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The Boer
Boer
Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer
Boer
states) were independent, self-governed republics in the last half of the nineteenth century, created by the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
and their descendants, variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers
Voortrekkers
in mainly the middle, northern and north eastern and eastern parts of what is now the country of South Africa. Two of the Boer
Boer
Republics achieved international recognition and complete independence: the South African Republic
Republic
(ZAR or Transvaal) and the Orange Free State. The republics did not provide separation of church and state, and initially only the Dutch Reformed Church, then also other churches in the Calvinist
Calvinist
Protestant tradition were allowed. The republics came to an end after the Second Boer
Boer
War which resulted in the British annexation and later incorporation into the Union of South Africa.

Contents

1 History

1.1 South African Republic

1.1.1 Independence of South African Republic 1.1.2 Transvaal Civil War

1.2 Natalia Republic 1.3 Orange Free State

1.3.1 Independence of the Orange Free State

1.4 Other republics

1.4.1 New Republic 1.4.2 Zoutpansberg 1.4.3 Goosen (Goshen) 1.4.4 Griqualand

1.5 Boer
Boer
countries

2 Religion 3 Land claim 4 List of Griqua states and Boer
Boer
republics in Southern Africa

4.1 Boer
Boer
republics 4.2 Griqua states

5 See also 6 References

History[edit] The United Kingdom took over from the Netherlands as the colonial power at the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
in 1806. Subsequently, a number of its Dutch-speaking inhabitants trekked inland, first in smaller numbers, then in groups as large as almost a hundred people,[1] after 1834 even in groups of hundreds. There were many reasons why the Boers left the Cape Colony; among the initial reasons were the language laws. The British had proclaimed the English language as the only language of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
and prohibited the use of the Dutch language.[2] As the Bible, churches, schools and culture of many of the settlers were Dutch, this caused a lot of friction. Britain abolished slavery in 1834 and allocated the sum of 1,200,000 British pounds as recompense for the Dutch settlers' slaves. The Dutch settlers disputed the requirement that they had to lodge their claims in Britain and objected that the value of the slaves was many times the allocated amount. This caused further dissatisfaction among the Dutch settlers.[1]:199 The settlers believed incorrectly that the Cape Colony administration had taken the money due to them as payment for freeing their slaves. In truth, the allocated money was simply too little to cover even half of the claims. South African Republic[edit] In 1835, one of the large groups of Boers arrived at the Vet river. Louis Trichardt
Louis Trichardt
and Jan van Rensburg split off from Hendrik Potgieter's group, and continued on to establish Zoutpansberg. Potgieter's group remained at the Vet river and founded a town called Winburg.[1]:222 The establishment of the South African Republic
Republic
had its origins in 1837 when the commandos of Potgieter and Piet Uys
Piet Uys
defeated a Matabele raiding party of Moselekatse and drove them back over the Limpopo river. Potgieter declared the lands north and south of the Vaal river as Boer
Boer
lands.[1]:224 Boers started settling on both sides of the Vaal river and in March 1838, Potgieter, Uys and the men of their commando provided relief to Gerrit Maritz, and early in April 1838, Uys and his son were killed. During April 1838 Potgieter returned to the area north of the Vaal river and founded the town of Potchefstroom.[1]:225 At this time, this new country included the area north (Potchefstroom) and south (Winburg) of the Vaal river. In 1848 the British Governor of the Cape, Sir Harry Smith, issued a proclamation declaring British sovereignty over all the lands to the north and to the south of the Vaal river.[1]:230 Commandant-General Andries Pretorius
Andries Pretorius
led the commandos against the British forces later that year, at the battle of Boomplaats, near Smithfield. The Boer commandos were defeated and General Pretorius and the remainder of his men fled north across the Vaal river. The Volksraad from Winburg
Winburg
was transferred to Potchefstroom
Potchefstroom
and the South African Republic
Republic
was established as the name of the new country.[1]:231 Independence of South African Republic[edit] The people north of the Vaal River
Vaal River
in the South African Republic
Republic
were recognized as an independent country by Great Britain
Great Britain
with the signing of the Sand River Convention
Sand River Convention
on 17 January 1852.[3]:357–59

