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Bolivians
Bolivians
(Spanish: Bolivianos) are the people that inhabit the Plurinational State of Bolivia. Amerindians
Amerindians
lived in what is now called Bolivia
Bolivia
for several millennia before the Spanish Conquest in the 16th century. Spaniards
Spaniards
mixed with enslaved Africans
Africans
in steady numbers, mixing widely with each other and with indigenous peoples. The Bolivian population, estimated at 10.9 million is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, Asians and Africans. The main language spoken is Spanish, although the Guarani, Aymara and Quechua languages
Quechua languages
are also common and all three, as well as 34 other indigenous languages, are official. The many cultures in Bolivia
Bolivia
have contributed greatly to a wide diversity in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

Contents

1 Ethnic groups

1.1 Indigenous 1.2 Mestizo 1.3 European 1.4 Black African 1.5 Other

1.5.1 Indigenous peoples

2 Religion 3 Culture

3.1 Dances 3.2 Clothing 3.3 Cuisine

4 See also 5 References

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic composition

Indigenous black

Indigenous self-identification 60 %

None self-identification 40 %

Ethnic self-identification ²

Mestizo 68 %

Indigenous 21 %

White 4 %

Cholo 2 %

Afro Bolivian 1 %

Other 1 %

n/a 3 %

Notes: 1 = National Census of Population and Living 2001, National Statistics Institute of Bolivia
Bolivia
(INE).[7]

2 = [8]

The ethnic composition of Bolivia
Bolivia
includes a great diversity of cultures. Most of the indigenous peoples have assimilated a mestizo culture, diversifying and expanding their indigenous heritage. Consequently, there is in Bolivia
Bolivia
a mix of cultures, which joins together Hispanic
Hispanic
and Amerindian
Amerindian
cultures. The ethnic distribution of Bolivia
Bolivia
is estimated to be 30% Quechua-speaking and 25% Aymara-speaking. The largest of the approximately three dozen native groups are the Quechuas (2.5 million), Aymaras (2 million), then Chiquitano (180,000), and Guaraní (125,000). So the full Amerindian
Amerindian
population is at 55%; the remaining 30% are mestizo (mixed Amerindian
Amerindian
and white), and around 15% are white.[9] Indigenous[edit] Indigenous, also called "originarios" ("native" or "original") and, less frequently, Amerindians. This ethnic group is composed by the descendents of the Pre- Hispanic
Hispanic
cultures. They can be Andean, as the Aymaras and Quechuas
Quechuas
(which formed the ancient Inca Empire), which concentrate in the western departments of La Paz, Potosí, Oruro, Cochabamba
Cochabamba
and Chuquisaca. There also is an important oriental ethnic population, composed by the Chiquitano, Guaraní and Moxos, among others, and that inhabit the departments of Santa Cruz, Beni, Tarija and Pando. The indigenous people compose 60% of the Bolivian population. Mestizo[edit] Mestizo
Mestizo
are an ethnic mix of indigenous people and Europeans
Europeans
or Europeans
Europeans
descendants. They are distributed throughout the entire country and compose the 26% of the Bolivian population. Most people assume their mestizo identity while at the same time identifying themselves with one or more Indigenous cultures. European[edit] White Bolivians
Bolivians
composed 12.72% or 231,088 of the total population in the 1900 census, the last official census that collected data of racial origin.[10] Most people of European origin are second-generation descendants of criollos and Europeans
Europeans
or Arabs, coming mostly from Spain, Croatia, Germany, Italy, Lebanon
Lebanon
and Turkey.[9] They are usually concentrated in the largest cities — La Paz, Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Santa Cruz de la Sierra
and Cochabamba
Cochabamba
— and in some minor cities like Tarija. In the Santa Cruz Department there is an important colony (70.000 inhabitants) of German-speaking Mennonites.[11] Black African[edit] Afro Bolivians
Bolivians
are descendants of African slaves, who arrived in the times of the Spanish Empire. They inhabit the department of La Paz
La Paz
and in the provinces of Nor Yungas and Sud Yungas. Other[edit]

Asians. Mainly Japanese (14.000[12]) and Lebanese (12.900[13]). Other: There are small amounts of European citizens of Germany, France, Italy
Italy
and Portugal, as well as coming from other American countries, as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, United States, Paraguay, Peru, Mexico
Mexico
and Venezuela, among others. There are important Peruvian colonies in La Paz, El Alto
El Alto
and Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Bolivia
Bolivia
is home to about 500 Jews, located mainly in the cities of La Paz, Cochabamba
Cochabamba
and Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

Indigenous peoples[edit] The Indigenous peoples of Bolivia
Bolivia
are divided into two ethnic groups: the Andeans, who are in the Andean Altiplano
Altiplano
and the valley region, and the ethnic culture of the oriental Llanos region, who inhabit the warm regions of eastern Bolivia
Bolivia
(Gran Chaco).

