BOKMåL (literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for
Norwegian language , alongside
The government does not regulate spoken
* 1 History
* 2 Controversy
* 3 Characteristics
* 3.1 Differences from Danish * 3.2 Differences from the traditional Oslo dialect
* 4 See also * 5 References
Up until about 1300, the written language of
Norwegians used Danish primarily in writing, but it gradually came to
be spoken by urban elites on formal or official occasions. Although
Danish never became the spoken language of the vast majority of the
population, by the time Norway's ties with
With the gradual subsequent process of Norwegianisation of the
written language used in the cities of Norway, from Danish to Riksmål
to Bokmål, the upper-class sociolects in the cities changed
accordingly. In 1814, when
"Within the first generation of liberty, two solutions emerged and won adherents, one based on the speech of the upper class and one on that of the common people. The former called for Norwegianisation of the Danish writing, the latter for a brand new start."
The more conservative of the two language transitions was advanced by the work of writers like Peter Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe , schoolmaster and agitator for language reform Knud Knudsen , and Knudsen's famous disciple, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson , as well as a more cautious Norwegianisation by Henrik Ibsen . In particular, Knudsen's work on language reform in the mid-19th century was important for the 1907 orthography and a subsequent reform in 1917, so much so that he is now often called the "father of Bokmål".
Main article: Norwegian language conflict
RIKSMåL VS. BOKMåL
Poster from a campaign against mandatory Samnorsk (no), circa 1955.
The term Riksmål, meaning National Language, was first proposed by
Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson in 1899 as a name for the Norwegian variety of
written Danish as well as spoken Dano-Norwegian. It was borrowed from
The 1917 reform introduced some elements from
The 1938 reform in
Riksmål denotes the moderate, chiefly pre-1938,
unofficial variant of Bokmål, which is still in use and is regulated
Norwegian Academy and promoted by Riksmålsforbundet. Riksmål
has gone through some spelling reforms, but none as profound as the
ones that shaped Bokmål. A
Riksmål dictionary was published in four
volumes in the period 1937 to 1957 by Riksmålsvernet, and two
supplementary volumes were published in 1995 by the Norwegian Academy.
After the latest
Norway's most popular daily newspaper, Aftenposten , is notable for its use of Riksmål as its standard language. Use of Riksmål is rigorously pursued, even with regard to readers' letters, which are "translated" into the standard.
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Map of the official language forms of Norwegian municipalities. Red is Bokmål, blue is Nynorsk and gray depicts neutral areas.
In the Norwegian discourse, the term
Dano-Norwegian is seldom used
with reference to contemporary
DIFFERENCES FROM DANISH
Main article: Differences between Norwegian
The following table shows a few central differences between Bokmål and Danish.
Definite plural suffix either -ene or -erne the women the wagons yes kvindERNE vognENE no kvinnENE vognENE
West Scandinavian diphthongs heath hay no hEde hø yes hEI høY
Softening of p, t and k loss (noun) food (noun) roof (noun) yes taB maD taG no taP maT taK
Danish vocabulary afraid (adjective) angry (adjective) boy (noun) frog (noun) yes bange (also ræd) vred dreng (also gut) frø no redd sint gutt frosk
DIFFERENCES FROM THE TRADITIONAL OSLO DIALECT
Most natives of Oslo today speak a dialect that is an amalgamation of vikværsk (which is the technical term for the traditional dialects in the Oslofjord area) and written Danish; and subsequently Riksmål and Bokmål, which primarily inherited their non-Oslo elements from Danish. The present day Oslo dialect is also influenced by other Eastern Norwegian dialects.
The following table shows some important cases where traditional
DANISH BOKMåL/STANDARD ØSTNORSK TRADITIONAL OSLO DIALECT NYNORSK1
Differentiation between masculine and feminine a small man a small woman no EN lillE mand EN lillE kvinde no EN litEN mann EN litEN kvinne yes EN litEN mann EI litA kvinne yes EN litEN mann EI litA kvinne yes EIN litEN mann EI litA kvinne
Differentiation between masc. and fem. definite plural the boats the wagons no bådENE vognENE no båtENE vognENE yes båtA vognENE yes båtANE vognENE
Definite plural neuter suffix the houses -ene/erne husENE -ene husENE -a husA -a husA -a husA
Weak past participle suffix cycled -et cyklET -et syklET -a syklA -a syklA -a syklA
Weak preterite suffix cycled -ede cyklEDE -et syklET -a syklA -a syklA -a syklA
Strong past participle suffix written -et skrevET -et skrevET -i skrivI -e skrivE
Split infinitive come lie (in bed) no kommE liggE no kommE liggE yes kommA liggE yes komA liggE
Splitting of masculines ending on unstressed vowel ladder round no stigE rundE no stigE rundE yes stegA rundE no stigE rundE
West Scandinavian diphthongs leg (noun) smoke (noun) soft/wet (adjective) no bEn røg blød no bEn røk bløt yes bEIn røYk blAUt yes bEIn røYk blAUt yes bEIn røYk blAUt
West Scandinavian u for o bridge (noun) no brO no brO2 yes brU yes brU yes brU
West Scandinavian a-umlaut floor (noun) no gUlv no gUlv yes gOlv yes gølv yes gOlv
Stress on first syllable in loan words banana (noun) no /baˈnaˀːn/ no officially recognised standard pronunciation yes /ˈbɑnɑn/ no officially recognised standard pronunciation
Retroflex flap /ɽ/ from old Norse /rð/ table, board (noun) no /boˀːr/ no officially recognised standard pronunciation yes /buːɽ/ no officially recognised standard pronunciation
Retroflex flap /ɽ/ from old Norse /l/ sun (noun) no /soˀːl/ no officially recognised standard pronunciation yes /suːɽ/ no officially recognised standard pronunciation
1 Closest match to the traditional Oslo dialect.
BOKMåL LANGUAGE EDITION of , the free encyclopedia
* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
(2017). "Norwegian Bokmål".
Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck
Institute for the Science of Human History.
* ^ Vikør, Lars . "Fakta om norsk språk". Retrieved 2014-02-09.
* ^ A B Lundeby, Einar . "Stortinget og språksaken". Archived from
the original on 2013-02-22. Retrieved 2007-06-12.
* ^ Halvorsen, Eyvind Fjeld . "Marius Nygaard". In Helle, Knut .
Norsk biografisk leksikon
* v * t * e
WEST AND SOUTH
* Herjedalsk (sv) * Jemtlansk * Medalsk * Trondheimsk * etc.
* Brønnøymål * etc.
* Comparison of Norwegian Bokmål and Standard Danish * Exonyms * Literature * Profanity * Sign language * "Kjell "
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