Flag of the South African Republic

Transvaal Civil War[edit] Main article: Transvaal Civil War Natalia Republic[edit] In April 1837, a party under leadership of Piet Retief
Piet Retief
arrived in Thabanchu. In June 1837, in Winburg, the newly elected Boer
Boer
Volksraad appointed Piet Retief
Piet Retief
as Commandant-General. An argument between Maritz and Potgieter, both elected to the Volksraad, led to a split. Maritz and Piet Retief
Piet Retief
decided to secede from the Potgieter- and Uys-led Boer
Boer
country. The Boers under the leadership of Piet Retief obtained a treaty from Zulu King Dingane to settle part of the lands the Zulus
Zulus
administered or held sway over, but Dingane later changed his mind, killing Retief and 70 members of his delegation. Dingane's impis (Zulu warriors) then killed almost 300 Boers who had settled in the Natal region. After Pretorius was recruited to fill the leadership vacuum created by the deaths of Piet Retief
Piet Retief
and Maritz, he offered to negotiate for peace with Dingane if he were to restore the land he had offered to Retief.[4] Dingane responded by attacking the Voortrekkers; on 16 December 1838 the battle of Nacome River (later named the Battle of Blood River) occurred, during which 300 Voortrekkers
Voortrekkers
survived and won a decisive battle against thousands of Dingane's impis. The Natalia Republic
Republic
was established in 1839 by the local Boers after Pretorius entered into an alliance with Mpande, the new Zulu king. Orange Free State[edit] In June 1852 a public meeting was held in Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
where all the European people voted on a resolution whether to pursue independence or remain under British rule. The vast majority of people voted to remain under British rule. Sir Harry Smith, however, had instructions to hand the country over to the Boers. In 1853, Sir George Clerk was sent as special commissioner to give up the land and to establish self-rule.[1]:232 16,000 people sent a delegation of representatives to inform Clerk that the people wished to remain governed by Britain. Clerk however had clear instructions to establish self-rule, and with a minority Boers represented by J.H. Hofmann, agreed to a convention of independence.[1]:233 Independence of the Orange Free State[edit] The Orange Free State
Orange Free State
was recognized by the UK on 17 February 1854. The Orange Free State
Orange Free State
became independent on 23 February 1854 with the signing of the Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
or Orange River Convention. The Orange Free State was nicknamed "the model republic".

Flag of the Republic
Republic
the Orange Free State

Other republics[edit] New Republic[edit] The New Republic
Republic
(comprising the town of Vryheid) was established in 1884 on land given to the local Boers by the Zulu King Dinuzulu, the son of Cetshwayo, after he recruited local Boers to fight on his side. The Boers were promised and granted land for their services and were led by Louis Botha
Louis Botha
who would go on to prominence during the second Anglo- Boer
Boer
War. This republic was later absorbed into the Transvaal/South African Republic. Zoutpansberg[edit] The Zoutpansberg
Zoutpansberg
Boers came in 1835, settling along the Limpopo River, where they learnt gold working from the natives. The white settlers in Zoutpansberg
Zoutpansberg
had a long reputation of lawlessness, often being called typical "back velt Boers". In 1864,they were inevitably incorporated into the South African Republic
Republic
(Transvaal),after the Transvaal Civil War. As a district in the Republic, they had the largest native population in the South African Republic. Goosen (Goshen)[edit] Located in an area of Bechuanaland, west of the Transvaal, the State of Goshen existed as an independent nation for a short period: from 1882–1883 as the State of Goshen
State of Goshen
and, after unification with neighbouring Stellaland, as the United States of Stellaland
Stellaland
(Dutch: Verenigde Staten van Stellaland) from 1883–1885. Griqualand[edit] States were also established by other population groups, most notably the Griqua, a subgroup of South Africa's heterogeneous and multiracial Coloured
Coloured
people. Most notable among these were Griqualand West
Griqualand West
and Griqualand East. Boer
Boer
countries[edit] The Transvaal and the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
developed into successful independent countries which were recognized by the Netherlands, France, Germany, Belgium, the United States, and Britain.[5] These two countries continued to exist for several decades, despite the First Boer
Boer
War with Britain. However, later developments, including the discovery of diamonds and gold in these states, led to the Second Boer War. In this war, the Transvaal and Orange Free State
Orange Free State
were defeated and annexed by the overwhelmingly larger British forces, ceasing to exist on 31 May 1902, with the signing of the Treaty of Vereeniging. A new British colony, the Union of South Africa, was established, in which the Transvaal and the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
became provinces along with the Cape and Natal. Religion[edit] The Boer
Boer
Republics were predominately Calvinist
Calvinist
Protestant due to their Dutch heritage, and this played a significant role in their culture. Religion was so important to the ZAR nation that its constitution specifically did not provide separation between church and state.[3] It disallowed franchise (citizenship) to anyone not a member of the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1858, these clauses were altered in the constitution to allow for the Volksraad to approve other Dutch Calvinist
Calvinist
churches that separated from the Dutch Reformed Church in the wake of a number of splits. Members of the Roman Catholic Church and other Christian churches were not allowed to become citizens of the ZAR.[3]:358–59 Land claim[edit] On 24 April 2014, political party Front Nasionaal (FN) submitted a land claim to the Land Claims Commissioner in Pretoria
Pretoria
on behalf of the Afrikaner
Afrikaner
nation. The claim pertains to the land described in National Archives of South Africa
South Africa
R117/1846: "From Ohrigstad to the north till the Olifantsrivier, then downwards to the Delagoa Bay line; to the south till the Crocodile River; to the west to Elandspruit till the 26 degrees line; east till where the Crocodile River joins the Komati River."[6] FN states that the sale of said land was between King Masous (representative of the Zulu) as seller; and Commandant SJZR Burg (representative of the Dutch South African nation) as buyer. A copy of the agreement is filed in the Government Archives under file R117/46. FN further states that the land was legally bought and paid for on 25 July 1846 as an ethnic group and not as individual landowners and was only in custodianship of the pre-1994 government as they were regarded as descendents of the ethnic group. There was therefore no legal right to hand this land over to a "foreign" government in April 1994 and away from the original ethnic group.[7] The new land claims process has not yet been finalised however.[8][9][10] List of Griqua states and Boer
Boer
republics in Southern Africa[edit] Boer
Boer
republics[edit]