Andean ethnicities

Aymaras. They live on the high plateau of the departments of La Paz, Oruro and Potosí, as well as some small regions near the tropical flatlands. Quechuas. They inhabit mostly the valleys on Cochabamba
Cochabamba
and Chuquisaca. They also inhabit some mountain regions in Potosí and Oruro. They divide themselves into quechua nations, as the Tarabucos, Ucumaris, Chalchas, Chaquies, Yralipes, Tirinas, among others.

Ethnicities of the Oriental Llanos

Guaraníes. Formed by Guarayos, Pausernas, Sirionos, Chiriguanos, Wichí, Chulipis, Tapietes (es), Tobas and Yuquis. Tacanas: Formed by Tacanas, Lecos, Ese Ejas, Araonas, Reyesanos and Maropas. Panos: Formed by Chacobos, Caripunas, Sinabos, Capuibos and Guacanaguas. Aruacos: Formed by Apolistas, Baures, Moxos, Chané, Movimas, Cayabayas, Carabecas, Paiconecas or Paucanacas. Chapacuras: Formed by Itenez or More, Chapacuras, Sansinonianos, Canichanas, Itonamas, Yuracares, Guatoses and Chiquitos. Botocudos: Formed by Bororos y Otuquis. Zamucos: Formed by Ayoreos.

Macheteros

Main Indigenous and Afro Bolivian
Afro Bolivian
peoples from Bolivia

N° Group Population % N° Group Population %

1 Quechua 1.558.277 15,54% 6 Afro Bolivian 22.000 0,22%

2 Aymara 1.098.317 10,95% 7 Movima 10.152 0,11%

3 Chiquitano 184.288 1,84% 8 Guarayo 9.863 0,10%

4 Guaraní 133.393 1,33% 9 Chiman 4.528 0,05%

5 Moxo 76.073 0,76% 10 Tacana 3.056 0,03%

Source: Wigberto Rivero Pinto (2006)[14]

Religion[edit]

Aymara woman praying

Basílica Menor de San Lorenzo, in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

Further information: Religion in Bolivia The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
church has a dominant religious presence in Bolivia. While a vast majority of Bolivians
Bolivians
are Catholic Christians, a much smaller portion of the population participates actively. In the decades following the Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
(1962–65), the Church tried to make religion a more active force in social life. A 2008 survey for Americas Barometer, with 3,003 respondents and an error (+/- 1,8%)[15] returned these results:

Religion Percentage Notes

Catholic 81.6%

Evangelical 10.3% Pentecostal, Non-Catholic Charismatic

No religion 3.3% Secular, Atheist

Other Protestant 2.6% Historic Protestant: Adventist, Baptist, Calvinist, Salvation Army, Lutheran, Methodist, Nazarene, Presbyterian

Mormon
Mormon
and Jehova's Witness 1.7%

Non-Christian 0.4% Bahá'í Faith, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu

Traditional religions 0.1% Native religions

Other reviews of the population vary from these specific results.[16] Culture[edit]

Traditional folk dress during a festival in Bolivia.

Carnival of Oruro

Further information: Culture of Bolivia Some cultural development of what is now Bolivia
Bolivia
is divided into three distinct periods: pre-Columbian, colonial, and republican. Important archaeological ruins, gold and silver ornaments, stone monuments, ceramics, and weavings remain from several important pre-Columbian cultures. Major ruins include Tiwanaku, Samaipata, Inkallaqta
Inkallaqta
and Iskanwaya. The country abounds in other sites that are difficult to reach and hardly explored by archaeologists. The Spanish brought their own tradition of religious art which, in the hands of local indigenous and mestizo builders and artisans, developed into a rich and distinctive style of architecture, literature, and sculpture known as " Mestizo
Mestizo
Baroque." The colonial period produced the paintings of Perez de Holguin, Flores, Bitti, and others, and also the works of skilled but unknown stonecutters, woodcarvers, goldsmiths, and silversmiths. An important body of native baroque religious music of the colonial period was recovered in recent years and has been performed internationally to wide acclaim since 1994. Bolivian artists of stature in the 20th century include, among others, Guzman de Rojas, Arturo Borda, María Luisa Pacheco, Master William Vega, Alfredo Da Silva, and Marina Núñez del Prado. Dances[edit] Many dances and songs contain elements from both the native and European cultures. Caporales
Caporales
seems to be the most popular Bolivian dance of present times — in a few decades it has developed into an enormously popular dance, not only in the Highlands where it originated, but also in the Lowlands and in Bolivian communities outside the country. In the Highlands, other traditional and still very popular dances are:

Morenada Kullawada Diablada Ch'utas Waka waka Siklla (Wayra, Doctorcitos) Suri Sikuri Tinku Pukllay Tobas Awki awki Llamerada Cambitas Chacarera Afro-Bolivian
Afro-Bolivian
Saya

In the Lowlands, there are:

Macheteros Taquirari Chovena chiquitana Brincao Carnavalito" El Sarao" Los moperas La Paica Danzas del Sol y de la Luna Danza de la Saraza Danzas de los pescadores Danzas del cazador amazónico Danza Rosita Pochi Arete guazú Toritos Danzas Vallegrandinas de Santa Cruz Cueca Cruceña

Clothing[edit] It is fashionable among Bolivian Andean women of indigenous descent to wear a skirt called a pollera. It was originally a Spanish peasant skirt that the colonial authorities forced indigenous women to wear. Now it is a symbol of pride in being indigenous and is considered a status symbol. Another fashion is the bowler hat, which was adopted from the British. The position of the hat can indicate a woman's marital status and aspirations. Cuisine[edit] Main article: Bolivian cuisine Bolivian cuisine
Bolivian cuisine
stems mainly from the combination of Spanish cuisine with traditional indigenous Bolivian ingredients, with later influences from Argentines,

Germans, Italians, Basques, Croats, Russians, and Poles, due to the arrival of immigrants from those countries.

The traditional staples of Bolivian cuisine
Bolivian cuisine
are corn, potatoes, and beans. These ingredients have been combined with a number of staples brought by the Spanish, such as rice, wheat, and meat, such as beef, pork, and chicken See also[edit]

Bolivia
Bolivia
portal

Demographics of Bolivia Health in Bolivia Peruvian people Ecuadorian people Latin Americans

References[edit]

^ Cónsul Boliviano con los días contados por Raúl Kollman, Página 12, 9 de abril de 2006. ^ Deutsche Welle. "Brasil atrae gran número de inmigrantes bolivianos" (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 February 2014.  ^ Europapress. "Nueve de cada diez bolivianos en España ya están en situación regular" (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 February 2014.  ^ US Census Bureau 2012 American Community Survey B03001 1-Year Estimates HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN Archived August 15, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. retrieved September 20, 2013 ^ La Razón. "Bolivianos en Chile" (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 February 2014.  ^ "Las religiones en tiempos del Papa Francisco" (in Spanish). Latinobarómetro. April 2014. pp. 6, 31. Archived from the original (pdf) on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.  ^ INE (2001). "Autoidentificación con Pueblos Originarios o Indígenas de la Población de 15 años o más de edad- UBICACIÓN, ÁREA GEOGRÁFICA, SEXO Y EDAD". Retrieved 7 October 2009. [permanent dead link] ^ Fundación Boliviana para la Democracia Multipartidaria (FBDM) y Fondo para la Democracia de Naciones Unidas (Undef) (13 March 2009). "Encuesta Nacional Sobre Valores y Actitudes Frente a la Conflictividad en Bolivia" (PDF). Retrieved 7 October 2009. [permanent dead link] ^ a b Bolivian people ^ Censo National De La Poblacion de la Republica 1900 Census of Bolivia. "Segunda parte" - (Page: 25 - 32) ^ Bolivian Reforms Raise Anxiety on Mennonite
Mennonite
Frontier. The New York Times. 21 December 2006. ^ ボリビア多民族国基礎データ ^ "Geographical Distribution of the Lebanese Diaspora". The Identity Chef.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-01-17. Retrieved 2012-11-16.  ^ Americas Barometer Survey 2008 - page 11 Archived June 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Bolivia". National Profiles > > Regions > Central America >. Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 

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