparel Retailer)

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

_ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy
Italy

Bologna
Bologna
is twinned with:

* Asmara, Eritrea
Eritrea
, since 1974 * Coventry
Coventry
, United Kingdom, since 1984 * Kharkiv
Kharkiv
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, since 1966 * La Plata
La Plata
, Argentina
Argentina
, since 1988 * Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany, since 1962 * Portland , United States, since 2003 * Saint-Louis, Senegal
Senegal
, since 1991

* St. Louis , United States, since 1987 * San Carlos , Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, since 1988 * Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
, Greece, since 1981 * Toulouse
Toulouse
, France, since 1981 * Tuzla , Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
, since 1994 * Valencia , Spain, since 1976 * Zagreb
Zagreb
, Croatia
Croatia
, since 1961

SEE ALSO

* Bologna declaration * Bologna metropolitan area * Bologna Process
Bologna Process
* Bolognese bell ringing art * List of tallest buildings in Bologna

REFERENCES

* ^ "ISTAT, Rapporto UrBes 2015 Bologna" (PDF). _istat.it_. Retrieved 11 May 2017. * ^ "La popolazione di Bologna
Bologna
al 29 febbraio 2016". _Comune.bologna.it_. Retrieved 30 November 2016. * ^ Top Universities Archived 17 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine . _World University Rankings_ Retrieved 6 January 2010 * ^ Our History – Università di Bologna * ^ Paul L. Gaston (2010). _The Challenge of Bologna_. p. 18. ISBN 1-57922-366-4 . Retrieved 7 July 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Hunt Janin: "The university in medieval life, 1179–1499", McFarland, 2008, ISBN 0-7864-3462-7 , p. 55f. * ^ _A_ _B_ de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde: _A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages_, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2 , pp. 47–55 * ^ Romy Grieco, _Bologna: a city to discover_(1976) pp 8-12, 138-45. * ^ Grieco, _Bologna: a city to discover_(1976) pp 14-49. * ^ "European growth cities". City Mayors. Retrieved 24 January 2014. * ^ " Bologna
Bologna
history – Bologna
Bologna
culture – Bologna
Bologna
– attractions in Bologna
Bologna
– art Bologna
Bologna
– history guide Bologna". Travelplan.it. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "Qualità della vita". Il Sole 24 ORE. Retrieved 5 December 2011. * ^ Nove secoli di storia – Università di Bologna * ^ Nancy G. Siraisi, _Taddeo Alderotti and his pupils: two generations of italian medical learning_ (Princeton University Press, 1981). * ^ Naomi Miller, _Renaissance Bologna_ New York: Peter Lang (1989): 40. * ^ Raimond Van Marle. _The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting, Volume 4_ (1924) pp 394-481. * ^ Grieco, _Bologna: a city to discover_(1976) pp 114-16. * ^ "7 novembre 1944 – Battaglia di Porta Lame". _Il Museo Virtuale della Certosa_ (in Italian). Certosa.cineca.it. Retrieved 2 May 2012. * ^ See Virginio Merola. "Benvenuti a Bologna
Bologna
- Welcome to Bologna" Oct 18, 2016 * ^ "Dati statistici temperature e precipitazioni dal 1991 al 2009". comune.bologna.it. Retrieved 24 January 2014. * ^ "Febbraio 2012, ma quanta neve è caduta?" (PDF). ARPA Emilia-Romagna. Retrieved 5 March 2014. * ^ "Bologna/Borgo Panigale (BO)" (PDF). _Atlante climatico_. Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 5 December 2014. * ^ "STAZIONE 140 BOLOGNA: medie mensili periodo 61 – 90". Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 5 December 2014. * ^ " Bologna
Bologna
Borgo Panigale: Record mensili dal 1946" (in Italian). Servizio Meteorologico dell’Aeronautica Militare. Retrieved 11 December 2014. * ^ Elezioni 2011, Ministero dell\'Interno. * ^ Persichella, Beppe. "Più grandi ma depotenziati: ecco i nuovi quartieri". Retrieved 20 September 2015. * ^ National League of Cities, American Municipal Association (1976). _Nation's cities, Volume 14_. United States: National League of Cities. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Porticoes of Bologna" (World Heritage Site submission). UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. 1 June 2006. Retrieved 29 June 2012. * ^ Caird, Joe (16 January 2009). " Bologna
Bologna