Republic
Republic
of Swellendam
Swellendam
(1795) Republic
Republic
of Graaff-Reinet
Graaff-Reinet
(1795–1796) Zoutpansberg
Zoutpansberg
(1835–1864) Winburg
Winburg
(1836–1844) Potchefstroom
Potchefstroom
(1837–1844) Natalia Republic
Republic
(1839–1843) Winburg- Potchefstroom
Potchefstroom
(1844–1848) Republic
Republic
of Klip River (1847– 1848) Lydenburg
Lydenburg
Republic
Republic
(1849–1860) Utrecht Republic
Republic
(1852–1858) South African Republic
Republic
(1852–1877, 1881–1902, 1914–1915) often informally known as the Transvaal Republic Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1876–1891), literally Little Free State State of Goshen
State of Goshen
(1882–1883) Republic
Republic
of Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–1883) United States of Stellaland
Stellaland
(1883–1885) New Republic
Republic
(1884–1888) Republic
Republic
of Upingtonia/Lijdensrust (1885–1887)

Griqua states[edit]

Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1862–1879) officially known as New Griqualand Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–1871) Philippolis/Adam Kok's Land (1826–1861) Waterboer's Land (1813–1871)

See also[edit]

Boer Burgher ( Boer
Boer
republics) Trekboer Afrikaner
Afrikaner
nationalism Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Calvinism History of South Africa

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i D. Fairbridge (1918). History of South Africa. pp. 220–21.  ^ Kachru, Braj; Kachru, Yamuna; Nelson, Cecil (2009). The Handbook of World Englishes. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 160–61. ISBN 1405188316.  ^ a b c Eybers (1917). Select_constitutional_documents_illustrating_South_African_history_1795-1910. pp. 367–68.  ^ The Great Boer
Boer
Trek. Stephen Crane. Archived February 10, 2003, at the Wayback Machine. ^ The Story of the Boers. C. W. Van Der Hoogt. Chapter: A Century of Injustice. p. 96. ^ Land claim submission for old Boer
Boer
Republic
Republic
land-rights 24 April 2014 ^ Largest Land Claim in South Africa: old Boer
Boer
Republic ^ "Land restitution bill passed after heated debate". News24. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ "Front Nasionaal hands in massive land claim". SABC Digital News. 25 April 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Vermaak, Narda (15 May 2014). "Party is upfront about its land claim". Steelburger. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 

v t e

Boer
Boer
Republics and Griqua States in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
1795–1902

Est. 1795–1830

Swellendam Graaff-Reinet Philippolis
Philippolis
/ Adam Kok's Land Waterboer's Land

Est. 1830–1840

Zoutpansberg Winburg Potchefstroom Winburg-Potchefstroom Natalia Republic

Est. 1840–1870

South African Republic Lydenburg
Lydenburg
Republic Orange Free State Utrecht Republic Griqualand East Griqualand West

Est. 1880–1902

Goshen Small Free State New Republic Stellaland United States of Stellaland Republic
Republic
of Upingtonia
Upingtonia
/ Lijdensrust

v t e

Political history of South Africa

Defunct polities

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Dutch Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97) Natalia Republic
Republic
(1839–43) Natal Colony (1843–1910) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) South African Republic
Republic
(1856–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91) Orange River Colony
Orange River Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Transvaal Colony
(1902–10) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94)

Events

1652–1815

Dutch settlement French Huguenot settlement Khoikhoi–Dutch Wars Xhosa Wars Battle of Muizenberg Battle of Blaauwberg Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

1815–1910

Mfecane 1820 Settlers Great Trek Boer
Boer
Republics Transvaal Civil War Mineral Revolution Witwatersrand Gold
Gold
Rush South African Wars South Africa
South Africa
Act 1909

1910–1948

Maritz Rebellion Rand Rebellion Great Depression 1946 African Mine Workers' Union strike Bantustans

Apartheid
Apartheid
era

1948 general election Apartheid
Apartheid
legislation

Pass laws

Internal resistance Coloured-vote constitutional crisis Defiance Campaign Congress of the People

Freedom Charter

Women's March 1956 1957 Alexandra bus boycott Sharpeville massacre 1960 republic referendum International isolation

Academic boycott Disinvestment Sporting boycott

Olympics Rugby union

Rivonia Trial Tar Baby Option Durban Moment Border War Israeli alliance

Israel– South Africa
South Africa
Agreement

Soweto Uprising Weapons of mass destruction Project Coast Constructive engagement Church Street bombing 1983 constitutional reform referendum Langa massacre Rubicon speech Dakar Conference Third Force CODESA 1992 apartheid referendum Saint James Church massacre Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
crisis Shell House massacre

Post-apartheid

1994 general election Government of National Unity Reconstruction and Development Programme Truth and Reconciliation Commission Arms Deal Floor crossing Soweto bombings African Renaissance Xenophobia Marikana massacre 2012 Western Cape farm workers' strike Nkandlagate 2014 platinum strike #RhodesMustFall protests # FeesMustFall
FeesMustFall
student protests Tshwane riots

Political culture

African nationalism Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Calvinism Afrikaner
Afrikaner
nationalism Azania Baasskap Boerehaat Black Consciousness Movement Day of the Vow Greater South Africa Honorary whites Rooi gevaar Slavery Swart gevaar Uitlander Volkstaat

Defunct organisations

Civic and political organisations

Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Bond Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Broederbond Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Party AITUP APO AVF BPC Black Sash CDA CTEG COD Congress Alliance COSG CP Dominion Party DP (1973–1977) DP (1989–2000) DPP ECC FA FD Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners GNP Het Volk HNP IDASA ID IP ISL Jeugkrag Johannesburg Reform Committee Labour Party (1910–1958) Labour Party (1969–1994) Liberal Party (1953–1968) NA NCP Natal Indian Congress NLP NNP NP NPP NRP NUSAS PFP Progressive Party (Cape Colony) Progressive Party PRP Radio Freedom Reform Party SABP SADECO SAIC SASO SAYCO SAYRCO South African Party (Cape Colony) South African Party (1911–1934) South African Party (1977–1980) TNIP Torch Commando UFP United Party Unionist Party Volksparty Workers Party WOSA

Trade unions and social movements

APF BCM BLATU CNETU CTSWU FCWU FNETU FOSATU ICU IWW MUSA NEUM NURHS PAWE SAAPAWU SACTU SAIF SARHU SATUC Die Spoorbund UDF Umkosi Wezintaba

Paramilitary and terrorist organisations

APLA ARM BBB Boeremag Greyshirts MK Ossewabrandwag Orde van die Dood SANF

Histories of political parties

African National Congress Democratic Alliance Pan Africanist Congress of Azan

.