city guide: top five sights". _The Daily Telegraph_. Retrieved 1 June 2013. * ^ summer 2004 * ^ " Bologna
Bologna
Centrale". Grandi Stazioni. Retrieved 30 December 2011. * ^ "The Bologna
Bologna
Freight Village" (PDF). Bologna
Bologna
Interporto S.p.a. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013. * ^ "istat". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "istat". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "American Centres — University of Bologna". _Unibo.it_. Retrieved 18 January 2016. * ^ "Remarks at the 50th Anniversary of SAIS in Bologna". _2001-2009.state.gov_. 19 May 2005. Retrieved 18 January 2016. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 January 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014. * ^ "Repertoires of Democracy: The Case for Public Transport" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "The Creative Cities Network: UNESCO
UNESCO
Culture Sector". Portal.unesco.org. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "Angelica". Aaa-angelica.com. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "Eventi Arte Contemporanea Bologna
Bologna
contemporanea". _Bolognacontemporanea.it_. Retrieved 18 January 2016. * ^ "Bolonafestival". Bolognafestival.it. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "BolognaJazzFestival". BolognaJazzFestival.it. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "Biografilm Festival" (in Italian). Biografilm.it. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "BilBolBul". BilBolBul. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "Danza Urbana". Danzaurbana.it. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "futurefilmfestival". _Futurefilmfestival.org_. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "Il CInema Ritrovato". Cinetecadibologna.it. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "Gender Bender". Genderbender.it. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "homeworkfestival". homeworkfestival. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "Human Rights Film Festival". Cinetecadibologna.it. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2011. * ^ Alexander Wolff (2003). "6". _Big Game, Small World: A Basketball
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Bologna
1928 : quale futuro?" . _air.it_ (in Italian). Associazione Italiana Rugbysti. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2014. * ^ "Coesia Group". Coesia.com. 26 October 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013. * ^ "Archived copy". Retrieved 2017-05-09. * ^ Griffin, Mary (2 August 2011). "Coventry\'s twin towns". _ Coventry
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Telegraph_. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2017. * ^ " Coventry
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– Twin towns and cities". _ Coventry
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City Council_. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013. * ^ " Leipzig
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– Twin Cities". © 2015 Leipzig
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City Council, Office for European and International Affairs. Retrieved 23 December 2015. * ^ "Ciudades Hermanadas con València" . _Ajuntament de València _ (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2013. * ^ "Intercity and International Cooperation of the City of Zagreb". © 2006–2009 City of Zagreb. Retrieved 23 June 2009.

FURTHER READING

_See also: Bibliography of the history of Bologna
Bologna
_

* Mancini, Giorgia, and Nicholas Penny, eds. _The Sixteenth Century Italian Paintings: Volume III: Ferrara and Bologna_ (National Gallery Catalogues) (2016). * Rashdall, Hastings. _The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages: Volume 1, Salerno, Bologna, Paris_ (2010). * Robertson, Anne Walters. _Tyranny under the Mantle of St Peter: Pope Paul II and Bologna_ (2002)

GUIDE BOOKS

* Grieco, Romy. _Bologna: a city to discover_(1976) * Insight Guides. _Pocket Bologna_ (2016). * Noyes, Mary Tolaro. _ Bologna
Bologna
Reflections_ (2009).

OLDER GUIDES

* "Bologna", _Italy_ (2nd ed.), Coblenz: Karl Baedeker, 1870 ** "Bologna", _Hand-book for Travellers in Northern Italy_ (16th ed.), London: John Murray, 1897, OCLC